Irony, playfulness, black humor
Irony, Playfulness, black humour are the most used techniques by postmodern authors, this techniques are the subject for them, it encompasses almost all their literary works in order to show or reflect various historical events.
Postmodern authors were certainly not the first to use irony and humour in their writing, but for many postmodern authors, these became the hallmarks of their style. Postmodern authors are very frustrated for World War II, the Cold War, conspiracy theories. They try to amalgate it from indirect way so, irony, playfulness, black humour comes. In fact, several novelists later to be labeled postmodern were first collectively labeled black humourists. : John Barth, Joseph Heller, William Gaddis, Kurt Vonnegut, Bruce Jay Friedman, etc. It’s common for postmodernists to treat serious subjects in a playful and humorous way (“Postmodern literature”).
1.2.3. Most Famous Figures
Postmodernism has emerged a large number of greatest figures, those figures played an important role in this era and created an innovative works in which it had contributed in the success and the coruscation of postmodernism.
1. Jean François Lyotard
Jean Francois Lyotard is an influential figure in post-modernism period, Jean Francois characterized by his successful works concerning postmodernism period. He came up with the notion of postmodernism in his work.
Lyotard is a French philosopher. He opened the discussion for postmodernism in social theory with his ground breaking publication ‘La Condition Postmoderne’ (The Condition Postmodern). His works stress the decline of meta-narratives or grand-narratives, as some scholars refer it. Meta-Narratives are sets of ideas governing what is right and wrong. For example, religion defines how to live a good life. By doing so, people who do not appeal to the characteristics of good man as defined by religion will be considered unfaithful, as bad people. Lyotard argues that this way of legitimating declines in a postmodern society. What is considered good can no longer be clearly separated from what is considered bad(Rizqi1) .
2. Jean Baudrillard
Jean Baudrillard is considered one of the most influential figure of postmodernism. Jean inspired by many influential figures of postmodernism. He created a theory depends on signs and show a link to the theory of Lyotard .
French philosopher, and may be called as the most important postmodernist thinker is Jean Baudrillard. Inspired by Roland Barthes, Baudrillard develops an enhanced theory of signs.Signs as argued by Barthes serve as the medium in which myth is preserved. Signs then function as the source of legitimation. It is in align with Lyotard’s idea that suggests meta-narratives lose their function as the source of legitimation. Postmodern society then, as called by Baudrillard, lives in ‘sign culture’. This leads to what he terms as ‘simulacrum’ (Rizqi1-6).
A novelist and professor, in addition to that an important figure in postmodernism. He takes a great role in the postmodernism era.
John Barth an American novelist who uses postmodern things in his writing. Started using postmodernism quality work in his book, The Sot-Weed Factor which is a satirical novel. Was also a professor for many Universities(“Important people”).
Linda Hutcheonis an important figure in postmodernism , because of her ideas about postmodernism and her interest of this period , she gives all her mind to the notion of postmodernism and she created a numerous books about postmodernism .
Linda Hutcheon particularly known for her influential theories of postmodernism. She writes books mostly on Postmodernism and the interest it holds. One of her ideas is that postmodernism mostly works through parody (“Important people “).
Irony, playfulness, black humor