Introduction

Introduction:

Juvenile crime is and has been a relevant topic in New Zealand and the world for many years, and I was interested in what, when, where and why juveniles commit crimes, therefore I chose the topic of “Juvenile crime in New Zealand”. My main research inquiry question is “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?” My key questions are: “How are juvenile offenders sentenced in New Zealand and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?”, “What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, “What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, and “Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?”

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How are juvenile offenders sentenced and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?

According to Te Ara’s website, depending on the circumstances, different methods are used to punish juvenile offenders, including: Warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim, a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. If the case is more serious, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court. “In 2014, 43% of offenders were dealt with through alternative action by Police Youth Aid (for example, written apologies, community work, reparation and counselling.” In the “Youth Justice Indicators Summary Report” written by the “Ministry of Justice” in April 2018, it discusses becoming part of the Youth Justice System, being part of the system, and reappearing in the system. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a date of publishing included, and the spelling and grammar are correct. This source is a government source, therefore it is less likely to be biased.

According to justice.govt.nz’s website, almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. “In 2017, youth were most often charged with burglary (25%), theft (19%) or robbery (15%) offences as their most serious offence”. In 2017, and 600 youth (32%) were given a sentence or order. The most common out of these were ‘monetary, confiscation, or disqualification’, which accounted for 22%, (or 129 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017, and also, ‘supervision or community work’, which accounted for 19% (or 111 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017. ‘Supervision with residence’ (96 youth), ‘education and rehabilitation programmes’ (12 youth), ‘supervision with activity’ (87 youth), are included as other orders. Out of the small number of youth who were convicted in court and received an adult sentence to serve fully (36 youth), most of them were given home detention or imprisonment for highly serious offending.

Brinley McIntosh, author of the HMA article “Reducing recidivism rates among young offenders”, discusses the attributes of juvenile offenders, group work among juveniles, CBT with juvenile offenders, and inspiring juvenile offenders. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a listed author, there is a date of publishing included, and the sources in the website are cited.

According to Bennett (2009), “Current literature around young offenders and recidivism rates shown that in NZ there is a core group of young offenders that continue to reoffend despite going through the youth justice system.” This tells us that sentencing is ineffective for preventing reoffending in New Zealand. To address the rate of recidivism, in 2010, the Young Persons and Their Families Amendment Bill proposed and implemented changes to the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act (1989) to make way for harsher sentences (either residence or community based) for young offenders and also their families. This amendment elongated the length of time young offenders were able to be sentenced to supervision and/or residence orders, and also made way for requested parenting education programmes for both: young offenders who are parents, and also, those who are parents of young offenders. They needed to do this to inhibit offending and also reoffending. This tells us that these individuals come from violent and/or poor etc. households, which may influence their recidivism greatly.

According to McIntosh, the amendment also accentuated the need for mentoring, rehabilitation, and support for young offenders as well as their families, which are used as preventative measures towards recidivism. Subsequently, there was a powerful push towards developing and implementing programmes that lower recidivism rates of young offenders by aiming at criminogenic needs, and also promoting and teaching prosocial skills. McIntosh claims that there is only a small amount of controversy in the literature that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and its variants are the most effective treatment for reducing recidivism among youth offenders. McIntosh also claims that the most economical and effective way to give interventions to young offenders in residential facilities is in a group layout.

I disagree with this statement because to me, imprisonment seems like it would be the most effective preventative measure for recidivism among juvenile offenders. I believe this because it would essentially “keep juveniles off the streets” and give them less opportunity to re-offend. I also think that when more juveniles are involved in training, education, or employment, the less likely these individuals are to offend, as “idle hands are the devil’s

playthings”, meaning if an individual is not occupied, they have a higher chance of getting into trouble.

According to an infographic summary by the Ministry of Justice, in 2017, the majority of juveniles (78%) had charges proved, most acted in accordance with plans agreed at Family Group Conferences, and a third of them were given orders for their offending, including 129 confiscation, disqualification, or monetary orders, 111 supervision or community work orders, 96 supervision with residence orders, 87 intensive supervision or supervision with activity orders, and 36 adult sentences for serious offending. The number of juveniles charged in court has decreased by 25% since 2013 and by 5% since 2016, (possibly because in recent times juveniles have fewer opportunities to offend, which may be because they are involved in training, education, or employment), and only accounted for under 3% of all individuals charged in court in 2017.

What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?

According to https://www.justice.govt.nz, “there have been very large reductions in the number of… young people aged 14 to 16 who offended (…down from 14,183 to 5,188 young people).” I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise. In 2016/17, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 131 cases. In 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 504 cases. From 2008 to 2017, the percentage of M?ori juvenile offenders rose over that decade, from 49% to 64%. The number of juveniles charged with theft, burglary, or assault has been decreasing since 2013, which may be surprising to some, but the number of juveniles charged with robbery has increased since 2015 to 2017, which may not be surprising to some. This could be due to the stigma in New Zealand regarding juvenile crime. It has been said that the youth justice

system is ‘racist’ towards M?ori, which I agree with. Regardless, the number of juveniles charged has decreased significantly among all ethnicities over the decade spanning from 2008 to 2017. The changes are as follows: M?ori changed from 2,421 to 1,197 individuals (a decrease of 51%) European changed from 1,749 to 426 individuals (a decrease of 76%), and Pasifika from 501 to 174 individuals (a decrease of 65%). Theft is different to robbery because theft is taking property that doesn’t involve interaction between people. An individual simply takes property that they do not own. Comparing robbery and theft, robbery is where an individual takes property that involves interaction between people but involves intimidation, coercion, and/or force. Burglary, in comparison to both robbery and theft, is where an individual enters a residence or building while intending to commit a felonious crime, such as theft. Burglary doesn’t require interaction between individuals or property to be stolen. From 2008 to 2017, the number of juveniles charged in court had significantly declined (from approximately 160 per 10,000 juveniles), to approximately 60 per 10,000 juveniles), and the overall juvenile offending rate decreased 63% between 2009/10 and 2016/17, from 761 per 10,000 individuals to 285 per 10,000 individuals. It may be thought that the rate of juvenile crime is increasing but in fact, the rate is actually decreasing, which I am surprised about, and may be to other people’s surprise. During that time, the decrease in the offending rate has been much larger for European/Other (74%) than for Pasifika (61%), or M?ori (59%). The age split of juvenile offenders has greatly stayed the same since 2013, whereof the offenders aged 14-16, 24% of those were 14 years old, 32% were 15 years old, and 41% of those were 16 years old. I am not surprised about the age ratio.

What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?

In New Zealand in 2016/17, the percent by offence division if the most common type/s of crime among young people aged 14 to 16 are as follows (in descending order): The highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at

16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and finally, robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.

I think that theft is so high because many youths have chances to thieve, rather than have opportunities to commit other crimes. Although theft is less serious than, for example, violent crimes because people’s lives are not necessarily in danger throughout a theft, they are during a violent crime.

The “Youth Justice Statistics 2014/15” (about England and Wales), composed by the “Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice” on the 28th of January 2016, discuss, for example, moving through the Youth Justice System, proven offences by juveniles and measures of crime underwent by juveniles. According to Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice, In England and Wales, in the year ending March 2015, the main types of juvenile offence were; violence against the person (24%), theft and handling (17%) and criminal damage (12%). Additionally, there were 2,000 sexual offences in the same year in which a young person was cautioned or convicted, which accounted for 2% of all juvenile offences.

Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?

According to Te Ara’s website, regarding the law, young people are those who are aged 14–16. “…They can be charged and prosecuted for an offence and dealt with by the youth justice system. Those aged 17 and over are treated as adults in the general court system.”

I think that this age is too young to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I think the age should be raised to 18. I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, by answering the previous inquiry questions, I have been able to answer my main research inquiry question: “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”. Research shows that juvenile crime is caused by financial hardship (Scientific studies have shown that it is not just a juvenile’s brain that turns them

into a criminal, but also poverty that changes an innocent juvenile into an inveterate criminal. If teens see that others such as their friends are more financially stable and richer than them,
so they eventually begin to look for illegal ways to tide themselves over, and once they start offending, they are usually small crimes such as theft to accomplish their daily costs, but as time goes on, they re-offend and continue to re-offend. Peer pressure is another major cause of juvenile crime as surveys conducted show that teens that are friends with criminals have a higher likelihood to become eventually a criminal themselves, as it is reasonably natural for the individuals to be influenced by the criminals. Teens prefer to commit crimes in groups because it can be more exciting and also lowers their likelihood of getting caught offending.

I believe that one way to combat peer pressure and also juvenile crime is to make sure that juveniles’ friends are not negatively influencing the juveniles.

Additionally, a lack of care from family is another major cause of juvenile crime as neglected juveniles are more likely to become criminals because they become violent and angry when they lack love and affection that they feel they deserve from the family. They then use their negative energy to commit crimes. Furthermore, bullying is another major cause of juvenile crime. Bullying is a crime and it also fuels other crimes. Multiple studies show that juveniles who bully others tend to become criminals later in life. Abusive behaviour promotes juvenile crime and juveniles who demonstrate abusive behaviour or are in a group of friends who demonstrate abusive behaviour wind up committing crimes. A few cases have been reported where the victims of bullying become criminals only for the purpose of retaliating on society. Lastly, drug and alcohol abuse are also major causes of juvenile crime. It is a crime to take drugs or drink alcohol as a minor, and it also causes various other crimes. Juveniles’ judgement is impaired when they abuse drugs or alcohol, which increases the likelihood of committing crimes, such as property damage or public disorder. When a juvenile becomes intoxicated, their judgement and reasoning become obscure, causing them to commit a crime that they might not have wanted to commit originally. In 2017 specifically, the highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and the lowest percentage was robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.

I think that the age of 17 is too young and too harsh to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I believe that the age should be raised to 18.

The research indicated that overall, depending on the circumstances, different methods are used to punish juvenile offenders, of example, including warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim,

a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases either in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. But for more serious cases, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court. Almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. Studies show that in 2017, the most prevalent charges given to juveniles were confiscation, monetary, or disqualification. Research suggests that overall, sentencing is not effective for reoffending, because studies show that in New Zealand there is a main group of juvenile offenders that continue to offend regardless of being dealt with by the youth justice system. Research shows that in 2017, the most common ethnicity of juvenile offenders in New Zealand was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 131 cases. Compared to 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending in New Zealand was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 504 cases. Research also shows that in 2017, the most common age of offenders in New Zealand was 16 years old (41%), the second most common age was 15 years old at 32%, and lastly, the third most common age was 14 years old at 24%. These statistics did not surprise me. Additionally, compared to 2013, the age ratio has largely stayed consistent. In 2016/17, the most common type of youth crime in New Zealand was theft at 26%, the second most common type of youth crime was ‘other’ at 20%, and the third most common type of youth crime was unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%. In comparison to England and Wales, in 2015, the most common type of offence was violence against the person (24%), followed by theft and handling (17%), and then criminal damage (12%). Lastly, during my research, I have discovered that juveniles (regarding the law) are those aged 14–16.

Introduction:
Slavery was a common practice throughout the American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries. The slaves were deported to America, where they worked on the southern plantations in the production of tobacco crops and later, cotton. By 1641 slavery was legalized and black African slaves became personal property and commodities that can be owned for life, unpaid labour produced wealth to the slave-owners, black slaves were workers without rights. Slavery inhibited family formation; salves could not marry in any American colony. Although some of the slaves entered into relationships that they treated like marriage taking the risk to get their families torn apart; for instance a father might have one owner, his wife and children another and in some other cases the Master sold the children each on its own to other slaveholders. Enslaved families lived under constant fear of separation through the sale of one or more family members.

Slave-owners were paternalistic, cruel and sadistic towards the black slaves; the enslaved population was controlled by legally authorized violence; black slaves were hurt like animals. Slaves were punished by whipping, public floggings. Harriet Jacobs asserts in her book, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861)
There was a planter in the country, not far from us, who had six hundred slaves, many of whom he did not know by sight. His extensive plantation was managed by well-paid overseers. There was a jail and a whipping post on his grounds; and whatever cruelties were perpetrated there, they passed without comment. He was so effectively screened by his great wealth that he was called to no account for his crimes, not even for murder. Various were the punishments resorted to. A favorite one was to tie a rope round a man’s body, and suspend him from the ground. A fire was kindled over him, from which was suspended a piece of fat pork. As this cooked, the scalding drops of fat continually fell on the bare flesh. (p.41)
Slavery was a tough phase, Linda Brent states: “Only by experience can anyone realize how deep, and dark and foul is that pit of abominations.” (P.2 Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl); however, it was far worse on women than it ever was for men. Indeed, black women endured far worse punishment and cruelty than men ever did. Black woman has been exposed to the worst kind of exploitation and oppression and endured all the horrors of both sexism and racism.

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The slave women duties were divided into two parts. The first part was that of housekeeping, they did the cleaning; cooking cared for the white children of their Mistress and Master, and all the other household servant duties. Moreover, they were also working in the fields side by side with the slave men in the plantations picking cotton, cleaning outside, feeding animals, and hoeing the grounds for planting crops. “Black female slaves had shown that they were capable of performing so-called “manly” labour, that they were able to endure hardship, pain, and privation but could also perform those so called “womanly” tasks of housekeeping, cooking, and child rearing.” (Bell Hooks, Ain’t I A Woman Black Women and Feminism, P.71).

Working as household servants made it easy for the slaveholders to sexually abuse female slaves. Slave women were not protected from the physical and sexual abuse. And due to this nearby interaction, they were easily harmed. The intercourse between the white masters and black slaves was a common practice. Black women were raped by white masters and their family members. In this regard Sara Evans asserts :” At the same time, young slave women, especially household servants and mulattos, were always vulnerable to sexual abuse by whites, something from which no family could protect them.” (p109, Born for Liberty).

Black women had not been only raped by white men but by black men as well. Men of their own race made good use of them for indifferent sex. In Ain’t I a Woman Black Women and Feminism, Bell Hooks claims that: “The emphasis on the white male as sexual exploiter in black communities often reflects attention away from black male sexual exploitation of black women.” (P.68).Thus, Slavery was a brutal experience for women due to the racist and sexist discrimination. The slave women experience left them with broken bodies, broken souls the thing that will never be forgotten in a slave’s psyche.

The portrayal of slave women in the history produces a complex picture of the black women. Hence, black women were depicted as evil, alluring, seductive, sexual objects. According to Hooks (1981), black women were portrayed as “evil, treacherous, bitchy, stubborn, and hateful.”(p85) The author continues saying that:

The Sapphire image had as its base one of the oldest negative stereotypes of Woman—the image of the female as inherently evil. Christian mythology depicted women as the source of sin and evil; racist-sexist mythology simply designated black women the epitome of female evil and sinfulness.

In fact, when it comes to African American history and the history of black female slaves, white authors tend to retell the slaves’ story with their own perspectives, which is not considered as a reliable source because of the fact that white writers did not suffer from slavery. They tend to show less of the real suffrage of black women, in order to avoid more accusations about the horrific actions of rape, racism, and sexism. In this concern, Hooks says: “when I began the research for Ain’t I a Woman, my primary intent was to document the impact of sexism on the social status of black women. I wanted to provide concrete evidence to refute the arguments of antifeminists who so loudly proclaimed that black women were not victims of sexist oppression” (p.13).

A growing number of black female writers, novelists, and playwrights emerged to write about themes and subjects that concern them directly based on real experiences of the African American women’s tragedy. Among those writers is Toni Morrison.Biography of the author:
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18, 1931 in Lorain, Ohio), is a Nobel Prize- and Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist; she is an editor, literary Critic, playwright, and professor. Morrison is the second of four children of sharecroppers and the granddaughter of an Alabama slave; she grew up in a family that celebrates their African identity. Storytelling, songs, and folktales had a great impact on her childhood. She attended Howard University to study English and received a Bachelor of Arts in 1953, then got a Master of Arts degree from Cornell University in 1955. Morrison became an English instructor at Texas Southern University in Houston from 1955-1957 then returned to Howard to teach English.

Morrison got married in 1958 and had two children and divorced in 1964.After her divorce, she began writing fiction while working in New York as a book editor. Her novels are famous for their epic themes, intense language and richly detailed African-American characters who are central to their narratives.
“Toni Morrison is not just an important contemporary novelist but a major figure in our national literature.” (The New York Review of Books). In fact, Morrison received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012 and she is the first African American to win the Nobel Prize for literature in 1993. Among her best-known novels is Beloved (1987) which appears to be one of her great masterpieces and took the Pulitzer for fiction in 1988.
The adaptation:
Ten years later, Beloved was adapted into the 1998 film of the same name starring Oprah Winefry, Thandie Newton, Yada beener and Danny Glover. The movie was directed by Jonathan Demme who won several Academy Awards including the Award for the Best Director. The script is a work of three scriptwriters, Akosua Busia, Richard LaGravenese and Adam Brooks.

Summary of the film:
The movie deals with the affects of slavery and the sacrifices of a woman toward her children. It tells the story of Sethe whose identity got lost by the horrors of slavery. It describes both the physical and emotional trauma caused by slavery and its everlasting effects on the characters.

Seth (Oprah Winfrey) an ex slave on a Kentucky plantation in 1865, with flashbacks to the days before the civil war. Sethe is a mother of three who is haunted by her dreadful slavery past. She lives on a few acres on the outskirts of Cincinnati ”124 Bluestone Road”, which is haunted by a furious ghost. Eventually the ghost drives away her two sons. Sethe and her daughter (Kimberly Elise) bear living with the spirit until Paul D Garner (Danny Glover), an old friend from Sweet Home, the plantation Sethe escaped from in the past, arrives and seems to quiet the ghost. Paul D eventually moves in with Sethe and set up a relationship between them. Shortly after Paul’s settlement, the ghost appears again as a strange young woman in a black dress and new shoes. The ghost’s name is BELOVED (Thandie Newton), she walks unsteadily and talks like a child. In fact, the ghost within Beloved belongs to the young daughter who Sethe killed rather than give her as a slave working on the plantations. The apparition of Beloved causes turmoil and agitation in the story.
Sethe ends up by taking care of Beloved and bringing her in her house. Yet Paul D feels suspicious and wonders how someone who walked a long way could be all dressed up and so clean. Denver likes Beloved and spends lot of her time playing with her and ends up knowing Beloved’s origins. When Beloved knows that Paul D dislikes her, she put a spell on him and sexually assaults him.

The movie has flashbacks to when Sethe was a slave in Sweet home from where she runs away during her pregnancy after being beating, raped and whipped savagely leaving a massive tree scar on her back. Shortly after she reunites with her children, the slave catchers came to take her and her children back to the plantations. Out of desperation, Sethe decides to kill her children rather than have her be a slave. Thus, Sethe kills her older daughter, nocks her sons and was almost about to kill Denver too.

Achievements:
Beloved received two wins and twenty-four nominations including Colleen Atwood’s nomination for the Academy Awards of best Costume Design. In addition to the nominations; Kimberly Elise won the Chicago Film Critics Award for the Most Promising Actress and Danny Glover received The American National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Award for the Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture.

Review of literature:
In 1998, director Jonathan Demme release Beloved. His film adaptation of Toni Morrison’s novel of the same title has been the center of interest of many critics who analyzed the movie from different perspectives.

For some critics, the movie was too showy. Charles Taylor sums it up saying that the scenes “aren’t tragic climaxes included to intensify our emotions; they exist to shock us. They don’t add anything to our understanding of the characters because they have taken the place of characterization.” He continues, “Everywhere you look in “Beloved” are signs of Demme’s decay… the grindingly slow pacing, the sloppy, at times incoherent, story line and the straining grandiloquence of the tone. Nearly all directorial choices are showy” and “distracting”. Another critic, Vladimir V. Zelevinsky, asserts that “Beloved the movie only works on the level of disconnected moments. A good deal of scenes make quite an impact, but they absolutely refuse to work together to form any kind of a cohesive whole”. Likewise, Vladimir V. Zelevinsky argues “Beloved the movie only works on the level of disconnected moments. A good deal of scenes make quite an impact, but they absolutely refuse to work together to form any kind of a cohesive whole”.

On the other hand, other critics praised Beloved and gave positive feedback. To mention a few of them, Janet Maslin from the New York Times states “Mr. Demme succeeds uncannily well in bringing the novel’s pulse to the screen”. She continues “Though this ”Beloved” begins slowly and sometimes reveals its earthbound side, it accelerates into a gripping, wildly imaginative film that’s not quite like any other”. James Berardinelli in his review argues that Beloved  is a “powerful and disturbing motion picture that is likely to leave many movie-goers unsettled as they file out of the theater”. Similarly, Michael Dequina declares that “the filmmakers so successfully create the intended air of melancholy that it is daunting”.

Issue and working hypothesis:
From the above review of literature, one may notice that many critics analyzed Beloved from different points of view. Yet, their analysis of the movie was too general. Our dissertation lays on the analysis of the black mother through the life of Sethe during and after slavery. To be more explicit, we will try to answer some questions to better perceive Sethe’s character. 1) How slavery affected the psychological and mental state of Sethe? 2) Did slavery affect on the body integrity of the black women? 3) How was Sethe’s relationship with her children?
Research Methodology:
Feminism is a cultural, social, economic, and political movement that stands for the equality of the sexes; as defined in The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary:” the belief and aim that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men”. Feminism is represented by many institutions devoted to work on behalf of women’s right and interests; these worldwide activists call for the right of abortion, voting, equal wage, protection of girls and women from domestic violence, sexual harassment and rape, and against many other forms of gender discrimination.

Middle class white women predominated the feminist movement in America. Thus, during the nineteenth century feminism focused more on white women’s problems and in some way ignored the existence of black women; as Bell Hooks notices: “When the women’s movement began in the late 60s, it was evident that the white women who dominated the movement felt it was “their” movement”. There has been indifference toward the struggle of black women, while white women were claiming their rights and enjoying their freedom, black women were fighting for their lives on the plantation fields. When black women wanted to take apart in the movement and asked for support to gain their rights, white women refused their demands and neglected the black women problems.
Placed in the bottom of the society, oppressed, discriminated, and living under the shades of slavery and its continuing symptoms, black women accused the feminist movement lead by white women for being “ethnocentric”. White feminists denied the black female experience and chose to embrace their self-interest over the lives of black women; the nineteenth century feminist movement in America claimed gender equality though detached itself completely from the lives and issues of the black women. In this regard Bell Hooks states that “the first rights women” propagates were at no time pursuing “social equality for all women” they were pursuing “social equality” for white females. The abolishment movement and the success of the ninetieth amendment gave black women the chance to develop a feminist consciousness. This was the beginning of what is now known as Black Feminism.

Throughout the American history, African American women have struggled with white women and black men as well. Due to the patriarchal society and racism, black women were more affected by sexism compared to white women. Black women’s experiences were brutal, dreadful and horrifying due to racist and sexist American society.

In her book Feminism is for Everybody: passionate politics, Bell Hooks defines feminism as “a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression”. She continues saying that “To understand feminism it implies one has to necessarily understand sexism”. (p.1) Black feminism emphasizes the idea that sexism, class oppression and racism are tied up together; it is a devotion to eliminating the idea of supremacy that pervades “Western culture on various level__sex, race, and class”. ; Sexism and racism placed black women to be at the lowest status and having the worst condition in the American society.
Methodological Outline:
Our work is divided into three chapters. The first chapter deals with the effect of slavery on the psychological and mental state of Sethe. The second chapter deals with the impact of slavery on the integrity of black women. The third chapter is dedicated to the analysis of the relationship between Sethe and her children, especially the mother daughter relationship. The general conclusion will sum up the important points dealt with throughout our dissertation.

Introduction.

Demography is a study of human population, also known as science of population. The focus of demography is fertility (birth), mortality (death), marriage and migration. Demographics involve a more scientific assessment of the size, spatial distribution, and composition and how these three components change over time. Demographers usually care about statistics about fertility, mortality, and migration as these three variables are components that involve population change. This component is measured through the rate of birth, death, and displacement of population that determines population size, age composition and how the population develops. A demographic expert often asks, “How many men and women are now?”, “Where are you now?”, “How many births and who?”, “How old is it?”, “What is the nature of those who have died or moved ? “, And” Why and how did they change? .”
People who support this demographic field are Achille Guillard (1855). He argues that demography is “a study of social and natural history of human septation or as a mathematical knowledge of the population, the changes they experience and the physical, civil, intellectual and moral conditions of the population “.
U.S. Census Bureau’s which stated in the demographic is destiny in this study case is a government department which researches and provides accurate information regarding the country’s people and economy. According to Wikipedia it state that The Census Bureau’s will collect information regarding population, economy, government, communities, and demographics nor statistics which is used to determine distribution of Congressional seats to states, apportion seats in the House of Representatives, define school district boundaries, as well as a number of decisions pertaining to community programs.

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Question 1 : What challenges do graying populations create for companies ?

The number of elderly people be increasing every day, this will lead to higher absolute numbers of elderly people. In addition it will cause a larger share of elderly especially in the sector or field of work. This is because the elderly have a lot of knowledge and experience in a field compared with young people. And relatively fewer numbers of working-age people. The thing happened because of the dumping of the elderly. They cannot afford to donate or do a heavy work. The challenges or dispute are primarily in maintaining their workforce and forecasting changes in consumption patterns. Companies need to tailor and effectively market products to aging consumers or clients. First of all, people need to work hard at a young age to secure their old age. This will make it easier for them to buy their needs and wants in the future. When they grow older for sure young people will replace the old generation in various fields such as jobs and so on. However, most firms or other workplaces are more concerned with old workers. This is because they are much more experienced and have more information than young people. The knowledge is not easy to be gained in a short time for young people . The taxes have to go up because there are older people who receive the benefits.
Second, because there are more people who will retire, there will be fewer people working in the labor market. Companies will find it hard to find resources for workers in the labor market that are older people. This is because elderly are less productive than young people. They also cannot afford to do heavy work. This will limit production to company.
Next, since elderly people are regarded as less productive, the quality of the work force will be reduced. Companies that hire a graying population will have its production output slowed down by this demography thus making the company less competitive. Pension companies will be burdened while trying to pay for pension funds for this huge demography. Lastly, since there will be a change in taste and preference, spending habits as well as lifestyle, spending on some products will decrease as more people enter this age bracket.

Question 2 : What opportunities do graying populations create for firms?

Older people also bring opportunities or give their own advantages such as plastic surgery and drug sales. For example in Japan, they have been working on major or technological such as signal transmission devices that are attached to the elderly or older people. It is a signal to their families to know their grandparents are still alive. Robots are being developed to help or assist elderly . There will be a increasing demand for a new product. The case illustrates this in medicine, eye care, cookware , financial services, and so on. There will be a demand for private.In addition, there will be a demand for Private Nursing homes and hospitals . This is because pharmaceutical companies will deploy medicines and provide nutritious foods especially for the elderly. Not only that, there is a higher demand for healthy food-based products such as supliment, vitamins, cod fish oil and high demand for products offered by recreational parties. For example yoga, taichi and so on. The small conclusion that can be made is that the elderly tend to spend their money on this health food.
Another example of business opportunities spurred by aging, media companies are hoping to profit from aging viewers and readers by shifting their target away from the traditional range of 18-49 year olds. Although some adaptations lie on the more distant horizon, others can be undertaken right now, to the benefit of both younger and older employees, firms, and society or both now and in future.

Question 3 : How will demographic changes affect the competitiveness of countries in the
international marketplace?

Countries with many young people will make it difficult for them to find or work. This is because they need to compete with each other for a relatively limited job opportunity. Not only that, countries with many people or older people also face the same problem. When they are forced to find young people to replace their work. We are aware that young people are more energetic and can carry out heavy tasks. However young people will lose a lot of experience or ability to work in these countries.
In addition, the burden of managing the elderly will automatically be borne by the countries. It also shows imbalances resulting from low or negative population growth rates. These countries will have smaller labor pools and a higher age dependency ratio. Due to the abundance of labor, countries with higher population growth rates such as India for example will have lower wage rates and the cost of managing the elderly will spread to a larger group of young workers.
Because parents are considered to be less productive in doing work, the quality of the workforce in China will certainly decrease and will cause the decline in the production of a country. China is known as a populous country with a population of 1,376,745,728 people around 2018. Let’s say that the majority of the Chinese population is of old age certainly the economy is not as good as many young people in the country. This will cause a high gap to reach a good economic level for that country.
As a result of rising population increases may lead to investment capital flowing from relatively older cocoons to relatively younger populations and the effects or consequences of which will lead to higher capital gains.

Question 4 : What can countries do to counteract the impact of these demographic
changes on their economic competitiveness?

In the late 1970s and early 80s, China’s central government enacted policies across the country that forced families to have only one child. This step was done or carried out to address the impact of demographic change on the nation’s competitiveness. As a result of the measures taken, the rate of birth of the country is rapidly falling, but what is decreasing is the percentage of the girl born. Influenced by cultural priorities for boys, many families choose to deprive girls illegally or even commit a baby murder. So one of their children will be a boy. China recently reviewed its rules to restrict families to two children.
Today, China faces the challenges of disproportionate twin demographics in the number of men and women, and the growing population. The effects of this growing population will cause the Chinese economy to fall because elderly or older people cannot afford to do heavy work. This will lead to the country’s lack of supply of raw materials and so on.
Not only China , Japan also suffer the same fate. When Japanese people shrink or slight. In the past five years, the country lost almost one million people. With one of the world’s lowest births and small immigration, Japan may continue to face persistent economic problems as the population continues to grow old. The government has tried to encourage women to have more children, but less effective. And, people are reluctant to open the door to mass immigration.
Among the reasons Japan does not want to open up opportunities or take foreign workers is that foreign workers will bring trouble to them. For example language problems, how they work and so on. Among the reasons Japan does not want to open up opportunities or take foreign workers is that foreign workers will bring trouble to them. For example language problems, how they work not same with japan people and so on.

Question 5 : What has been the impact of the one-child policy on China’s economic
fortunes ?

Demographic changes in China are redrawing the parameters of the country’s future. These changes include a substantial decline in the supply of young labor, the escalating financial burden of caring for the elderly, and an aging society with Chinese characteristics, caused inlarge part by China’s three-decade one-child policy. These changes have already begun to exert a powerful impact on the Chinese economy, and pose a serious risk to future economic growth, internal migration and immigration, social harmony and political stability.
As society ages faster than expected, China’s future demographics need to be reassessed. Sustained low fertility means that the number of young workers will decline more sharply than the projected. Declining fertility levels reduced the availability of young workers, but this was exacerbated by the expansion of higher education. Sustained low fertility and rising college enrollments mean that the supply of young workers will continue to decline.
As China’s demographic fortunes reverse, the economy will slow down regardless of other factors driving growth. The shrinking labor force will also require education reforms to boost productivity. China’s labor force must become better educated, more skilled, and produce graduates with a greater ability to innovate. The current higher education system, which focuses on training technicians rather than nurturing individual thinkers, suffocates creativity.
Greater investment must also be directed at the nursery and primary level, especially in poor areas where basic nutrition and educational facilities are still lacking. China’s demographic transition will create opportunities as well as challenges. Population aging and the growing pile of pension funds are already forcing changes in the capital market and financial services sector. Without well-functioning capital markets, savings cannot be put to productive use and may even lose their value.
An aging society will require a more sophisticated investment sector, there by presenting new opportunities for financial managers and investment services. Another big growth area will be health care. Establishing better long-term insurance plans will be critical in a country with few young family members to care and provide for the old. A sound social safety net needs to be put in place before the economy feels the full force of deteriorating demographics.

Introduction:
The scenario I have chosen is James. James is 55 years old and has downs syndrome. Betty, his 78 year old mother is his primary carer alongside the support of Alice, (James’ learning disability nurse) whom he has worked with for a number of years. Betty has had a fall and is in hospital. Is it is clear in the given situation that James may need additional support. A social service review suggests James is moved to a residential home whilst his mother is in hospital.

This essay explores factors such as how best to communicate with James and the interpersonal skills I need as a nurse to be able to communicate effectively. I will look at the key professional values and beliefs that underpin safe, person centred and evidence based nursing practice and holistic care. I will look at ways to promote the health of both Betty as my patient and James to make sure both care needs are taken in to consideration. It is important also that I take lead for the care of my patient within the multi-disciplinary team. This is because there are a variety of professionals with differing prospective about this scenario. With self-review and the skills I have learnt, I should be able to successfully promote both patients health allowing an easy transaction in to the future care plan.

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Professional values:
As a nurse, patient centred around the clock care for patients and their families would be my priority by implementing the use of the NMC code of standards. It is my job to promote professionalism at all times. In this scenario, patients with a specific learning disability can be quite challenging to look after, but I feel it is crucial to identify and meet their needs, both in terms of safety and health. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) states that nurses have a duty of care to act in the best interests of their patients and work with other’s to protect and promote health and wellbeing to those in care, their families and the wider community.

It is important to ensure that James is kept safe and his health care needs are met too as well as Betty’s. Betty is concerned about her son so it is important that she is reassured about his safety and wellbeing in order to help aid her own recovery. James’ rights and entitlement to be involved may be overlooked in the need to reassure Betty. As a nurse I would be expected to act with integrity at all times and have clear professional boundaries for those in my care. One for the 6 C’s of care (NHS England) is competence, so it is important to show understanding of both Betty’s and James’ need. This could lead to a view that it would be in James’ best interest to go into care until his mother is better and able to care for him or stay at home with help and support. James has a right to decide where he wants to live. The DH (2009 np) states that: “People with a learning disability and their family should get a say about what support and care they need”.

Communication and Personal Skills:
Communication and compassion are again part of the six C’s of Care. This fits in really well with this scenario. With the learning difficulty, I need to understand a way to communicate best and most effectively with James, whilst showing my compassion. I feel that interpersonal skills as a nurse is important because as in this scenario, each patient needs to be communicated with in a way they feel most comfortable and on a level they fully understand. The Department of Health states that ‘a learning disability may significantly reduce the ability to understand new or complex information’. This would be when I can include the help from someone like Alice, who James has a good long standing relationship with to help explain the situation rather than upsetting James. This will help with James’ Holistic care and be more therapeutic and appropriate for the situation.

It is not just verbal communication I need to be wary of. As well as my tone of voice to James, I also need to be aware of my body language and stature. This makes up over 55% of the way communicate according to MENCAP (2008). By talking to Betty, I can also find ways how communication usually takes place with James to stop him from feeling Isolated. I could include things like sign language and pictures from contacts within the multi-disciplinary team, which would give both patients choice. Part of my communication as a nurse will be helping to patient to feel at ease with me and trust my professional judgement of any given situation.

Leadership skills:
Another two of the 6 C’s of care are commitment and courage. Taking control of patience care I can access the pros and cons of James going into residential care while his mother Betty is in hospital and involve the multi-discipline team. I have the courage to stand up for both patients to ensure the utmost excellence in their care. It is important to have a clear concise path of care whilst in hospital and out for both James and Betty. I should have courage to stand up for the patients beliefs and fight for what is the right path of care for both James and his mother. My leadership may be as simple as passing on a detailed care plan to fellow colleagues after collaborating details from the team.

As a nurse it is important I make both Betty and James aware of the good and bad points to residential care homes. The other side is if James is left at home whilst Betty is in hospital there in an increased risk of him injuring himself which is why it has been suggested by part of the multi-disciplinary team that James is moved to care. The British Journal of Nursing (2012) states that nurses have a duty of care to act in the best interests of their patients at all times and must therefore ensure they are fully aware of the health care needs of those with intellectual disabilities and provide reasonable services. The Guardian (2012) explains that half residential care homes for people with learning disabilities failed to meet the Care and Welfare Standards. Care homes can however be exceptionally good places for people with learning difficulties as James will be with others he may relate to and have 24hour care. As a nurse I need to make sure whatever is decided it is helping to promote both James and Betty’s health.

Promoting Health:
Exploring the option of James staying in own home with support is an option in this scenario. The Nice (2012) states that ‘carers find it hard to care for their family when they are ill or their own wellbeing is not what it should be’ This could result in James living in isolation and poverty and cause long term effects on his ability to care for them self. The support of just Alice is not enough and there won’t be the 24 hour care that is required should an issue arise. I feel that should James seek residence in the care home he will have the facilities available for a range of support from people who are used to caring for others with more complex needs and challenging behaviours. Within the residential home setting James will be supported in promoting his independence that he had with his mother. I feel the care would aid Betty’s recovery as the worry may affect her mental health. The holistic care would then be promoted for both.

People with learning disabilities want to make their own choices and decisions about the things that affect their lives, so it’s important to include James’ as when dignity is present people feel in control, valued, confident, comfortable and able to make decisions for themselves. Dignity applies equally to those who have capacity and those who lack it. Everyone has equal worth as a human being and must be treated as if they are able to feel, think and behave in relation to their own worth or value. The nursing team should therefore treat all people in all settings and of any health status with dignity, and dignified care should continue after death (RCN,2008).

Professional reflection:
This scenario has considered the needs of an elderly patient and her son with learning difficulties. To me it is my professional opinion that James should stay in the residential care home. It is clear the whole family need guidance and support at this time. I have looked at the needs of my patient and her son and involved the family in the decision-making process which I have lead as a nurse. I feel I have reviewed all the factors that may have an effect on James, i.e. his age and I feel I would have promoted his health by making the transition smooth and easy to prevent any upset or confusion to James and his family. I feel in my professional opinion, that James will be well cared for, have 24hour support and be with people similar to him. The quality of care will be more focused and it means than Alice may still be a continuing part of his care. It can be a short term solution that will aid the recovery of Betty as well as letting James keep his independence but also promote his health. Once Betty has fully recovered the situation could then be reviewed and a different care path may be more suited.

I have also learnt that the NHS Leadership Academy (2012) created a framework, which staff can use to work on skills involving the nine dimensions of leadership behaviour. It states that these nine dimensions provide an important role in meeting the needs of the individual’s holistic care. This would be good to use for my professional development and ensuring I am up to date with my competencies.

Conclusion:
It is clear to me as a nurse I have a duty of care and I am bound by the code of nursing and midwifery council. I can see how I fit into a multi-disciplinary team and how important it is to have the courage to stand up for all aspect of patient care. Through this process I have made some clear reflection for future practise which will improve my confidence from a student to a competent registered nurse.

The 6 C’s of care are important and need to be used in day to day practise. I need to have mutual respect and trust for both patients and members of the multi- disciplinary team. Holistic care needs to be promoted in every situation for both patients and their families. I feel I have covered the four learning outcomes and applied them to this learning disability scenario. I feel as nurse I should be able to put into action what I have learnt for best practice for working with patients with learning disabilities in clinical settings; to encourage the transfer of skills to other relevant contexts and to stimulate the wider dissemination of best practice.

Introduction:
In order for a man to get his admired woman for lifetime, he has to undergo courting. Courtship is a relationship wherein a man and a woman seek each other’s heart which will make them determine if they are the right one for each other. A person courts someone for the reason that they pursue to make the other person be able to have their feelings be mutual. Courtship is usually done in public and needs to have the family’s approval. Every country has its own perspective about courtship, including here in the Philippines.
If you are a man, have you ever thought why do you have to court someone in able to get your love ones’ affinity?
In order for a man to get his admired woman for lifetime, he has to undergo courting. Courtship is a relationship wherein a man and a woman seek each other’s heart which will make them determine if they are right for each other. A person courts someone for the reason that they pursue to make the other person be able to have their feelings be mutual. Courtship is usually done in public and needs to have the family’s approval. Every country has its own perspective about courtship, including here in the Philippines. Courtship here in the Philippines is a fundamental process before marrying someone. The Filipinos has a unique way of courtship compare to other western cultures which has direct approach. It has a phases or stages which we inherit from own culture. The way of courtship evident in the Philippines are singing romantic love songs, reciting poems, writing letters, and gift-giving. In this paper, you will able to see and understand how our country values our courtship from the traditional way and how technology evolves it into modern way.

Body:
As we all know, the Philippines is branded as one of the religious countries around the world. As a land conquered by colonists like Spain and Japan, they brought religions like Christianism and Buddhism to the people. As an archipelago, islands are scattered and sometimes countries nearby influence the religion and culture; thereby arousing rich diversity in faith. The country’s government and culture are undeniably affected and evidently influenced by religious factors and aspects— as in people’s culture; specifically, the idea of courting. The Philippines have the notion that women must act the “Maria Clara” way and men are injected with “Lalaki dapat ang gumalaw” idea which are also influenced by religious aspects. But with the erection of faith diversity, uniqueness manifest among religions. The traditional Muslims of Mindanao develop very close friendships with their same-sex peers. This “sisterhood” or “brotherhood” that develops when they are young continues throughout their lives and serves as a network to become familiar with other families. When a young person decides to get married, the family enquires, discusses and suggests candidates from among the network of people that they know. They consult with each other to narrow down potential prospects. Usually, the father or mother approaches the other family to suggest a meeting. If the young couple and their families agree, the couple meets in a chaperoned group environment. When young people are getting to know each other, being alone together is a considered a temptation toward wrongdoing. Islam recognizes that we are human and are given to human weakness, so this rule provides safeguards for our own sake. If the couple seems compatible, the families may investigate further— talking with friends, family, Islamic leaders, co-workers, etc. to learn about the character of the potential spouse. The couple agrees to pursue marriage or decides to part ways. Unlike some cultural practices in which marriages are strictly arranged, Islam has given this freedom of choice to both young men and women— they cannot be forced into a marriage that they don’t want. This type of focused courtship helps ensure the strength of the marriage by drawing upon family elders’ wisdom and guidance in this important life decision.
Family involvement in the choice of a marriage partner helps assure that the choice is based not on romantic notions, but rather on a careful, objective evaluation of the compatibility of the couple. That is why these marriages often prove very successful in the long-term. In the other hand, most Filipinos are Christians, mostly Catholics which build up most of the population. Christian courtship adapts to the contemporary and may be cultural styles and traditions of courtship in an environment, but they do not prohibit strict regulations as the Muslims did. The teachings of the church values the virtues of its people and God’s will. As long as the person is mentally, emotionally, and spiritually stable you can court with the the clean intention on and pursue the person in his/her heart. Christianism shows the idea of “worth the wait” or “kung mahal mo, hihintayin mo” and the concept of valuing the person’s virginity. Christian Courting comes in the same way with God’s will and time and patience to true mutual love. Religion and its faith come with different colorful ways and influence each other’s perspective when it comes to the life and concept of courting.

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In traditional way of courting in the Philippines, men are the ones who express their feelings towards women. In order for a man to express his feelings to a woman, his way of courting must be done not in the streets or other places but at the woman’s house to also get permission from the parents. In order for a suitor to avoid being perceived as an arrogant person, he should treat his admired woman with respect and should seek attention in a gentlemanly and friendly approach. A suitor should not only treat his admired one with respect, but also the family of his admired one. He should introduce himself in a formal way. On the other hand, women are very should act modest, shy, with good upbringing, and well-mannered. They usually deny their feelings despite having great feelings toward the suitor. This is because Filipino women are enculturated to get to know the other person first before trusting them.
As of now, the traditional way of courting has evolved in our modern day era. The process or ways of traditional courtship is no longer practiced by our youth especially in urban areas. Almost all of the Filipino are having a lot of fun using gadgets like phones, tablets, computers and etc. Maybe it is one of the reasons why Filipinos are welcoming technology in their lives. Technology makes our life easier in a positive way but makes us effortless in a negative way. This is one of the factors that trigger the evolution of courtship in the Philippines. The modern courtship today is very effortless and much different from the traditional. The technology made us easier to express our feelings and it has the power to change the way of courting even we are in the country where our families value so much our culture and tradition. Through the use of some application like messenger or some social media sites, a suitor can now communicate in a cheaper way to his admired woman. The traditional way where courting is done at the house of a woman and with the permission of her parents is now done by chatting or texting. Men can now easily ask for a date with a woman with or without courting and permission from her parent. Most of the women are also change. Their attitude of being hard to get is now faded form their personality.
In a Philippine tradition of courting, there are some ways or types that man can do to approach a woman he loves. These types are considered as a part of our Philippine culture that have a big influence in the behavior of some Filipinos. These types are:

Tulay (go – between)
If a man wants to approach a woman he wants, he can’t just approach the woman like asking her contact number or address in the street. A good man must know how to respect a girl and not to approach her in a perceive way. A man needs a to find a common friend to serve as a wingman or bridge between him and to the girl to know each other very well. After that the man will ask permission to the parents to visit their house.
Serenade
Serenade or “harana” in Filipino is a very Filipino way to catch the attention of a woman that is being courted. When serenading, the man is singing a song in the woman’s house and he can bring some companions or he can do it solo. There are signs that show if the parent doesn’t want to serenade her/his daughter. One of the symbols is that if the parent of a woman close the window it means the parent doesn’t like the admirer.
Thoughtful gifts
When the man got the permision to visit the house of the girl. He is expecting to bring some thoughtful gifts like roses, chocolate or some other stuff to make the girl happy and also to influence parents of the girl to like him.

Pamamanhikan
If a couple is ready to get married, the man will do a traditional way which is called pamamanhikan to formally ask a permision before the marriage. “Pamamanhikan” is a Filipino way to show respect to the parents of a couple. When the man is “namamanhikan” he brings his parents in the woman’s house to formally introduce them and besides that he also brought some foods. This will help to make the couple’s marriage to become legal for both sides of their families.

Paninilbihan If a man really dedicated to show his good intention to the woman, a way to express it is to do the “paninilbihan”or servitude. When a man do this, he would help in the woman’s house to do some household chores like fetching a water in artesian well (pag-igib ng tubig sa poso) or chop some woods (pagsibak ng kahoy)
The Philipine tradition of courting is not easy especially for men. But there is a bright side of that despite of being hard. By these practices, it can help to measure the sincerity and dedication of men to express or show his love. This traditional ways of courting are a factors of having a good behavior of some Filipinos.

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