Many studies around the world were performed
on herbal plantsfor possible regulatory properties of fertility (1). Commonly herbal plants are used to relieve sexual dysfunction as
aphrodisiac, or as agents improving fertility. They enhance sexual performance
suchas via providing of nutritive value(2, 3).
sativa is an eatable as vegetable or
spice, also called rocket, in
Arabicwhich isnamed “Jarjeer”. Rocket with many reported properties
is considered a medical plant such as antimicrobial,
renal protective activity, antihyperlipidemic,
strong aphrodisiac effect (4, 5).
AncientArab, usedE sativa seed in a
stomach ache and in a therapy for psychosis, while othersdescribed it’s to draw
out poison, use in a plaster, such as scorpion poison (6). Although
diabetes mellitus experimentally induced by alloxan injection in rats is tried
Oil of E sativa seeds for prevention and treatment (7), while
in hair loss and burns it is used ointment for treatment (8).
Leaves and seeds ofEruca sativa thatpossess a potent antioxidant
and prevent oxidative damageby increasingthe
levels of antioxidant enzyme(9).Other studies that showed that Rocket have anticancer
1-Preparation of alcoholic Eruca sativa leavesextract:
leavesof Eruca sativa were bought from a local market; the leaves were dried
in the shaded place for 7-10 days and then powdered using electrical blender. 50g
amount ofrocket leaves were placed in a glass percolator with 500 ml of ethanol
and were allowed to stand at room temperature for about 72 h. After 3 days the
mixture was filtered by usingWhatman filter paperandfiltrate
extract was concentrated by rotaryevaporator (11).
This study was carried out in the laboratories
of the Higher Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and assisted Reproductive
Technologies at AL-Nahrain University during the period from January to April,
2017. Thirty five semen samples were obtained from male withmean age 27, and
range from 20-35 yearsand collected by masturbation in a dry, clean, and
sterile disposable Petri-dish after 3-5days period of abstinence in quite
private room adjacent to thelaboratory of semen analysis. The container was
labeled with the following information, name, age, abstinence period and time
of sample collection. The samples were placed at 37Cfor 30 minutes to allow
liquefaction in an incubator (12, 13). The liquefied semen was
carefully mixed for few seconds, and then the specimen was examined in detail
by macroscopic and microscopic examination within one hour of collection (14).
3-Technique of in vitro human sperm
Centrifugation swim-up technique was applied in
this study. After liquefaction each semen sample was prepared for SFA, then divided
into three groups, as control group(G1), low dose ESE (G2)and high dose ESE (G3),
these 3 groups of semen samples washed with culture medium and centrifuged for
6- 7 minutes at 2400 R.P.M. The upper layer was discarded. Add 1mL pro-SMART
medium in sperm pellet slowly in control group (G1). 1mL of the prepared
pro-SMART medium supplied with one of two respectively doses ofEruca sativa extraction (50µ g/1mLand100µg/1mL)
wereadded to the sperm pellet in treated groups G2 and G3 groups.
After incubation for 30 minute at 37C, one drop from the upper layer was
aspirated by Pasteur pipette. Then, examined under light microscope at (400 x)
magnification for assessment of sperm parameters.
Means and standard error of mean (mean
+SEM)were determined by using statistical descriptive method. MANOVA test was
used to compare between different means. The data were statistically analyzed
by SPSS version 24(15).
(1) shows the percentages sperm motilityfor(G1,G2and G3) post activation which
appeared significantincreased (P?0.05) as compared to pre-activation.Whereasthey
shownon significantdifferences (P>0.05) between G2and G3. In general, sperm motility(%)
for G1 group was significantly reduced (P<0.05) as compared to G2and G 3groups. A significantincrease (P?0.05) was reported in percentages of progressive spermmotility (%) post activation groups in relating G1, G2and G3as compared with pre-activation group. Also, they showed significant differences (P<0.05) among all groups of post activation. In general, progressive sperm motility (%) for G3 group was the highest as compared to G1and G2 groups.While, G1roup was significantly reduced (P<0.05) as compared to G2 group Non progressive spermmotility (%) showed a significant increased (P ? 0.05) in G1, G2and G3 post activation) as compared to pre-activation after using centrifugation swim-up activation technique.Whereasnon significantdifferences (P > 0.05) were seen between G1 and G2.On other hand, a significant decreased
(P ? 0.05) between G3and G2 groups as compared to G3group.
Thepercentageof immotile sperm revealed a
significantdecreased(p ? 0.05) for all post activation groups as compared to pre-activation
group.whereasnon significant differences(P > 0.05) were seen between G2 and
G3 groups. In contrast significantincrease in G1group as compared to G2, G3groups.
Sperm activation is very essential step in
assisted reproductive technologies, that animportant to determining the outcome
on it (16).
the present study, the sperm function was improved in human sperm motility and
progressive sperm motility, that related to the culture media and method for
sperm preparation can enhancedsperm function in assisted reproductive
technologies (17). In addition to reported that only the activation
motile sperm will swim-up to the superior area during activation using centrifugationswim-up
present studyreduction in immotile sperm(%) wasshowedfor all semen samples were
examined post-activation as compared to pre- activation. However,this result
may be belong to the preparation method,
immotile spermatozoa and semen debris stay in pellet meanwhile, the good
quality spermatozoa were picked up from upper layer and after activation were absent in bad quality spermatozoa(18)and this
result was agreed with Allaw(19).
In the current study, the percentage of
progressive sperm motility is directly related to treated with ESE, this may be
due to the chemical composition such assaponins,terpenes, flavonoids, steroids,alkaloids
and glycosides were present in the extract were obtained by (20). Moreover, the presence
of some trace elements (Cr,Cu,Fe,Mn and Zn) in the leaves of this plant (21).Copper
(Cu) has been shown to be important for
the activity of an enzyme responsible for removing toxic free radicals. (Cu-Zn
superoxide desmotase) as well as for the activity of phagocytes (22). Furthermore, Jarjeer is act as a good antioxidants
source, such it is contains glucosinolates, carotenoids, phenolic compounds,
and degradation products, as isothiocyanates(23).