IntroductionPharmacological ClassPharmacological class which is also known as drug class is a set of medications and other compounds that have same chemical structures. Examples would be Fibrate, Benzodiazepine, Cardiac glycoside to name a few. Second, drug classes is to have the same mechanism of action that share a common molecular by modulating the activity of a specific biological target and also include the type of activity at that biological target. For receptors these includes agonist, antagonist, inverse agonist or modulator. Enzyme target mechanisms include activator or inhibitor and ion channel modulators include blocker or opener.
Third, a related mode of action of drug classes which includes Diuretic, Cholinergic, Dopaminergic, GABAergic and Serotonergic. Lastly, drug classes are used to treat the same disease.What does Pharmacology meansPharmacology means the field that studies the features, effects and uses of drugs and their interactions with living organisms/system. There are a few subdivisions of pharmacology but the two main areas are Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems while Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. Layman’s term for pharmacodynamics would be what the drug does to the body and what the body does to the drug for pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems.Sub disciplines divisions of pharmacology are Clinical pharmacology means clinical use of a drug and the discipline application of pharmacological principles and methods. Dental pharmacology means the study of drugs or pharmaceuticals used on the dental field.
Systems pharmacology means application of systems biology principles of pharmacology. Neuropharmacology means the properties and reactions of a drug in the nervous system in our body. Psychopharmacology means study the effect of drugs on the mind and behaviour of a human. Pharmacogenetics means the study of how genetic differences among individual’s responses to a drug. Pharmacogenomics means the study of how variations in the human genes affect the response to medications. Cardiovascular pharmacology means the study of effect of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system which includes the heart and blood vessels.
Pharmacoepidemiology means study the uses and effects of a drug in many people thus supporting the reason and cost-effective use of drugs in the population which leads to improving health outcomes. Toxicology means the study of the nature, adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms, detection of poisons and the treatment of poisoning. Theoretical pharmacology means basically study more in depth about pharmacology aim to find structural feature derived from computer experiments and activity relations.
Environmental pharmacology means study the effect of pharmaceuticals and house care products on the environment and the ecosystem. Experimental pharmacology means study to test the efficacy and potency of a drug by conducting animal experiments before the drug is suitable for human use. Posology means the study of dosages of medicines and drugs. Safety pharmacology means study that investigate the potential undesirable pharmacodynamics effects of a substance in relation to the dosage within the therapeutic range and above. Molecular pharmacology means study the effects on a molecular level like receptors, cell structure and function.
SteroidsIt is a chemical substance classified by a certain carbon structure. It comprises many hormones, body constituents and drugs. Steroids have two principal biological functions and that is it acts as a components of cell membranes which composite membrane fluidity and as signalling molecules. Majority of the steroids are found in plants, animals and fungi.
All kind of steroids are invented in cells from the sterols lanosterol inside animal and fungi or cycloartenol inside of plants. Steroids were originally designed for use in therapeutic treatments such as hormone deficiencies, inflammation, arthritis, skin conditions, asthma and some types of cancer. A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormones can be grouped into two major classes: corticosteroids which typically made in the adrenal cortex and sex steroids. Under sex steroids there are Progestogens, Androgens and Estrogens.Progestogens- progesterone is an endogenous steroid which control menstrual cycle changes in the uterus and maintains a pregnancy.
Progesterone has a variety of important functions in the body. It is also a great importance metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids, including the sex hormones and the corticosteroids and plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid.Androgens- Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. Which contributes in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate and maintenance of the male secondary sexual features such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair.
Estrogens /Oestrogen- Estradiol also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone which regulate of the estrous and menstrual female reproductive cycles. It helps the development of female secondary sexual features such as the breasts, widening of the hips, and a feminine pattern of fat distribution in women. Estradiol also development and maintain of the female reproductive tissues such as the mammary glands, uterus, and vagina. Estrdiol triggers during the phrase of puberty, adulthood, and pregnancy.
It also has other effects in many other tissues including bone, fat, skin, liver, and the brain. Steroids are hormones of three types: 1) Anabolic Androgenic Steroids – example testosterone, that builds muscle and masculinize. 2) Glucocorticoids Steroids – example cortisone or prednisone, that are anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressants used in swelling, rashes, asthma, or bronchitis.
3) Mineralocorticoids Steroids – example vasopressin, that are produced by the adrenal glands for salt and water regulation.Anabolic Androgenic steroids (Testosterone)Anabolic and androgenic steroids are under the same category of sex steroids but what effect it does to the body is two separate roles. For anabolic steroid, it targets muscle building in our body increasing in muscle size and strength and as for androgenic steroid it increases the masculine sex features. These two steroids basically are synthetic hormones which are chemical compounds that imitate the activity of natural hormones produced in our body. It stimulates growth in many other types of tissue, especially bone and muscle it also includes increased production of red blood cells. It acts like a performance-enhancing agent which is synthetic by increasing lean muscle protein synthesis and body weight without increasing fat mass.
It also aids fast recovery of muscle after an intense workout. Testosterone is a hormone that is produced primarily in the testicles for men. For women it would be the ovaries and adrenal glands. This hormone is important to the development of male growth and masculine features.
Women also have testosterone but in smaller amounts. The major role of natural testosterone in men are their sex drive, mood and quality of life, memory and thinking capacity, facial and pubic hair, muscle mass and bones, development of deeper voice.PharmacodynamicsHow does anabolic androgenic steroids react to the body is that the steroid act on androgen receptors on specific cells which includes muscle cells that increase tissue production and block the effects of cortisol which is like a muscle destroying hormone. This steroid must coexist with physical exercise to increase muscle size and gain strength in addition increases the availability of androgen receptor sites too. Anabolic androgenic steroids therapeutic treatment can cure delayed puberty in adolescent boys, fights off deficiency of red blood cells which is called Anaemia, cure breast cancer in women, cure men with Hypogonadism which is low level testosterone, cure Osteoporosis which is deficiency of calcium in bone and also other conditions with hormonal imbalance problems.
Therapeutic treatment of this steroids is originally used for treating diseases and to control or enhance hormones in the patient’s body but there is bound to be side effects using it. Being prescribed by the doctor the side effect would be little or minimal but if it is abused the side effects would be life threatening. In this case, body builders and athletes. Both have slightly similar goals using steroids and that goal is to build up their physique, increasing muscle mass, prolong endurance, strength and enhance performance. Some of the users will find ways to stack or combine steroids via orally and intravenously.
Their dosage regimen would be a pyramid cycle where it increases and then decreases the dose for 6 to 18 weeks and afterwards they will stop using it immediately. The reason being is to make the receptors sensitive and avoid crash. But non-athletes and non-bodybuilders also abuse these steroids for cosmetic reasons and uses.Anabolic androgenic steroids side effects (abused)If this steroid are abused it could trigger life threatening diseases like heart disease which lead to heart attack and stroke, kidney disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, liver disease, shrinking of testicles of men, breast enlargement in men which is called Gynecomastia, infertility and menstrual irregularities in women also deepening of voice, altered mood such as violence, aggression, depression leading to suicidal thoughts, suffer severe acne, oily skin and hair loss and lastly low sperm count which is called Azoospermia.
PharmacokineticsRoute of administration via topical using gel on the skin surface absorb around 10% of the testosterone dose into the systemic circulation. Once apply on skin the gel dries quickly which act as a reservoir for strengthen release of the hormone into the systemic circulation system. Dose of 100mg equals to 1% gel which means the concentration dose reaches to the systemic circulation within 4 hours when the patient applies it on the skin. Topical via transdermal patch on the skin has similar concentration dose as gel but depends on the site where it is being patched.
Abdomen, back, thighs and upper arms are the best place to patch to get the maximum concentration dose. Enanthate ester testosterone for intramuscular injection absorbed slowly from the lipid tissue phase at site and it is achieved about 72 hours after injected. This is because it causes local irritation thus rate of absorption is being delayed. Testosterone are then metabolized in the liver to 17-ketosteroids which spilt to two separate ways via estradiol and DHT which is called dihydrotestosterone. Excretion of about 90% of intramuscular dose of testosterone and metabolites are excreted in urine and faeces. For urine it transforms as glucuronic and sulfuric acid being a conjugate drug and as for metabolites around 6% of dose are excreted in faeces therefore being unconjugated drug.
The last route of administration would be oral and only little amount of dose reach the unchanged systemic circulation system. Metabolism of the dose in the gastronomical tract mucosa during absorption and on the first pass liver results on low bioavailability by orallyTestosterone therapyTestosterone production increases about 30 percent more beginning of puberty and early adulthood. After early adulthood, naturally the testosterone level drops slightly every year.
After 30 years old of age that is where the level of testosterone starts to decrease. Basically, the older a person gets, the lower their testosterone level will be which may lead to hypogonadism and that is where a treatment called testosterone therapy takes place. That is why it is important to determine in older men if a low testosterone level is due to the decline of normal aging or if it is due to the disease hypogonadism and early detection is recommended to justify if they have it. It is a disease which the body is unable to produce normal amounts of testosterone because having a problem with the testicles or pituitary gland that controls the testicles. The therapy can help improve the signs and symptoms of low testosterone in men.
Dosage forms of testosterone doctors may prescribe are injections, tablets, patches or gels.ConclusionTestosterone is classified as Androgen which is the pharmacological class and the chemical structural concept would be Androstanes. Its mechanisms of action are androgen receptor agonists. The human body produces natural testosterone both male and female but male produces way more than female.
Synthetic testosterone is used for competing or enhance performance for athletes and body builders. Route of administration that they use would be via orally or intramuscularly but some use both at certain cycle. Main advantage would be gain muscle mass and strength and main disadvantage would be leading to heart. liver and kidney diseases. Severe infection could occur if needles is being shared from a person to another via injection.
This steroids can either help the body from certain diseases or can destroy the body completely. The body can be destroyed if the drug is being abused and taken more by the recommended dosage regimen or prescription. In such cases it can lead to death.