INTRODUCTION                                                               1                                                                                                                                       2.                                 LITERATURESURVEY                                                  33.                                METHODOLOGY                                                              4                                    3.1 Need ofVirtual Surgery                                                4                                    3.2 VirtualSurgery in details                                              5                                   3.2.

1Virtual Reality                                                              5                                    3.2.2Virtual Reality Simulation                                         64.                                APPLICATIONS OFVIRTUAL SURGERY                   85.

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                                 IMAGE GALLERY                                                             106.                                 ADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGES                      127.                                 CONCLUSION                                                                   13                                    REFERENCES                                                                   14Avirtual surgery is a computer-assisted surgical procedure simulation intendedfor training and preparing doctors for actual procedures. T Theresult is a sophisticated simulation in which the user can both see and feelthe virtual surgery to a realistic degree.

Mostvirtual surgery procedures utilize a combination of computerized tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to create an in-depth three-dimensionalmodel of the organ and the patient. The combination of scans allows surgeons tosee both the surface and interior of theThe term virtual surgery was coined by JARON LANIERin 1980’s. Since the VS system has undergone a tremendous change in terms ofusage and adaptability.

The oldest virtual surgery lab has been situated in Oregonstate medical university which was set up in 1990.. VR provide goodtool to experiment the various complications arise during surgery. Organat all times. Motion sensors attached to the operating tools simulate anyaction taken towards the virtual organs, allowing surgeons to manipulate theimage as they would during an actual surgery.

Haptic technology devices, on theother hand, simulate the physical experience of the operation through acombination of force, motion, and vibration based on the surgeon’s movements.All these elements combine to allow a surgeon to “touch” a virtualorgan, manipulate it, and feel the results.As this systemshows and also points out mistakes, the aspiring surgeons can always learn fromtheir mistakes gives a new clinician a chance to mess up with a virtual patient (andlearn from it) rather than messing up with a real patient. As the touch enabled simulators used in virtualsurgery system allow users to practice their skills on computers without theuse of costly cadavers, it’s quite cost effective.Withthe use of force feedback system these systems combine the visual and factualinformation with a sense of touch which gives the feel of operating on alivepatient.Researchby Yale university medical professional shows that surgeons trained withvirtual surgery perform 24 pc faster than ordinary surgeons.

     Chapter4VIRTUAL SURGERY IN DETAILSIt is a virtual reality technique ofsimulating surgery procedure. It helps surgeons in improving surgery plans. Theypractice surgery process on 3D models. Virtual surgical tools or gloves areconnected to motion sensors where the users can physically feel the differencein simulated tissue and organs.

The virtual surgeryworks, when the patient come  in forprocedure, they get scanned and a 3D dimensional double is generated  With processes like MRI scan ,CT scan theprocess of making a virtual double of you starts. Then after using processeslike VR environment and simulation the process proceeds. Then taking standardhuman measurements of male/female body the simulated image is brought to life. Variouscomplex software’s, real-time fluid dynamics theory and SensAble pvt. Technology’sGHOST software’s are needed to move into the final image.  4.1 VIRTUALREALITYVirtual reality isa generalization of the standard visual simulation paradigm where the model andactions used in the simulated world are extracted from various sensors and informationretrieval system.

The resulting visual simulation aims at an exactrepresentation of the real world. With VR space we can navigate, interact, immerse,and feel the presence of the actual material world. It reduces the need ofphysical prototype and improves product ergonomics and functionality. And themost appealing part is that it can present everything in three dimensions. simulators morelife-like. Virtual Reality Simulators consist of program run the software tointeract with virtual environment.

The addition of haptics to virtualenvironments has provided computer users with the ability of expression inmultiple dimensions.These force feedback systems provide the userthe same resistance or reaction from the VR environment as it would haveprovided in an actual environment .Otherwise known as haptic devices, these arecommercially produced by PHANTOM pvt. Limited, USA .The haptic devices offerhigher fidelity, stronger forces and lower friction to the practicing surgeons.Without these force feedback systems the virtual surgery program would havebecome just like a video game .These devices reproduce the feeling of moving and manipulating the surgicaltools within the patient’s anatomy and the flexibility to tailor the tactileexperience. •     virtual reality models enable the use to perform aprocedure countless times which help the surgeon to strip away variouslayer of  tissue and muscles to examineeach organ separately, which result in a error less surgery.

•      text book images orcadavers for the training purposes. Today cadavers are limited insupply and generally allowing one time use only, so this virtualsurgery technology is becoming a training method of choices in mostmedical      school.the ability for adoctor to perform surgery ona patient even though they are not physically in the same location.

It is aform of telepresence. A robot surgical system generally consists of one ormore arms (controlled by the surgeon), a master controller    4.2VIRTUAL REALITY Sdepending upon thissimulation needed anatomical images can be derived from series of patient’s MRIor video recording, which are 2D images.

Images are segmented and constraintsare imposed. Then we construct a reference model. After that obtain final modelby deforming the reference model.·        Doctors can practicewith these programs before doing the surgery on live patient.Chapter7CONCLUSIONMedicalvirtual surgery has a long way to go in the coming era. The use of computeraided and image guided technique has helped a lot in the advancement of   medical science.


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