IntroductionCitrus belongs to an important genus of the family Rutaceae in the plant kingdom. Its wide distribution and large-scale production demonstrated its significance.
. It is very costly, also remunerative fruit from economic point of view. Because of its different flavors and therapeutic values citrus fruits have special importance. Citrus are affluent in vitamin-C with good amounts of vitamins A & B. Additionally, they are also rich in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and iron).
The juice tastes very refreshing, luscious and calming 1 (Ahmed et al., 2007). Kinnow, Feutrell and other sweet orange varieties are affluent in vitamin C and sugar. In the world, Pakistan is numerated in the top ten citrus growing countries. Primarily, Kinnow is grown in the plains of Punjab province 2 (Naz et al.
, 2007). In Pakistan, citrus grows on about 170 thousand hectares of land, about 30 percent of the area constituting under all fruit trees 3 (Yasin et al., 2003).
Citrus is grown basically all over Pakistan. However, the Punjab province has the major area under citrus fruit tree. Citrus have wide varieties grown in Punjab are mandarins with two varieties: Kinnow and Feutrell that cover up 80 percent of the total citrus growing area 4 (Altaf, 2006). In terms of area, production and export ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) is the most important fruit crop of Pakistan 5 (Anonymous, 2009). In annual, citrus exports from Pakistan provides 95% share 6 (Anwar and Ibrahim, 1994).
9.5 tons ha-1 and 1.28 M tons per season is production capability which is far-away behind the Brazil and wherever it is 40 tons ha-1 in other citrus producing countries 7 (Ibrahim et al., 2007; Ashraf et al., 2010; Razi et al., 2011).
Whereas few other countries receiving up to 60 tons ha-1. In Pakistan, Kinnow is grown to accomplish the original flavor of the fruit and to preserve its quality under totally natural conditions. On the other hand, excessive fruit drop starts from blossoming and prolong till final harvesting that is severe problem in Kinnow which may be owing to malnutrition, stress, high rainfall, pests, high or low temperatures and diseases. In Pakistan this is mention in reports that citrus undergoes deficiencies of essential nutrient elements that plants seize up from the soil 7 (Ibrahim et al., 2007; Ashraf et al.
, 2010; Razi et al., 2011). Characteristics of fully ripe fruits of kinnow is that this fruit having thin tight and compact skin, bright and deep attractive color. The citrus fruits are juicy. Fresh juice is extracted from the fruit that is harvested at appropriate stage of maturity, with a property of refreshing zest, distinguishing pleasant aroma and thirst quenching properties, but juice also facing the difficulty of short shelf life 9 (Vikram and Prasad, 2014). Citrus relates to a high nutrient challenging crop 10 (Wang et al.
, 2006). In the form of fertilizers it is highly approachable to functional nutrients. By the application of appropriate compound fertilizers, improved growth with enhanced fruit yield and quality can be obtained because any nutrient moreover deficient or in excess decrease the crop yield coupled with substandard fruit quality. Moreover, fruit from immature trees also have a reduced amount of total soluble solids 11 (Hearn, 1993), hence that fruit is discarded by the processers. Due to these reasons fruit from young trees are frequently sold at very low cost in local market thus earnings of grower is falling. For the time being, dietary intake is the main source of flavonoid intake vestiges.
Average daily intake of flavonoids accounts between 70 and 170 mg/day, the variation depending mostly on dietetic and cultural habits. Citrus fruits and Citrus juices include the most ordinary phenolic affluent dietary sources 12(Erlund, 2004).Spices are extensively used as flavor, color, and aroma and also for the preservation of food or beverages.
As from many parts of the plant spices may be derived e.g. bark, buds, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, flowers, roots, seeds, stigmas and styles or the entire plant tops. Spices are frequently dried. Spices are used in a processed but complete state (M.
Douglas, J. Heyes and B: 2005).Piper nigrum (black pepper) is also called king of spices. This is monocious or decorous climbing vine inhabitant to southern India and Sri Lanka.
They are broadly cultivated in tropics, the shout climbing stem are very stretchy having leathery blackish green leaves. As Pepper require plenty of rainfall for growth as it is a plant of the humid tropics. It is grown between latitudes of 20° North and 20° South and an altitude of 2400m from sea level effectively. The crop capability to bear a temperature range between 10° and 40°C but the optimum temperature is between 25°C-40°C 2(M. Douglas, J.
Heyes and B: 2005).It has distinct properties like antimicrobial (Dorman and Deans, 2000), ant mutagenic 1 (El-Hamss et al., 2003), antioxidant and radical scavenging (Gulcin, 2005) and the spontaneous swallowing movement is increased by inhalation of black pepper oil (Vijayakumar et al., 2004). Black pepper is one of the notorious widely used spices in culinary preparations, perfumery, food processing, and as a condiment 3(Nair 1977; Purseglove et al.
, 1981). Harvesting of black pepper is done before full maturity is reached and then it is dried until a thin wrinkled skin and the pulp is formed. Black pepper has more flavor than that of the white pepper 4 (Chetia, DuluRani Das, AjitKr, 2018). Black pepper has been used for many medicinal purposes as it is use to treat vertigo, asthma, colon toxins, obesity, chronic ingestion, congestion, fever, sinusitis, paralytic, arthritic disorders and also helpful in diarrhea and cholera problems 5 ( Sashidhar 2002; Ravindran 2000). Pepper demonstrating a number of functional properties, it includes: analgesic and antipyretic properties, antimicrobial properties, antioxidant effects etc. A spice is used in cooking for the flavoring, masking/deodorizing, pungency and colorant purposes 7 (Hirasa and Takemasa 1998).
Black salt or bire noon in Nepalese, is a type of rock salt. It is condiment with a salty taste and having pungent smell and used in South Asia. It is also known as “Himalayan black salt. It is widely found in the Himalayas region. Black salt composes major of sodium chloride with numerous other components that provide the salt its color and smell. The smell of black salt is mostly because of its sulfur content.
When whole, it forms brownish pink to dark violet translucent crystals due to the presence of Greigite i.e. Fe3S4, Iron (II, III) sulfide in the mineral.When it is ground into a powder form, its color varies from purple to pink. In Ayurveda, black salt has been commended and used for its supposed medical qualities.
Black salt mainly contains sodium chloride and some trace impurities of sodium sulfate, 1 (Ali, Z. A. 1999, Sadhale, Nalini; Nene, Y L 2004), sodium bisulfate, sodium sulfide, iron sulfide, sodium bisulfite, and hydrogen sulfide. Sodium chloride gives black salt with its salty taste. Iron sulfide gives its dark violet hue and all the sulfur compounds provides black salt its slight savory taste also having highly distinctive smell, being the most well-known contributor to the smell is hydrogen sulfide.
The acidic bisulfate’s or bisulfites provides a mildly sour taste 2(Vorkommen von Schwefelwasserstoff, 2003)In South Asian cuisines black salt is used expansively of Bangladesh, Nepal, India and Pakistan. It is used as a condiment and also used by adding in various foods like chaat, chutneys, salads, all fruits, raitas and several savory Indian snacks. Chaat masala considered as Indian spice blend; for its characteristic sulfurous hard-boiled-egg aroma it is dependent upon black salt 3 (Moorjani, Lachu 2005). Black salt is considered a cooling spice in Ayurveda. It is known for a laxative and digestive aid 4 (Aggarwal, Hemla; Kotwal, Nidhi 2009). It is also helpful to relieve flatulence and heartburn.
In Jammu it is believed to treat goiters. Black salt is also used to cure hysteria. It is also used for making toothpastes by combination of it with other mineral and plant ingredients 5 (Nair MK 1977). Rock salt (Kala Namak) was taken by 60% during stomach problems of the subjects. It was also helpful to cure goiter 6 (Pradhan, S.
1995). Himalayan salt appears red owing to their mineral content effectively producing color in meat products. Examination was made for comparison of Himalayan rock salt with ordinary cooking salts 7 Sakata, R. (2010). Cardamom is dried seed capsules of a small group of species or plants of the family Zingiberaceae.
It contains seeds that giving a pleasant characteristic aroma and flavor. These are broadly divided into two categories: Small cardamom popularly known as Chota Elaichi (Elettaria cardamomum) or the true cardamom. It is also known as ‘Queen of Spices and large cardamom Bada Elaichi (Aframomum and Amomum species) is the greater Indian or Nepal cardamom. Cardamom is a native of the region of eastern Himalayan 1(Subba 1984, Rao et al.
1993, Singh and Singh 1996).Large cardamom is used for preparation of flavoring various vegetables and meat in Indian dishes due to its pleasant aromatic odor. It is also applicable as a flavoring agent in confectionery, hot or sweet pickles as well as in beverages.
In mixed preparation and spice masala mixtures large cardamom seed and powder are used as essential ingredients. During September and October months the ripened fruits are considered to be a delicacy and are eaten in raw form by inhabitants of Sikkim and Darjeeling 2 (Gyasto et al. 1980, Gupta et al. 1984). In Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine large cardamom is also known for curative properties 3 (Mukherjee 1972, Singh 1978, Anon.
1994)Small cardamom is popularly known as ‘Queen of Spices (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) specie of the family Zingiberaceae. It is the dried fruit of the tall perennial herbaceous plant. It is a shade loving plant. It is cultivated at an above MSL mm altitude of 600 to 1200 m and a temperature ranges from 10 to 35ºC with an annual rainfall of 1500 to 4000. Other cardamom growing countries are Tanzania, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, El Salvador and Papua New Guinea 1(KASTURI, T.R.
and IYER, B.H: 1955). Cardamom oil is applicable in food, perfumery and liquor and pharmaceutical industries for a flavor and a carminative. In the food industry it is use for flavoring pickles, meat and canned soups.
2(KRISHNAMURTH: Y1967). In carminative drugs cardamom is used as an adjuvant. In British and US pharmacopoeias, it is officially recognized. It is used as an aromatic stimulant, carminative and flavoring agent. It can be helpful to ease cigarette addiction.
Harvest is done when the peak period of October to November. The average yield of cardamom is around 150 kg (dry)/h. However, record yield of 695 kg/ha. 3(KORIKANTHIMATH: 1995). To meet the industrial and institutional requirements, large portion of the cardamom imported in western countries for bulk supply of ground cardamom 4(Survey of the World Market, 1977).
The spice ginger is obtained from the underground stems or rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Rosc.). It is herbaceous tropical perennial that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is usually grown as an annual. The whole plant is refreshingly aromatic. It is the raw or processed underground rhizome that is valued as spice.
Ginger medical value is increasingly being recognized. Ginger is originated in South-East Asia, probably in India 1, 2 (Burkill, 1966; Purseglove et al., 1981). Ginger is a slender persistent herb palmate branched rhizome bearing leafy shoots with 30 to 100cm tall.
The leafy shoot is the pseudo stem that form the leaf sheath. It bears 8 to 12 distichous leaves 2(Purseglove, 1981). Ginger is used widely for culinary purposes in gingerbread, cakes, puddings, biscuits, soups and pickles in western countries. In the production of alcoholic beverages as well it is also applicable like ginger beer, ginger ale, and ginger wine. Earlier it was distinguished much flavored for spicing wines and possets 2 (Purseglove et al.
, 1981). Throughout the world property of ginger make it a crucial ingredient of food processing due to its refreshing pleasant aroma, biting taste and carminative and for this purpose fresh ginger, ginger powder from dry ginger, oleoresin and oil are all used. For flowery flavor and spicy taste fresh ginger is unique. In confectionery, ginger preserve and candy are also in great demand for use and it is also used in jams and marmalades.
The syrup which contains preserved ginger is valued for pickle and sauce making. It is also applicable in the production of ginger bread 3(Pruthi, 1993). Ginger has numerated antioxidant properties.
Increasingly antioxidants are linked to the prevention of certain cancers 4(Kikuzaki et al., 1994) and coronary heart disease. Studies include the role of components such as gingerol extending the shelf-life of meat 5 (Ziauddin et al., 1995), dehydrated pork 6(Fuijo et al., 1969) and fermented meat sausage 7(Al-Jalay et al.
, 1987). Antimicrobial activity of gingerols involves number of studies, for example in relation to Bacillus subtillis and E. coli 8 (Yamada et al., 1992) and Mycobacterium 9 (Galal, 1996; Hiserodt et al.
, 1998). In some countries like Nigeria, Sierra-Leone, India, Japan, and China, ginger is a very significant and highly valuable crop. This, maybe because ginger and its derivations e.g. ginger powder, ginger oil, ginger syrup or juice and ginger flakes have a lot of appliances which include confectionaries, pharmaceuticals and beverages production 10 (Van-Oss J.F 1970).
Ginger structure is consisting of water, fiber, ash, protein, fat, starch, volatile oil and resinous matter 11 (David P, 1970). Ginger has pronounced anti-oxidant activity, eliminate inflammation and help in arresting narcotic addiction as studies have shown 12 (Akomas E.C and Oti E., 1989). Growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria significantly inhibits by ginger.
When chewed it increases the flow of saliva it work as a stimulant. When swallowed it acts as a stimulating tonic, stimulate alimentary muscular system, enhances the secretion of gastric juice and dispels gases accumulated in stomach and bowels. Spicy aromatic ginger has different advantages to human body as it is effectual for indigestion and also helps in eliminating the systems of motion sickness 13 (Ebewele R.O., 1981). At local and international market thus, demand for ginger and its products is far above the ground as it was rated 10th most significant commodities at the world trade market level 14 (Cocks L.
V and Varrde C 1976). Recent development in ginger processing indicates that from a fresh rhizome it can be processed into a form of ginger soft drink 15 (Pigman W and Horton D 1971). The product was examined to have attained Shelf-life of 24 hours. To increase the Shelf-life furthermore, proper formulation and carbonation is necessary. Carbonated drinks are desirable and mostly preferred as they characterize in sharp, unique and refreshing taste. They are considered as non-alcoholic beverages that contains CO2, water, flavorings and sweet syrup 16 (Howitz W 1970).
Mint as Minta Spacata is a plant that has been extensively used in different cultures, such as India, Middle East and Europe. Mint gives a sweet flavor, after-sensation gives cooling effect. Both fresh and dried mint are used in preparation of large number of recipes involving curries, chutneys, salads, juices, soups, and ice creams. Mint leaves are rich source of minerals and vitamins. They contain Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron as well as good amount of vitamin C, Vitamins D, Vitamin E and some amount of vitamin B complex.
Mint leaves helps in stimulating the appetite, promote digestion process, and relieve flatulency and biliousness. For the stomach and liver they act as a good tonic. They eradicate thread worms in children 1 (Suhani Agarwal and Vishal Kumar 2017).Mint is a plant recognizable for its antispasmodic and carminative effects. Moreover, when combined with certain other plants demonstrate various calming properties 2 (Loggia D.R, Raya P.
M.D, et al., 1990) and small amounts of mint perfume provides analgesic effects 3 (Almeida R.N, et al., 1996, Baytop T.
1963). A considerable pain-relieving effect with a decrease in sensitivity to headache was produced by a mixture of peppermint oil and ethanol 4 (Göbel H et al., 1994). It was also resulted that the pain threshold in humans raised by the external application of peppermint extracts 5 (Mauskop A. 2001). Moreover, (6) Davies et al.
in 2002 reported a case of a 76-years old woman whose pain had been challenging to standard therapies. The use of peppermint oil to her skin resulted in a significant pain reduction, the duration of analgesia lasting 4 to 6 hours post-application.The significant effects of mint like anti-fatigue and relaxing, antibacterial and antifungal, and the effects on membrane permeability were also researched 7 (Dedeçay S.
S. 1995, Manabe A et al., 1987, Singh S.P et al., 1993) . In 2002, (8) Raudenbush et al. investigated that the perceived physical workload, chronological workload, effort and annoyance reduced by peppermint odor administration significantly. After administering peppermint self evaluated performance was also greater and the participants rated their vitality higher and exhaustion lowers 9 (Raudenbush B.et al, 2002). Peppermint odor also enhanced running speed, handgrip potency more and push-up performance. It had no effect on skill related tasks, such as basketball free-throw shots 10 (Raudenbush B et al., 2004). When the odor of peppermint was added to drinking water during a workout the above findings have also been simulated 11 (Schuler A et al., 2004)