INTRODUCTION down into fractions which can produce higher

INTRODUCTIONCrude oilis a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product made of hundreds ofdifferent hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials.

Crude oil can berefined to make usable products such as gasoline, diesel, heating oil, jetfuels, and other forms of petrochemicals. It is non-renewable and therefore isa limited resource.REFINING OFCRUDE OILThe process of refining crude oil is divided intothree basic steps: separation, cracking and reforming.

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Separation is achieved through fractional distillationwhich is divided into 2 parts: atmospheric and vacuum distillation. Atmosphericdistillation takes place in a distilling column where the crude oil is heatedto 350 – 400 o C. the liquid falls and the vapour rises. After passing througha series of sieve trays heavier hydrocarbons condense faster and settle on thelower trays while lighter hydrocarbons remain as vapour longer and settle atthe topmost trays. Heavy distillates are piped through vacuum distillationwhere heavy hydrocarbons with boiling points of  450 o C and higher to be separated.http://earthsci.

org/mineral/energy/gasexpl/Crude_oil_distillation_unit.png The second process is cracking where molecules arebroken down into fractions which can produce higher value products from higherfractions. Reforming is utilized on lighter and lower value products to producemore gasoline.

The reforming process involves addition of chemical reactionsunder pressure to change the composition of the hydrocarbon chain. COMPONENTS OFCRUDE OIL A barrel of crude oil produces the following contents:·        42% Gasoline·        22% Diesel·        9% Jet Fuel·        5% Fuel Oil                    ·        4% Liquefied Petroleum Gases·        18% Other productsThe products vary in colour, viscosity,               http://canaryusa.com/wp-“content/uploads/2014/11/CrudeProducts.jpg               PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OILCrude oil has the following properties: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Amin_Nabati2/publication/271227741/figure/tbl3/AS:[email protected]/Table-5-Properties-of-crude-oil.

png http://slideplayer.com/4217545/14/images/5/Fractions+of+Crude+Oil+%26+Their+Properties.jpg USES OF CRUDEOIL Gasoline is used to fuel internal combustion enginessuch as those in vehicles.Diesel is a heavier product also used in internalcombustion engines, it is preferred to gasoline because of its ease ofcombustion and fuel economy.

Crude oil can be refined into may industrial solventssuch as benzene, toluene and xylene which are used for the cleaning of machineparts.Kerosene is used for heating, lighting and jetpropulsion. Kerosene is used for this purposes due to its high freezing points.

Heating oil has low-viscosity and is commonly used in furnacesand boilers.Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) such as propane andbutane are used as fuels in outdoor appliances such as grills. Coke left as a residue after fuels have been distilledfrom crude, it as a form of coal.Asphalt is a black by-product of crude oil used inconstruction of roads.Lubricants have high-viscosity and are used tolubricate moving parts.  Residual fuelsare heavy remains left behind after distillation , these viscous fuels are usedto propel and power heavy machinery in boats, power plants and factories.Plastics is one of the most widespread uses of crudeoil. Plastics are used to manufacture of many different products such asplastic bottles, paper bags, computer bodies, shoes and even car bumpers.

 Petroleum isused in making of non-flammable clothing and also making clothes colourful. Itis used in the production of nylon, polyester, rayon, and synthetic furs.Furniture are also petroleum based products at ourhomes. Other home items such as refrigerators, the molded interior panels, doorliners, and foam insulation are made from petroleum.Fertilizers majorly rely on petroleum thereforegrowing of food majorly rely on oil for growth and maturity to be achieved  CRUDE OIL ANDTHE ENVIRONENTOil spills are as a result of accidents at oil wellsor on pipelines, ships, trains, and trucks that transport oil from wells torefineries. Oil spills contaminate soil and water and may cause dangerous firesand explosions. Oil spills kill marine animals such as whales, seals, fish anddolphins. The oil coats the fur of this mammals thus exposing them tohypothermia.

When not directly affected marine life are contaminated by the foodcoated with oil which may lead to death of these animals. Oil spills aroundfarms contaminate farm produce and therefore when eaten cause contamination andultimately cancers. Oil spills also cause death to birds which feed on fish andalso contaminate breedind sites such as those of turtles which lay eggs onbeaches. Oil spillage also makes the appearance of water bodies to look ugly. https://upload.wikimedia.

org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Oiled_Bird_-_Black_Sea_Oil_Spill_111207.jpg/220px-Oiled_Bird_-_Black_Sea_Oil_Spill_111207.jpgHigh temperatures caused by the combustion of petroleumcause nitrogen gas in the surrounding air to oxidize, creating nitrous oxides.

Nitrous oxides along with sulfur dioxide from the sulfur in the oil, combinewith water in the atmosphere to create acid rain. Acid rain causes death oftrees, fish and destruction of coral reefs.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Waldschaeden_Erzgebirge_3.jpg/220px-Waldschaeden_Erzgebirge_3.

jpgBurning of crude oil creates large amounts of carbondioxide that traps heat in the earths atmosphere consequently leading to globalwarming.When oil or petroleum are burnt the combustion isalways  incomplete and therefore toxiccompounds such as carbon monoxide and methanol are released in the environment.Soot also produced from this incomplete combustion causes blackening of humanand animal lungs causing cancers, heart problems and death. https://upload.wikimedia.

org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Diesel-smoke.jpg/225px-Diesel-smoke.jpgConstruction activities associated with oil drilling stripsthe environment of vegetation, increases erosion opportunities, and theopportunity for weed infestation, it also distrupts the land’s ground surface.

These effects are mostly irreversible.  

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