Background of the Study
In any profession, aptitude is considered to be an important characteristic of an individual, which can predict the future success, or failure of an individual in one occupation or areas of occupations. Current trends in teacher testing are likely to continue and to lead to extended training programs for teachers. Before getting a license to teach they are required to demonstrate through examination the knowledge and skill in teaching.
Aptitude test attempts to predict the capacities or the degree of achievement that may be expected from individuals in a particular activity. Aptitude tests measure and describe special abilities, capacities or talents which are supposed to determine the level of achievement that can be expected from individuals in specific fields of study and activity. The aptitude of the teacher about teaching may also affect the job satisfaction and his responsibilities towards academic activities. Aptitude may be described as a specific ability distinct from the general intellectual ability, which helps an individual to acquire degree of proficiency or achievement in a specific field. The most common forms of aptitude tests are those used to judge scholastic promise and these are used in employment and educational counselling.
A college entrance exam or admission test is a standardized aptitude test. These tests are not designed to measure what you have learned in school; rather, they measure your potential to perform well in the future. Furthermore, before students enter the college and pursue their education at University of Southern Mindanao (USM), they must first take the admission test administered by the Testing Center. The test determines students who may take a degree or a non-degree course. The scores provide further information regarding the ability and knowledge of the students in the different subject areas whether they are capable to take the course they wanted or not.
Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) is a test conducted by the University guidance center. It composed of two sub test verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Verbal intelligence is a specialized test which has been prepared for the purpose of evaluating mental abilities and capabilities that are important in academic work. Furthermore, non-academic intelligence is designed to evaluate the aspect of intelligence related to the aptitude for abstract academic work required in mathematical, engineering, designing and other physical sciences.
The Philippine Aptitude Test for Teachers (PATT) is designed to measure aptitudes which are deemed predictive of abilities required in the teaching profession. This is a written test consisting of six (6) subtests, namely: Verbal English, Verbal Filipino, Numeric, Induction, Situational Judgment and Information. Teaching aptitude is one of the major determinants of teacher effectiveness (Vyas, 1982). According to Kukruti (1990) in a study of some psychological correlates of successful teachers found that there is a positive relationship between aptitude and success in teaching. Quality of teaching depends not only on teachers’ qualifications and experiences but also on their commitment that can be recognized by their aptitude towards teaching.
(Pascua et al., 2011) found out that there is a significant relationship between LET performance and admission test. This means that there is a significant correlation between LET and Admission Test Scores (ATS). This further implies that as the respondent’s score in the Admission Test increases there is a tendency that the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) score would be high. On the other hand, as the Admission Test Score (ATS) gets low, the LET score would likely be low. The admission criteria that best predict success on the Principles of Learning and Teaching are American College Testing (ACT) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores. This can be explained in part by the hierarchical nature of criteria that have been established for admission to the College of Education. The data gathered indicate that ACT scores are significant predictors of success on the licensure test of professional and pedagogical knowledge (Herrington, 2005). The study of Guanzon and Marpa (2014) revealed that the Philippine Normal University admission test and College grade point average significantly predicted performance of graduates in the Licensure Examination. Furthermore, (Visco D. 2015) found out that Teaching Aptitude Test (TAT), attendance in LET review, Educational Attainment, Training/Seminar Workshops Attended, and evaluation of Academic Rank and Workloads are good predictors of LET performance. Delosa and Edralin (2017) also found out that Philippine Aptitude Test for Teachers (PATT) predicts academic performance.
The performance in the LET may be predicted by several variables, especially the entry requirements in college. Hence, there is a need to study the variables which may play an important role in the performance of the College of Education (CED) graduates so as to come up with intervention schemes in improving LET performance.
Objectives of the Study
This study will be conducted to determine the aptitude test and LET performance of 2017 Science LET takers.
Specifically, the study aims to:
1. determine the performance of science major in the following aptitude tests:
a. USMCEE Result
b. AAT ( Academic Aptitude Test)
c. PAAT ( Philippine Aptitude Test For Teachers
2. determine the level of performance of USM College of Education Graduates in the Licensure Examination For Teachers in September 2017 examination:
a. General Education
b. Professional Education
c. Major Subjects
d. Overall rating
3. determine the relationship of aptitude test and LET performance of Science LET takers, and
4. determine the area of difficulty the takers encountered.
1. determined the performance of science major in the following aptitude tests:
a. USMCEE Result
b. AAT ( Academic Aptitude Test)
c. PAAT ( Philippine Aptitude Test For Teachers
2. determined the level of performance of USM College of Education Graduates in the Licensure Examination For Teachers in September 2017 examination:
e. General Education
f. Professional Education
g. Major Subjects
h. Overall rating
3. determined the relationship of aptitude test and LET performance of Science LET takers, and
4. determined the area of difficulty the takers encountered
Significance of the Study
The result of this study will give benefit to the world of education especially to:
Students- This study will help the students to be aware that aptitude test can predict their future success especially in taking licensure examinations and choosing the right career or profession in life.
Teachers- The results will serve as basis for teachers in formulating policy on improving the performance of passing in licensure examination.It can give them an idea to intensify admission policies, to have a higher cut off in the college admission test. And also to screen carefully the upcoming teacher education graduates through a valid teaching aptitude test.
Teacher Education Institution (TEI)- for institutions that hones future teachers, the result of this study will give an idea to conduct a review for upcoming students and preservice teacher before taking college admission and teaching aptitude test. Moreover the results of this study are important because they can assist decision-makers in the institutions of higher learning in setting the optimum admission requirements for entry into a teacher education program that balance access and success.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study will focus deeper on the relationship between the aptitude test and LET performance of Biological and Physical science major graduates of 2017.
Definition of Terms
Aptitude test – a test that measures the aptitude of an individual. It is used to
determine an individual’s capacity to succeed in a given activity or future career.
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) – the examination to be taken by
graduates of education courses to become a professional teacher by virtue of RA 7836.
Philippine Aptitude Test for Teachers (PATT) – a test that is given to a
preservice teacher designed to measure aptitudes which are deemed predictive of abilities required in the teaching profession.
USMCEE- an admission to be taken and passed by USM students specifically
by transferees and incoming freshmen. This test will determine which program they are qualified to.
List of Acronyms
AAT – Academic Aptitude Test
PATT – Philippine Aptitude Test for Teachers
ACT – American College Testing
SAT – Scholastic Aptitude Test
LET – Licensure Examination for Teachers
CED – College of Education
TEI – Teacher Education Institution
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Figure 1. The schematic diagram showing the relationship between the aptitude tests and Science major LET performance in September 2017.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Rashmussen (2007) defined aptitude as a set of characteristics that relate to an individual’s ability to acquire knowledge or skills. The author further explained that individual differences are related to subsequence learning during a fixed time frame. A special test used for the purpose of measuring aptitude is termed as aptitude test. Different psychologists have described this operational definition. Aptitude tests play an important role to decide on the direction of students’ educational objectives (Chatterjee, 2007). Aptitude test result varies from one student to another. It indicates individual’s learning ability, the specific ability needed to land in a job, suitability, readiness, and tendency or capacity for particular activity (Raza, 2011). The test also considers the degree of readiness to learn and perform well in a particular situation or in a fixed domain. Aptitude test measures students’ general performance across a broad range of mental competencies. It includes items which measure more specialized abilities such as verbal and numerical skills that predict scholastic performance in educational programs (Oyetunde, 2007). They show the developed competence for conception and communication in an authorized standard like English Language. It may need
verbal or inscribed mode of reply as the case can require. Aptitude tests measure the distinctive, developed or advanced factor of capability in facts, indulgent and attitude used in doing certain benevolent of work at a specific glassy (Toplis, 1991).
Research investigation was conducted by Burke (2008) to determine the data that are possible predictors of success on teacher certification exams in a relatively small urban college in New York that offers an undergraduate teacher education program. Their recently revised program awards a Bachelor of Arts degree and fulfills the necessary requirements for four New York State certificates in education. Findings revealed that the main predictor variable LAST (Liberal Arts and Sciences Test) scores were mostly strongly associated with SAT (Student Admission Test) followed by College GPA Of the main predictor variable. Testing Theory and Practice (ATS-W) scores were mostly associated with SAT while High School GPA was not a strong predictor of future success on a teacher certification exam The results suggest otherwise on the question of whether the SAT reveals people who are simply good at taking tests If the SAT reflected test-taking skills it would not predict college success except to the extent those test-taking strategies help you in college.
Soriano (2009) conducted a study to determine the factors that affected the performance of USM College of Education graduates in the 2007 Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). Results revealed that General Education GPA, USMICET GSA score, course, and sex of the respondents’ best predicted the LET performance of the respondents. USMICET GSA score positively predicted LET performance, meaning the higher the entrance test scores, the higher the chance in passing the LET.
Pascua and Navalta (2011) pointed out in their study that degree of course is associated with LET performance; the higher the General Point Average, the higher the expected LET performance; the higher is the English proficiency, the higher is the LET performance; and as the respondent’s Admission Test Score increases, the LET score also tends to get high. Faltado (2014) also found out that type of school is not a factor in passing the examination while the admission and retention policy, curriculum and instruction, and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the performance in the examination.
Figuerres (2012) in her study entitled “An Analysis of the Performance of the University of Northern Philippines in the Licensure Examination for Teachers”, found out that for the ten-year period (2001-2010) the LET performance is significantly correlated with specialization. Selective admission and retention policies could be a plausible explanation to this result.
According to Shewart’s Theory of Prediction, factors can also be predictors of a criterion and may be utilized to partly explain the latter. In this regard, the performances of graduates in academics, admission test, and course audit can also be used to forecast their LET scores.
Teaching Aptitude Test
According to Praveen Sharma (2011), Academic Achievements played a key role in teacher’s career. Marks obtained to study Teaching Aptitude, Academic and Professional Achievement and found that there is no significant effect of sex on Teaching Aptitude. Also, they concluded that there is no significant effect of Discipline on Teaching Aptitude. Dr. K. S. Sajan (2010) conducted a study on teaching aptitude of student teachers and their academic achievements at graduate level. He used Teaching Aptitude Battery (TATB) by Singh and Sharma (1998). Major findings were that a dimension wise teaching aptitude reveals that the highest scoring dimension is the professional information (75.81%) and the least scoring one is the professional interest (50.21%). Also, the female student teachers are found to score significantly high on teaching aptitude compare to their male counter parts. He also concluded that there exists no substantial correlation between marks obtained in graduate level examination and teaching aptitude of student teachers.
Sameena Basu (2007) study of teaching aptitude of rural and urban teacher trainees at elementary level used Aptitude Test Battery (TATB) by Shamin Karim and Ashok Kumar Dixit. It has been found that 26 percent of teacher – trainees is above average in teaching aptitude, 49 percent are average and 25 percent of teacher-trainees are below average in teaching aptitude. Also, it was emerged that there is a significant difference between rural teacher-trainees and urban teacher trainees on various dimensions of teaching aptitude. In her study, Dushyant Kaur (2007) concluded that Academic achievement of student teacher at +2 level has high correlation with all the indicators of success in the elementary teacher education course expect with school teacher rating. The study contributed 23% in the predicting success of external examination of Elementary Teacher Education (ETE) course.
The researcher will utilize a descriptive-correlational with interview in determining the relationship between aptitude test and LET performance of Science graduates.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study will be the Biological and Physical Science major graduates who took the LET in September 2017
Locale of the Study
The study will be conducted at the College of Education (CED), University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato.
The following data will be obtained from the takers: Respondents’ ratings in General Education, Professional Education, and Field of Specialization (for BSE). With regards to USMCEE rating, the researcher will request a copy of overall rating from the University Test and Development Center (UTDC). For the PATT and AAT, the researcher will ask a copy from the Guidance Office of the college, or at the University Guidance Center.
Data Gathering Procedure
In gathering the data, the researcher will ask the result of LET ratings from the respondents. The researcher will write a letter asking permission for the copy of USMCEE in University Test and Development Center (UTDC). For the copy of AAT and PATT the researcher will request it from Guidance Office of the college or at the University Guidance Center.
To determine the area of difficulty the takers encountered, the researcher will conduct an interview with the help of guide questions based on the TOS of LET.
The researcher will utilize descriptive-correlational method. The data will be tallied, tabulated and analyzed using descriptive analysis such as mean, frequency counts and percentages will be used. In determining the relationship between aptitude test and LET performance of Science graduates, the linear correlation will be used.
O. Figuerres, “An analysis of the performance of the University of Northern Philippines in the Licensure Examination for Teachers,” IAMURE International Journal of Education, vol/issue: 6(1), 2013.
S. Pachejo and W. Allaga, “Academic predictors of the Licensure Examination for Teachers’ performance of the Rizal Technological University Teacher Education Graduates,” retrieved from http://www.soeagra.com/ijert/ijertdecember2013/7.pdf on March 23, 2018.
D. Visco, “Determinants of performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of Abra State Institute of Sciences and Technology,” International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies, vol/issue: 2(1), pp. 39–44, 2015.
R. Ferrer, et al., “Performance of BSEd Science Graduates in Licensure Examination for Teachers: basis for a regression model,” retrieved from http://www.apjmr.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/APJMR-2015-3.5.3.01.pdf on March 23 , 2018.
H. Soriano, “Factors associated with the performance of USM College of Education graduates in the 2007 licensure examination for teachers,” retrieved from http://www.usm.edu.ph/rd-journal/rd-july-to december2009/factorsassociated-with-the-performance-of-usm-college-of-education-graduates-in-the-2007-licensureexamination-for-teachers on March 24, 2018.
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Consad, H. &Tuquero(2015). Predictors of nursing graduates’ performance in licensure examination. ResearchGate. Thesis. Palawan State University.
Guanzon, D. T. P. & Marpa, Eliseo P. (2014). Philippine Normal University Admission Test and College Grade Point Average as Predictors of Licensure Examination for Teachers.. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/260660938_Licensure_Examination_for_Teachers on April 1, 2018