Anita Desai is one of the Indian writers who has given new dimensions to Indian Writing in English. She has dealt with the themes which refers to the inner world of the characters. She has highlighted the concept of stream of consciousness with a great deal. She completed her graduation from Delhi University. She was born in the year of 1937 and has Bengali father and German mother.
She wrote Cry the Peacock in 1963 and hence her career started. Voices in the City, Bye Bye blackbird is some of the examples of her writing. Her novels highlight the themes of human relationship, loneliness, violence and death. Her novels majorly have female as protagonist through which she tries to show the inner psyche of her female characters to the world. She shows how women being carrying the responsibilities of daughter, sister, wife, mother have forgotten themselves in between all that. Her characters go through series pf emotions and become victim of alienation.
She showcases the reasons of her character’s alienation such as ill matched marriage, the emotional gap between the couple etc.
Kamala Markandaya is one of the novelists who dealt with political, social, economic, psychological, cultural, traditional etc. The Nowhere Man, Nectar in a Sieve, A Silence of Desire, Possession are some of her works. She was born in the year 1924 to a South Indian family, brahmin by origin. She got married to English man and settled in England. Hence, she is very much familiar with the Easy-West Encounter and identity crisis which she tries to explore through her novels. She is one of the finest writers in Indian English literature.
This Term paper entitled ‘The alienated self and the rootlessness: A study of Anita Desai’s Cry, the Peacock and Kamala Markandaya’s The Nowhere Man’ is an attempt at highlighting the, the neglected aspect- alienation with particular reference to two women writers of the 20th century. One of the most prominent writers Anita Desai dealing with female alienation in her book Cry, the peacock and other prominent writer is Kamala Markandaya shows how the racial prejudice isolates the character and deepen their sense of displacement in her book The Nowhere Man. This project brings to light the respective characters in respective novels and explore the multiple dimensions of alienation and different alienating factors that leads them to their detachment- the rootlessness from the society.
BW Samatkar in his research paper titles as ‘The theme of Alienation in Anita Desai’s Cry The peacock’ has focused on the theme of alienation with relation to man woman marriage. he deals with the themes if isolation, loss of identity, frustration. In his paper he said that alienation is an outcome of hypersensitive nature of Anita Desai’s female characters and their inability to contact
with their partners. he also highlights that the marriage of convenience took place between Maya and Gautam. He talks about element of Companionship, different in attitude. He says that they are like always two parallel lines which never converge.
Dr. Anupama Srivastava in her research paper titled as ‘A psychological Study of Anita Desai’s Cry the Peacock’ has talked much about the psychological, mental alienation through which character undergoes. she talks about the loss of connection between their marriage ane self the inner self, desire, psyche of the characters.
Gaitry Roy in her research paper entitles as ‘the theme of alienation and isolation in the selected novels of Anita Desai’ has focused upon the alienation talked about the author with reference to her major works. she talks about the life of Anita Desai and her works and hervarious themes. She says about the lack of communication between husband and wife and also talked about the novel as the reflection of the social realities.
Dr. Chakrswami Dixit and Dr. Yogesh Kumar Gautam in their research paper titled as ‘Anguish of Alienation in Kamala Markandaya’sThe Nowhere Man’ have focused on the socio-cultural alienation and Racism. He was of the opinion of how one feels pity for the character and at the same time bear out fear for the whole human race. They talked about the characters suffering through four different stages.
1. The principal objective for the research paper is to analyze different modes of alienation which leads to the detachment. When makes a self-analysis of the charactersbecause when someone does self-analysis and discovers and alienation occurs, it leads
to a meaninglessness and powerlessness. I will also work upon the psyche of different characters’ and their respective ideas. Their characteristics will be discussed so that comparison can be made to reach any conclusion.
2. Implication the different theories which were missed by the above-mentioned research scholars that includes Existentialism theory, feminism and Maslow theory of Needs under the psychoanalysis theory.
3. The reference of The Second Sex will be studied.
4. The three waves of feminism also contributed in the examination of the two texts in the area of research which was neglected in the research papers.
5. The leading of racism which is a type of alienation leads to the detachment from society and how an individual suffers.
6. These above-mentioned points will serve as a guideline for my research.
This research paper is dedicated to the problem of Alienation and the Rootlessness which are the major factors contributing in the detachment from the society.
Alienation is a malaise term of present age. Every person on earth suffers from alienation which refers to the inner conflict. 21st century, as we say, it has remarkably shown progress and achievement in various fields which all together has made human being’s life more comfortableand more progressful. The development of industrialization, the more gadgets, and the more scientific products all add up to human being’s comfort zone but definitely disrupted human bonds and connections and left them vulnerable. Human beings being in this rat- race have
totally forgotten themselves completely. They feel alienated; they go through the sense of loss of identity and feel rootlessness in their society.
Alienation, it refers to the inner conflict, to a situation in which a person feels loss or detachment from something, it can be society or community or even from own self. He senses loss of freedom. Hence, man suffers not only physical loss from war, famine, natural calamities but also suffers psychological, physiological, sociological loss from the inner problems for example – loss of identity, conviction of isolation, rootlessness in his very own existence. Man has completely failed to understand the meaning of life in an adverse world. All the political, social, economic factors of contemporary scene lead to their confusion, meaninglessness, rootlessness. They are left with nothing to depend on something in their crisis; they know there are certain factors which are beyond their control, they feel that they cannot be the master of their own destiny and this wounded psyche forms the individual mind a kind of dissatisfaction towards social norms of society.
There are multiple dimensions of alienation powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, rootlessness, isolation etc. There is self-alienation and social alienation. Self-alienation has more effect on individual than the social one. It refers to the situation in which a person feels loss of contact between themselves and desires. It has worse effects on psychic development of an individual and is the basic form of rootlessness. Social alienation refers to a sudden discovery, when an individual is not able to cope up with the changes in society; the changes are not able to compensate his needs or desires.
If we talk about female alienation, it has totally different impact. As woman is the second sex, for centuries, they have never been recognized as a person in terms of rights. As Simone de Beauvoir points out that in today’s world woman are always compelled to think themselves as Other. So how can be independence recovered in terms of dependency? How human beings in woman’s situation can attain fulfilment?
This term paper entitled ‘The Alienated Self and the Rootlessness: A study of Anita Desai’s Cry, the Peacock and Kamala Markandaya’s The Nowhere Man’ will unfold under the pattern discussed further. The project is divided into various parts, the first of which is the Introduction which will be followed by a brief discussion about the theme of alienation and rootlessness. This will be further followed by the basic storyline of the respective novels. This part be shall name as An Aspect of Alienation with reference to Cry, the Peacock and The Nowhere Man. Different factors of alienation will be discussed and their implication in the respective novels. This comparison and contrast will be done using different theories and the conclusion will be carried out under the Conclusion section of this Term Paper.
2. Theme of Alienation and Rootlessness
3. An aspect of Alienation and Rootlessness with reference to Cry, the Peacock and The Nowhere Man
4. Feminism and existentialism with reference to the thesis
This research paper includes the study of five journals based on ideologies of different research scholars with regard to marriage, alienation and rootlessness at the core.
The primary text which have been included in the study of the thesis are, Cry, the Peacock and The Nowhere Man by Anita Desai and Kamala Markandaya respectively which have been the main area of research in this paper. The research also includes the certain theories which have been put to use to support the entire research in a best possible manner. This includes Three Waves of Feminism, Eco-feminism and Existentialism as well. Thesetheories in combination has provided the desired outcome of the research and completed the loopholes or research gaps found in further previous research papers.