Introduction resistance against oxidative stress (Pukacka et al.,

Introduction

Soils
polluted with toxic heavy metals are an environmental problem that threats
living organisms (Nascimento and Xing, 2006). Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most
harmful and widespread pollutants in agricultural soils (Lin et al., 2012),
it has no metabolic role, but it has adverse negative effect (Tran and Popova,
2013), which it causing oxidative damage to important cellular pathways such as
photosynthesis and respiration, due to enhances the generation and accumulation
of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Ahmed et al, 2015). Selenium (Se) is
considered to be an important trace element with multiple roles in higher
animals and human (Rayman, 2000; Schrauzer, 2009). Although, Se is not
confirmed to be required by higher plant (Terry et al., 2000), but some
finding suggest that, Se which play a novel role in plant biology (Hatfield et
al, 2014; Wu et al., 2015), including growth promoting activities,
improving yield and quality and increase plant resistance against oxidative
stress (Pukacka et al., 2011; Hasanuzzaman et al., 2012;
Pezzarossa et al., 2012). Moreover, plants grown in Se-enriched media
shown resistance to certain abiotic stress, such as, salinity (Hawrylak-Nowak,
2009), drought (Ahmed et al., 2016) and heavy metals (Wu et al.,
2016). The results of Lin et al. (2012) indicated to alleviated ROS
accumulation and balanced nutrients in rice, also Wu et al.(2016)
reported that, the supplementation of media by Se reduced Cd and Pb
concentrations in root and shoot of oilseed rape, furthermore, alleviated the negative
effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to decrease oxidative damage,  Alyemeni et al. (2017) was found the
application of Se (10 µM) mitigated the negative effect of Cd on photosynthetic
pigments content, leaf relative water content and other physiological
attributes of tomato, further Se enhanced antioxidant enzymes including SOD,
CAT, APX and GR, also osmolytes such as, proline, glycine and betaine. Salicylic
acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) (SA) is endogenous phytohormone belong to phenolic
compounds in plants (Per et al.), SA act as a pivotal role in defense
mechanism by regulating physiological biochemical processes (Joseph et al.
2010). A various finding suggest that, SA reduces negative effect of abiotic
stress, including salinity stress (Palma et al., 2013), heat stress
(Khan et al., 2013) and heavy metals stress (Al-Whaibi et al.,
2012; Zhang et al., 2015). SA interacts with nutrients synergistically
or antagonistically and regulates plant growth and development under optimal
and stressful environments (Nazar et al., 2011). The aim of this study
is investigate the perhaps synergistic effect of Salicylic acid and Selenium to
mitigate Cadmium stress on date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. plantlets.

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