INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION:
In this essay we are going to discuss about hacking the human is the next cyber threat: security flaws in medical Nano technologies, could be deadly. Through Nanotechnology or small tiny particle in medical devices & other electronics devices is harmful or deadly. By inserting nanodevices in human body the hacker can hacked the human body & own’s it completely. A good cyber security can support good patient care.

ESSAY:
In Most of the medical field or Hospital many electronic devices are used such as mobile phones, desktop, computers, laptop, tablets ; servers to store or keep data of medical record ; other sensitive data about people but, that can be easily hacked by the hacker through nanotechnologies devices these devices are widely used in day-to- day. In any modern Hospital we find large number of electronic devices being used not only by the staff members but also by the visitors and used of these devices is responsible of injecting Malware into the hospital network. usually people treat Cybersecurity protections as secondary.
Protecting hospitals computer network is crucial to preserving patient privacy and even life itself. And Hospital administrators to understand the importance of cyber security is straight forward. The hospital can buy as many pieces of hardware and software as it wants but if workers aren’t following organization procedures, the technology won’t keep Hospital safe our research show that hospitals need to manage and evaluate the security of the devices on their networks and ensure medical staff understood that how good cyber- hygiene can support good patient care.

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Also in many other medical field Nano electronic devices are injected into the human body and is a very advanced method used by the hacker to pressurize money and controls of individual people life, though professional are trying to tackle the problem of biomechanical hacking, This threats is relatively very simple compared to new biomechanical technologies in spite of being more sophisticated it is also far more harmful than a single function devices such as pacemakers and insulin pumps. Though the developing of Nano systems into the human body improves the treatment and recovery of Health and also able to perform a variety of functions, either singularly or in groups. But, as it is an electronic device and can be easily hacked by the outsiders. These innovative nanoparticles are not being introduced with sufficient security, says Gregory Carpenter, a certified information security manager (CISM) ; a self-described cyber imaginer. Gregory carpenter has written several books and articles on technology and the cybersecurity threat.

As many new nanoparticles come out, which will be in contact with a client-a-laptop, desktop computer etc. that are run by a server. So, there’s always a link, and if you can hack it you can own it. Michael DeCesare, The CEO of ForeScout Technologies and former President of McAfee shares that nanoparticles is not a powerful machine but a smaller version of computerized machines. Gregory carpenter says that they are many nanotechnology particles that are available so close to our body-like jeans, CT Scan etc. & can easily transmit into human system if inserted. Carpenter say most human nanodevices will be programmed before insertion, although some could have their functions directed externally. The best way for a hacker to hack a human’s Nano implants is to establish a Hoc network of nanoparticle in the body. And you can manipulate the nanoparticle like any hacker can manipulate a client or server.

CONCLUSION: As nanomedicine become more valuable in day to day life. I don’t know that many people really understand, know or believe that cyber can kill them the use of unsecured nanoparticles can result in life taking or deadly, It the major duty of any working staff to give cybersecurity protections first priority & protect patient privacy.

Introduction:
The oil and gas industry is a company providing the necessary items and services that are required by the international oil and gas sector to explore extract and transport oil and natural gas at the refinery and then finally to the consumer. Schlumberger is the largest oil manufacturer company in the world and the most recognized service companies on the market since 1920 and in South America since 1929.

Decision making:
It is a process to take or make important decisions for a company. The decision making process help the organization to detect the problem and gave possible solutions of a problem. The step by step decision making process can help organization to take internationally and thoughtful decision by collecting relevant information and defines alternatives solutions for a problem.

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Basic model for decision making:
The decision-making process begins with the examination of the nature of the problem then followed by the generation and assessment of possible options and ends with the choice of an option. It consists of 5 steps:
Stage one: examination of the nature of problem
Stage two: generation of possible solutions
Stage three: selection among the possible solutions
Stage four: performance of the decision
Stage five: follow-up and control

People who are involved in decision making:
The decision making groups are formed with the mixed employees of different departments. Their numbers vary from 5 to 8. These include different employees of different departments of the organization for example finance department management department legal department safety department maintainer department etc. These groups are made like 2 members from Maintance 1 from finance 2 from legal department 1 from safety officer or safety advisor and 2 within managerial position.
Effective decision making:
Effective decision-making can be achieved by finding options as well as interpreting information about key events that may affect the performance of a company. Therefore the overall performance of the organization must be taken into account or results. By trying to evaluate only products processes and results tend to underestimate the role of how decisions are made which can affect the quality of the decision-making process without taking into account all the affects of the stakeholders.

Problems and challenges:
The way oil services companies manage their decisions with large things such as facilities have been identified as a big challenge. For industrial person decisions are made on the basis of maintenance inputs data and management frameworks but where decisions involve significant things such as facilities decisions are generally related to costs mainly due to the lack of supporting data and historical documents. In this case managers look for the most practical solution without taking into account all internal and external constraints.

Three main operational facilities:
1. Asset Management:
These are activities that are a systematic and coordinated organization that favorably and sustainably manages asset systems performance risks and expenses in order to achieve its strategic plan.

2. Facility management:
It is defined as a multi-discipline practice to provide the functionality of the building environment by delivery of support services to organization.

3. Facility manager
It is defined as the person in charge in an organization to which senior management desire to communicate and control all required activities and services of an organization both inside and outside.

Example according to Schlumberger:
The facilities were in operation until 2015 when low oil prices led to a low in activity and low in financial gain was affected by high maintenance price. Based on recent market conditions Schlumberger achieve in very clear and detailed manner to justify the assets of large facilities and reduce its impression in order to control costs and expenses in order to return to financial gain.
1. Examination of nature of problem:
The purpose of this step is to provide guidance and a basis to low the risk of generating not a suitable solution or excessive use of organizational resources. It is achieved by other steps. These are:
• Detecting the problem:
Schlumberger has to examine the possibility of integrating resources and optimizing the use of common facilities or existing facilities. This creates a systematic approach to choosing from existing facilities assessing different phases to provide a view beyond a cost analysis or financial analysis.
• Fix objectives:
In order to set an objective to provide the success of the decision model a checklist has been suggested. The checklist calculates whether the proposed overall objective falls within the SMART objectives category or not.

• Recognize the problem:
This step indicates whether the detected problem is strategic or non-operational. If the problem is strategic the normal sequence of the decision model must be followed. However if the decision is operational it is possible to proceed to the third step.

• Set up Decision making group:
This step helps to indicate the optimal decision-making group respecting the nature of the problem and the organizational situation. The decision group was formed with a mixed group of employees from multiple departments. The group has eight participants.
The idea behind this mixed group of different sectors or departments of society is an attempt to create a more objective vision while achieving to find the best solution to apply.

2. Creation of possible solution:
This step has further two steps. The first one is to collect and examine information about each option and the second one is to apply methods to create favorable scenarios.

• Collect and examine of data:
Due to the lack of available historical data a SWOT analysis was carry out for each institution to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats or danger of each.

• Apply creative solution generating techniques:
After several meetings and group discussion in which the decision-making group was actively engaged in creative solutions some scenarios were presented in which each scenario will be assessed according to its convenience and acceptability.

3. Selection among possible solutions:
The objective of this step is to evaluate the possible solutions according to criteria in order to reach a favorable solution. This requires identifying the evaluation criteria and then comparing the multiple alternatives using the chosen criteria. These steps are presented as follows:

• Identify evaluation criteria:
It evaluates the criteria in which possible solutions are compared. It is based on the decision making group where the decision is will be considered as acceptable.

• Convenience test per each facility:
Of the three convenience tests the facility has to need the skills and resources to apply the required changes which allow it to function as an integrated facility.

• Desirability test for facility:
The criterion for this is acceptability or desirability. Some problems may be experience because of historical data frictions. Some installations will lead to a positive solution and others to a negative solution. The negative is discarded quickly.

• Applying decision rule:
The purpose of this step is to examine the decision rule to reach at a solution. To do these two alternative tools will be used to calculate the favorable solution. The first tool will be a decision tree. From the execution of this tool an optimal alternative will be drawn.

• Choosing a solution:
Once all the information was collected it was then possible to calculate the favorable solution for optimizing Schlumberger’s installations

4. Implement decision:
The execution phase involves planning and carries out the required activities so that the chosen solution actually solves the problem. As the plan of this solution requires time so this will only present the decision group stage.
It should be noted that the solution is not only to transform the facility into a coordinated hub covering all wire line services in Schlumberger, but that will also be enlarged to other solutions to be put into effect for the others facilities based on brainstorming and discussion session carried out through the decision model.

5. Follow up and control:
This step indicates that facility manager’s make sure that the plan is actually followed. It is essential that facilities management can support the properly implemented structure with the shared application to control and collect all information from multiple tasks and services.

“Conclusion”
Decision making is difficult factor for all the business. Some decisions are obvious and can be taken easily and some decisions are complex and take much more time. Some of the decisions are taken by the groups. In Schlumberger, decision group are made from different employees of different departments. This help in the effective decision making. The group follows the different steps of decision making (harc analysis and risk control) to achieve their desire task. It helps to minimize the loss and maximize the profit.

Introduction.
Gender and community development is a process towards sustainable way of community development incorporating all the gender with equal participation and involvement. In context of rural Kenya, women and girls play an important role, largely unpaid role in generating family income, by providing labour for planting, weeding and harvesting crops. When we see the social inclusion index, women are lagging behind in education dimension index, economic index, women have less access to control over resources, benefit, and opportunities including land, assets, credit and household income.
Therefore, this paper argued that the link between gender equality and community development go both ways and that each direction of the relationship matters for policy making.
Higher income and improved service delivery both essential elements of broad economic development that contribute to greater gender equality. That is why the rise in global prosperity in the past quarter century has seen the unprecedented narrowing of gender gaps on many education and health outcomes as well as in labour market opportunities.
More women than men now attend universities across the world. And women make up over 40% of the world’s labour force. But not all gender gap has shrunk or are shrinking with the rising incomes. Poor girls and those who live in remote areas or belong to excluded groups are less likely to attend primary and secondary education than boys in the same circumstances.
Women continue to cluster in sectors and occupations characterised as ‘female’- many of them lower paying. Women are more likely to be the victims of violence at home and suffer more severe injuries. And almost everywhere, the representation of women in politics and in senior managerial positions in business remains far lower than that of men.
Understanding which of these gaps respond to economic development and why they do so is relevant to policy because it helps shines the light on the gender gaps that need attention. The disparities between men and women or girls and boys that shrinks as countries get richer, differences in access to education for example need less policy attention through gender, less than those that are more persistent, such as differences in wages, Agricultural productivity and societal voice.
The reverse relationship- from gender equality to community development- also matters for policy for two reasons. First, gender equality matters in its own rights, because of the ability to live the life of one’s own choosing and be spared from absolute deprivation is a basic human right, to be enjoyed by everyone, whether one is male or female.
Because development is a process of expanding freedoms for all people, gender equality is core objective itself. Just as lower income, poverty, and greater access to justice is part of community development, so too is the narrowing of gap in well-being between males and female.
Second, greater gender equality can enhance economic efficiency and improve other development outcomes. Evidence from growing set of micro-economic studies points to three main channels for greater gender equality to promote growth in the following manner.
MISS ALLOCATING WOMEN’S SKILLS AND TALENTS COMES AT A LARGE ECONOMIC COST:
Gender equality can have a large impact on productivity, especially with women now representing large shares of the world’s workforce and university graduates. For countries to be performing at their potentials the skills and talents of these women should be applied to activities that make best use of those abilities.
But this is not always the case. Women’s labour is too often underused or miss-allocated because they face discrimination in markets or social institutions that prevent them from having access to productive inputs and earning the same incomes as men. The consequence economic losses.
The food and Agriculture Organization estimates that equalizing access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase Agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5 to 4 percent. Since women in these regions produce between 60-80 percent of food crops, yet continue to face social barriers and inequalities that prevent them from realizing their full economic potential, which is diversely affecting the economic growth of the country and development. Eliminating barriers preventing women from entering certain sectors or occupations would have similar positive effect, increasing output per worker by 13 to 25 percent.
These gains are large in the 21-century’s integrated and competitive world, where even modest improvements in efficiency of resources use can have significant effects on growth. In a world of open trade, gender inequality has become costlier because it diminishes a country ability to compete internationally-particularly if the country specializing in exporting goods and services that men and women workers are equally suited to produce.
Industries that rely more on female labour expand more in countries where women and men are more equal. In a globalized world, then, countries that reduce gender-based inequalities, especially in secondary and tertiary education and in economic participation, will have a clear advantage over those that delay action.
The rapid aging of the world’s population implies that fewer workers will be supporting growing numbers of elderly in decades to come, unless labour participation increases significantly among the groups that participate less today – mainly women.
In developing countries and regions with rapid aging demographic structures like China and Eastern Europe, encouraging women to enter and remain in the labour force can dampen the impact of shrinking working-age populations.
WOMEN’S ENDOWMENTS, OPPORTUNITES AND AGENCY SHAPE THOSE OF THE NEXT GENERATION.
Women’s economic empowerment and greater control of resources also increases investments in children’s education, health and nutrition, boosting future economic growth. Evidence from a range of countries such as South Africa and Brazil shows that increasing the share of the households that women control, either through their own earnings or cash transfers changes spending in ways that benefit children.
Improvement in women’s health and education can also benefit the next generation. Better nutritional status and higher education levels of mothers are associated with better child health outcomes- from immunization rates, to nutrition, to child mortality. Mother’s schooling is positively linked to children is educational attainment across a broad set of countries. In Pakistan, children whose mothers have a single year of education spend extra hour studying at home every day and receive higher test scores.
Women’s lack agency – evidence is domestic violence has consequences for the children cognitive behaviour, and health as adults. Medical research from developed countries has established a link between exposure to domestic violence in childhood and health problems in adulthood.
Numerous studies also document how witnessing violence between one’s parents as a child increases the likelihood that women experience violence from their own partners as adult and that men penetrate violence against their partners.
INCREASING WOMEN’S INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE AGENCY PRODUCES BETTER OUTCOME, INSTITUTIONS AND POLICY CHOICES.
Across countries and cultures, men and women differ in agency- that is, ability to make choices that lead to desired outcomes- with women usually at a disadvantage. When women and men do not have equal chances to be socially and politically active and to influence laws politics and policy making – institutions and policies are more likely to systematically favour the interests of those with more influence. So, the institutional constraints and markets failures that feed gender inequalities are less likely to be addressed and corrected, perpetuating gender inequality over generations.
Women’s collective agency can be transformative for society as a whole. Empowering women as political and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of arrange of voices. Female suffrage in the United States led policy makers to turn their attention to child and maternal health and helped lower infant mortality by 8-15 percent.
Several studies have also examined the relationship between gender equality and economic growth at aggregate level. Using cross-country data. It provides considerable evidence that gender equality matters for many aspects of growth.

CHALLENGES OF ATTAINING GENDER EQUALITY IN RURAL COMMUNITIES IN KENYA.
Things have changed for better but not for all women, and not in all domains of gender equality. Progress has been slow and limited for women in every poor country, for those who are poor a mid greater wealth, and for those who face other forms of exclusion because of their disability, ethnicity and sex orientation. Whether companions between men and women in the same countries, the progress in some domains is tempered by the sobering realities that many women face in others as discussed below.
Severely disadvantaged population: a cross and within countries, gender gaps widen at lower incomes and in the poorest economies, gender gaps are larger. The benefits of economic growth have not occurred equally to all men and all women for some parts of the society.
Household poverty can mute the impact of national development and the differences are often compounded by other means of social exclusion, such as geography and ethnicity.
Sticky domains: improvements in some domains of gender equality- such as those related to occupational differences or participation in policy making -are bound by constraints that do not shift with economic growth and development.
Gender disparities endure even in high-income economies despite the large gains in women’s civil and economic rights in the past century. These outcomes are as a result of slow- moving institutional dynamics and deep structural factors that growth alone cannot address.
Reversals: external shocks-sometimes economic, sometimes political, sometimes institutional – can erase hard -earned gains. In some instances, improvements in gender equality have been reversed in the face of unexpected shock that revealed or worsened institutional or market failures. The shock affect both males and females, but multiple factors shape their impact on gender differentials – among them, the source and type of shock, economic and institutional structures and social norms.
Even when the shocks do not have differential gender impacts, the absolute welfare losses for both men and women can be substantial. In particular, adverse circumstances early in life, as in the critical first three years, can have irreversible long-term effects.
Less voice and less power: some domains of gender equality where progress has been slowest fall in the domain of women’s agency- women’s ability to make decisions about earned income or family spending reflect. Their control over their own lives and immediate environment, trends in domestic violence capture intra-household gender dynamics and asymmetric power relations between men and women and pattern in political voice can measure inclusiveness in decision making, exercise of leadership and access to power.
Less control over resources: many women have no say over household finances, even their own earnings. The demographic health survey shows that women in rural areas are not involved in household decisions about spending their personal earned income.
Less control over the resources and spending is partly are flection of large differences between men and women in the assets they own. In many communities in Kenya, land ownership remains a restricted to men only. Customary laws disadvantage women in land ownership, and they can only acquire land through marriage. Marriage is the most avenue to women to own land, but husbands usually own it, while wives only have acclaim to its use.
While the property rights for women have slowly begun to improve in Kenya, legislation has often proved insufficient to change observed practices.

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Reference:
A bouzahr, Carla 2003, Global Durden of maternal death and disability- British Medical Bulletin 67.
Allandrf, Keera 2007, Do women’s land rights promote empowerment and child health in Nepal.
Baird , Sarah, Jed Friedman and Norbert Schady 2007, Aggregate income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing world.
Benneria, Lourdes, 2005, Changing employment patterns and the information of jobs.
Deere , Carmen Diana and Cheryl R, Doss 2006, gender and the distribution of wealth in developing countries.
Baniera ,Oriana, and Ashwimi 2011, does gender inequality hinder growth?
Makinsey and Company Inc 2007, Women matters- Gender diversity, A corporate performance driver.
Thomas, Duncan 1990, Intra-household Resources allocation.
World Economic Forum 2010, Global gender gap report.
World development report 2012
www.worldbank.org

Introduction.Live in twenty century era fully change the ways of working in all area in life. Modern technology hundred percent influenced the changes in education system. This revolution era need a concrete development plan in education, but over time it must have some factor that will defect the plan which is can be a factor that limits of the contemporary role of education management. The educational institution that applied this new environment will be more modern and successful where people in there does not look like having a traditional way of teaching and learning such as only using book as their available sources of knowledge .Innovative happen when the people have a creativity of ideas, can do something that are outside of the box and keep the task to be practice. Creativity and innovation are more important at twenty first century whereby the knowledge society have been develop so well (Mishra, 2014). One of factor that people can reveal their creative and innovative skill is by education. It is show because in education have a learning process where it is can help especially student to hit the road by showing what they have.

European Commission declaring the year of Creativity and Innovation by aware with the importance of creativity and innovation on personal, social and economic developments ( Tarman, ). It is show on how the topics have been discussed entire year in 2010 such as pre-school, the promotion of artistic and other creative fields during primary and secondary education; fore-fronting cultural diversity as the source for creativity and innovation; supporting mathematics, science and technology education for development of creative minds; performing regional and local development strategies based on creativity and innovation (EurActiv, 2010). Based on this view show that starting year 2010, people already concern and aware about the important and being creative especially in education. This is because, it can help people especially their children in order to have a good mind in handling their education moments.

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Based on the research done by Looney (2009), generally education will take over latter category that for sure improved a way to dealing with the student by classroom-based teaching, learning and assessment, and the changes in organization or management of system. From that research, conclusion can be where the changes of whole organization systems including the management will affect the student in order to be creative. The nature of online instruction does not allow instructor to perceived important non-verbal cues that signal in order to be understanding. Other than that, successful online student can be describe self-motivated, self-directed, exhibiting an internal locus of control with above average executive functioning, communication, interaction and technological skills ( Kauffman, 2015 ).

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