Intro in rehabilitation; in prevention, health maintenance, and

 Intro Physical therapists (PTs) are health care professionals who diagnose and treat individuals of all ages, from newborns to the very oldest, who have medical problems or other health-related conditions that limit their abilities to move and perform functional activities in their daily lives. PTs examine each individual and develop a plan using treatment techniques to promote the ability to move, reduce pain, restore function, and prevent disability. In addition, PTs work with individuals to prevent the loss of mobility before it occurs by developing fitness and wellness oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles. Physical therapists provide care for people in a variety of settings, including hospitals, private practices, outpatient clinics, home health agencies, schools, sports and fitness facilities, work settings, and nursing homes. State licensure is required in each state in which a physical therapist practices. Physical therapy sessions typically last 30–60 minutes each, from one to many times a week, depending on why a person is receiving therapy. As you make progress, your visits may change in length and frequency.      Physical therapy is a dynamic profession with an established theoretical and scientific base and widespread clinical applications in the restoration, maintenance, and promotion of optimal physical function. Physical therapists diagnose and manage movement dysfunction and enhance physical and functional abilities. They also restore, maintain, and promote not only optimal physical function but optimal wellness and fitness and optimal quality of life as it relates to movement and health. They prevent the onset, symptoms, and progression of impairments, functional limitations, and disabilities that may result from diseases, disorders, conditions, or injuries. As essential participants in the health care delivery system, physical therapists assume leadership roles in rehabilitation; in prevention, health maintenance, and programs that promote health, wellness, and fitness; and in professional and community organizations. Physical therapists also play important roles both in developing standards for physical therapist practice and in developing health care policy to ensure availability, accessibility, and optimal delivery of health care services. Physical therapy is covered by federal, state, and private insurance plans. Physical therapists’ services have a positive impact on health-related quality of life. As clinicians, physical therapists engage in an examination process that includes taking the patient/client history, conducting a systems review, and performing tests and measures to identify potential and existing problems. To establish diagnoses, prognoses, and plans of care, physical therapists perform evaluations, synthesizing the examination data and determining whether the problems to be addressed are within the scope of physical therapist practice. Based on their judgments about diagnoses and prognoses and based on patient/client goals, physical therapists:provide interventions (the interactions and procedures used in managing and instructing patients/clients), conduct re-examinations, modify interventions as necessary to achieve anticipated goals and expected outcomes, and develop and implement discharge plans. Physical therapy can be provided only by qualified physical therapists (PTs) or by physical therapist assistants (PTAs) working under the supervision of a physical therapist. There are many fields of Physical therapy which a doctor is a specialist at orthopedic, geriatric, neurological, cardiopulmonary and pediatric. Physics and physical therapy. Physics is used on every patient as soon as a person walks into a door the Physical therapist will watch how a person moves. For example if a patient has knee pains he would watch how a patient is walking. If its shoulder pain the PT would look at their posture. The physical therapist uses kinetics and kinematics to see how the patient is moving. Kinetics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the relationship between motion and its causes, specifically, forces and torques. Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies, and systems of bodies without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion. Knowing this information he can see the timing when a muscle fires and the tissue quality which is judged by the elasticity of the tissue. These two things can limit or allow too much motion of the joint. Electric StimulationMuscle re-education through electrical muscle stimulation is used in the early stages of physical rehabilitation following an injury that has either left certain muscles unused for a long period of time, or that has affected the brain. The goals of this treatment are to build basic tone and strength in weakened muscles and to force the contraction of these muscles in a coordinated pattern to strengthen the cognitive link between the brain and the movements. After training with electrical stimulation, physical rehab patients can move on to more strenuous exercises to return muscles to their optimal strength. Muscle atrophy is a symptom characterized by decrease in muscle mass and can occur as a result of numerous medical conditions. Electrical muscle stimulation may be used to slow or prevent the effects of muscle atrophy by keeping weakened muscles active. This use is also FDA-approved. Osteoarthritis is a painful and sometimes debilitating condition caused by the degradation of joint tissues. According to a clinical study published in the “Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,” electrical muscle stimulation was found to be an effective component of physical therapy for elderly patients who developed hip osteoarthritis after total hip arthroplasty surgery. Also an important benefit for mobility and independence, electrical muscle stimulation can strengthen knee extensor muscles.Electrical muscle stimulation can effectively reduce the risk of pressure sores in prone patients. Pressure sores are common problems for patients who are bound to wheelchairs, beds and other equipment that results in constant pressure being applied to certain areas of the body. Electrical muscle stimulation can be applied to the gluteus maximus of wheelchair-bound participants. This treatment can produce significant results regarding the maintenance of proper buttock shape and avoidance of deformities, which may be effective in reducing the incidence of pressure sores. Electric muscle stimulation devices can be used to resemble resistance training and to strengthen your muscles. When you do weight training, the more resistance the higher the weight you are using the more muscle fibers are recruited for the muscle contraction. This effect can also be accomplished with the electronic stimulation device. You can change the electric current to mimic a forceful, high resistance or a gentle, low resistance muscle contraction. The faster the rate of the electric current, the “heavier” the resistance is to your muscles and the more muscle fibers will contract.Electrical simulation is used to stimulate injured muscle and tissue to initiate proper contraction after damage has occurred. Ultrasound is used to reduce pain and swelling. These treatment incorporate elements of electrical charges, circuits, and sound waves to aid in the healing process and ultimately speed up recovery. The purpose of electrical stimulation is to create a circuit through the injury site to stimulate the healing process and minimize pain and swelling. The frequency setting for electrical stimulation at a healing level is .3 Hz and the current is between 40-50 mA. To treat pain and swelling for an acute injury, you must set the frequency to 30 Hz and the current to between 500-600 mA.Power of e-stem device to begin healing process in muscles Know: power= (voltage) (current), P=VIVoltage= (current) (resistance), V=IR I=40 mA= o.o5 Amps, R= 110,000 Ohms Plan: P= (IR)*I        P=I^2*RCalc: P=(110,000) (0.05)^2        P= 275 Watts Result: 275 watts is the power needed by the e-stim device to induce increased amount of circulation at injured muscle site to aid the body’s natural healing process. The human bodies doesn’t feel the significant shock during the electrical stimulation because the human body has a resistance of 100,000 Ohms, so the minimal shocks from an e-stem device will not harm people. In some e-stem treatment, the athletic trainer completes the circuit themselves by placing one electrode on their own hand and placing the other on the patient. The person becomes part of the circuit. UltrasoundUltrasonic waves or sound waves of a high frequency that is not audible to the human ear are produced by means of mechanical vibration in the metal treatment head of the ultrasound machine. The treatment head is then moved over the surface of the skin in the region of the injury transmitting the energy into the tissues. When sound waves come into contact with air it causes a dissipation of the waves, and so a special ultrasound gel is placed on the skin to ensure maximal contact between the treatment head and the surface of the skin and to provide a medium through with the sound waves can travel. Ultrasound can also be applied under water which is also a medium for ultrasound waves to travel through. As the ultrasound waves pass from the treatment head into the skin they cause the vibration of the surrounding tissues, particularly those that contain collagen. This increased vibration leads to the production of heat within the tissue. In most cases this cannot be felt by the patient themselves. This increase in temperature may cause an increase in the extensibility of structures such as ligaments, tendons, scar tissue and fibrous joint capsules. In addition, heating may also help to reduce pain and muscle spasm and promote the healing process. Doctors employ ultrasound imaging in diagnosing a wide variety of conditions affecting the organs and soft tissues of the body, including the heart and blood vessels, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, uterus, ovaries, eyes, thyroid, and testicles.The purpose of ultrasound is to increase cellular metabolism and break down scar tissue, thus facilitating the healing process. The sound waves are inaudible and penetrate deeply, reflecting off bone and being absorbed into muscle and tendons. There are different levels to treat superficial muscles, you must use a frequency of 3.0 MHz (3.0 * 10^6 Hz). For deeper tissue, you must use a frequency of 1.0 MHz (10^6 Hz. Problem A lacrosse player was running a ball down the field when he stepped in a hole and twisted his ankle. His athletic trainer said he had a sprained ankle and decided that ultrasound would be the best treatment to reduce swelling. He sets the intensity to 1.0 kW/cm^2 and begins treating the ankle, which has ansurface area of about 17 cm^2. What is the energy required for ultrasound therapy?Find: Energy required for ultrasoundKnow: Energy= Power/Time Intensity= power/AreaIntensity= 1 kW/cm^2Area= 17 cm^2 (estimation)Time= 1s Plan: I=P/S, P=ISCalculate: P= (1 kW/ cm^2) (17cm^2)P= 17,000WE=P/T = (17,000 W)/ (1s)= 17,000JResult: Ultrasound therapy required 16,000J  


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