Integrated Automation using Arduino as Smoke Detecting Rover Using Rocker Bogie Mechanism
Introduction, Material and Methods
John Lyndon C. Esuerte
Aitana Mariqueta Gumban
Sequia J. Cortado
These days, people are still vigilant when it comes to disaster preventions. Specifically in fire prevention. People should view fire as a vulnerability and to pay close attention to fire as they are associated with natural disasters and view it in a broader risk management and disaster mitigation perspective according to the World Fire Statistics Center (WFSC). This kind of disastrous event happens anytime, anywhere. The whole world suffer this dilemma. Gina Daidone and Tina Moore indicated that fire deaths skyrocketed in 2017 to 73 people — as three massive blazes alone killed 21, including several children, FDNY officials said Thursday while releasing the official totals. The 2017 figure is a 52% increase over the record low of 48 people who died in fires in 2016.
Our country continues to experience disastrous fires, often marking some of the worst fire incidents in history. May 13, 2015, a fire broke out at the Kentex Manufacturing in Valenzuela City, wherein 74 people died after being trapped inside the burning shoes-and-slippers factory. It is the third worst fire incident in the Philippines after the 1996 Ozone Disco Club fire that killed 162 people and the 2001 Manor Hotel fire that led to the death of 75 people. Those who survived these incidents are left jobless and investments of these company turned to ashes and smoke. (Mayuga, 2018)
Homes in Compostela Valley Province have also been a victim of fire. Each household has a one in four chances of having a home fire large enough to be reported to a fire department during an average lifetime. Someone in your household also has a one in ten chance of suffering a fire injury in a home fire an average lifetime. Roughly one in every 320 households per year had a reported home fire during this five-year period. These fires caused an estimated average of 2,570 civilian deaths, 13,210 civilian injuries, and $7.2 billion in direct property damage per year. Stated by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
But because of technology, the increasing percentage of fire incidents have been tamed. Robotics had come out of nowhere and rapidly changed the world. Smoke detectors are now available in every market and people can use it to strenghten their safety and security. Now smoke detectors can be bought in every malls and hardware stores. With the abrupt adaptation of curious minds, it led way to new innovations that has a broad speculation in helping people. Some researches suggested a rover can be a smoke detecting instrument. All of them were tested and find it helpful in the society. Sadly not all can avail these technologies. Because of its advancement and innovation, it is sold at a high-price. Even smoke detectors is costly. Big cities could easily avail smoke detectors but what about the localities? Not all homes can avail highpriced technology. Specially in Compostela Valley. And fire mostly started in crowded places. This is the reason why invention is needed to maintain the security of everyone and to surpass the fire problem. This study would benefit not only the homes of every people but also in public places such as schools and terminals. Creating an innovated rover that can detect smoke, heat, humidity and temperature. The said invention will not only decrease the fatality caused by fire but also implements the no smoking policy.
Materials and Methods
Phase 1: Collection and Preperation of Materials
Sensors and other electronic materials to be used are Arduino products. These will be the prepared materials: 6 Arduino wheels, Arduino MEGA and UNO (Motherboard) with USB cable, breadboard, small slide switch, motor driver, 6 motors, servos (SG90), a plastic arm (used to elevate), ultrasonic sensor, CMQ-7 Carbon monoxide sensor, male to female jumper wires, female to female jumper wires, electronic tool kit, temperature and humidity sensor, 4 AA batteries , 4-slot battery (AA), battery charger, soldering iron, glue gun and bolts with washer and nuts. A 20 ft. PP-R Pipe (1/2) , 45 degree PP-R Elbows, 90 degree PP-R Elbows, rulers, 3 inch by 1 inch plain wood. Most of the electronic materials will be purchased in Createlabz Store, C.M. Recto Ave. The other materials for the chassis will be purchased in local hardware stores.
Phase 2: Chassis Assembly
First to build is the chassis (rocker-bogie) by cutting the pipe into specific measurements. Before directly attaching the pipes to the elbows, both of them will be heated first by a heater to fit in the hole. The joint on the front of the rover, two 11 cm pipe will be connected to the 90° elbow. The middle part of the 90° elbow will be drilled. Same thing will be done to the other joint. Then to the back leg of the chassis, both ends of an 11 cm pipe will be connected to the each 45° elbow. Next, a 20 cm pipe will be connected to the right hole of a 45° elbow that will serve as a back leg. A 4 cm pipe will be connected to the left hole of the 45° elbow. Same procedure will be done to the other leg of the rover. Then 2 holes will be drilled in the straight elbow to connect it to the front joints of the rover by using a 7 cm metal bracket. The brackets will be drilled and secured by bolts with nuts and washer. For the legs to be stable, a square-shaped pipe will be formed by connecting each 4 cm pipe to each 90° elbow. Then the square-shaped pipe will be drilled on each side together with the 2 legs of the rover then the pipes will be secured by the bolts with nuts and washer. This will balance the whole rover. The plastic arm will be installed and secured with bolts. The arm will not move without the help of the servo. Then a 7 by 5 inch plastic box will be assembled for the storage of the motherboard and breadboards.
Phase 3: Electronic Assembly
The DC motors will placed on their corresponding positions. They are placed in each leg. Then all motors will be attached to the chassis. In placing the Arduino MEGA and UNO (microcontroller), the screws will be secured and placed in the box together with the breadboard. The battery holder will be secured with its appropriate screws together with the motor driver. Batteries will be inserted. Then the black and red wires will be connected to the dc connector and the dc connector will be connected to the MEGA board.
In assembling the ultrasonic sensor together with the SG90 servo, first the servo will be placed into its holder and secured with a screw. Then the ultrasonic sensor will be placed in the front of the chassis. Then the motors will be wired to the motor driver . In wiring the Servo: GND to GND, VCC to 5V and S to the Pin 9. In connecting the Ultrasonic sensor: the VCC will be wired to the 5V pin of Arduino, the GND of the sensor to the GND of Arduino, the echo line will be connected to pin signal pin 8 and the trigger line will be connected to the the signal pin 9. In wiring the mode switch, female to female jumper wires will be needed and its connectors will be removed. Then about 30 mm will be stripped. The wire will be tinned and soldered using the soldering iron. In soldering the wires to each terminal: connect the CENTER wire of the switch to PIN 2 on the sensor shield ,connect the RIGHT wire of the switch to a VCC line on the sensor shield, connect the LEFT wire of the switch to a GND line on the sensor shield.
For the supply power of the rover: connect the GND to GND, VCC to 5V and S to Pin 9 power select jumper on the sensor shield if it has one, connect the GND pin on the L9110s to the GND column on the breadboard, connect the VCC pin on the L9110s to the VCC column on the breadboard, connect the 4 AA or 9v battery to the 2.1mm power jack of the Arduino , connect one line from a GND pin on the sensor shield to one pin-hole in a column on the breadboard (not the same as the VCC column).
For the connection of GSM module we will gonna use male to male jumper wires. Connect GND to GND, VCC to VIN, Rx to Tx, Tx to Rx.
Lastly, the researchers will gather all the codes to generate the rover using the Arduino Integrated Development Environment app in a computer or laptop.
Phase 4: Programming
The robotic program that the researchers will be using is the Arduino software. The program will work depend on where the pins are connected and the codes that are about to be used. The researchers will merge all of the codes needed and program it for the rover to work.
Phase 5: Preliminary Testing
This study will use Quantitative Efficiency Test. It will determine the whether the results showed are agreeable or not. This study will perform 4 tests: Efficiency test, Accuracy test, Speed of Alarm Transmission test and Stability test. Where each test will be tested 5 times.
The first test will be efficiency test. Under this test, sensors will be tested on how efficient they react with their corresponding purposes on different radius as well as the speed of detection. The researchers will apply different distances to know if it affects the performance of the sensors.
The second test will be the accuracy of the sensors. Under this, sensors will be tested on how accurate the signal each sensor recieved. The purpose of this is to accurately detect smoke whether you consider it as a danger or not. Ultrasonic sensor is under this test. This will include the obstacle avoidance test. This will determine the capability of the rover to diffrentiate obstacles and avoid them. The performance of the ultrasonic sensor along with the rover will be noted.
Speed of Alarm Transmission:
The third test will be the speed of alarm transmission. Under this test, GSM module will be tested on how fast transmits the alarm. The GSM module will also correlate with other sensors. The said module will depend on the sensitivity of the sensors
The fourth test will be about the stability of the rover. The robot will have to try different terrains. Concrete, roughroad and places that are elevated. The speed of the robot will also be tested in different conditions. Under this test will be the rocker bogie mechanism of the rover. This test wil show the researchers how stable the robot can be in performing it’s tasks. This will help the rover for easy climbing in stairs and obstacles that are smaller than the rover.
Phase 6: Quality Assurance
The rover’s quality will be determined after it would undergo different tests such as: Efficiency test, Accuracy test, Speed of Alarm Transmission, Stability Test. Part of these tests are the checking of proper wirings of all electrical components down to its power source, reviewing and troubleshooting of codes used to generate the rover and fixing of loss and errors in the chassis and electrical assembly. The commands for the rover to execute will be compiled and verified using Arduino IDE until there’s no error in statements and the prototype executes its purposes. The rover’s performance will be observed and the data results will be collected. The data gathered by the researchers will conclude whether the prototype could detect a smoke that may cause a fire or not.
Troubleshooting will be essential for the performance of the rover. After troubleshoooting. the codes will be uploaded to the Arduino Mega (microcontroller). The rover will function and perform the desired movements and innovations if there are no complications in uploading the code. But when the rover will not properly function, review and troubleshooting will be repeated. This will be done inorder to finalize the prototype as well as fixing the problems if there are any.
Phase 7: Final Testing
The final testing is the repition of preliminary testing, researchers will set goals to each 4 tests conducted in the study. In conducting the efficiency test, the researchers will apply different distances to know if it affects the performance of the sensors. The accurancy test will test on how accurate the signal each sensor received. In conducting the Speed of Alarm Transmission test researchers will be testing on how fast GSM module transmits message. Ultrasonic and carbon monoxide sensors’s performance along with the rover is olso tested. The stability test will show the reserchers the stability of the rover in performing the tasks. To measure the battery’s lifespan of the rover, different number of hours will be set for each trial to determine how long they provide power to the rover.
Testing Procedures No. of tests
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5
Speed of Alarm Transmission Test
Phase 8: Risk and Safety
In assembling the chassis, the researchers are required to wear protective equipments. Gloves and goggles were used to ensure safety. In cutting the pipes, the researcher is required to ask for assistance to an adult. In connecting the wires, the researchers are aware that following safety guidelines is a must and should be followed to avoid destroying the materials.