In of the abuse. Richard Ofshe a

In 1988, Paul Ingram was accused of  sexually abusing his daughters during  their childhood. Paul denied those allegations at initially  but after being interrogated by the police and the therapists he could suddenly remember fragments of the abuse.  Richard Ofshe a psychologist thought this confession as a result of false memory implantation. He told Paul a made up another allegation by their kids and asked Paul to try and recall as much as he can about that event.

At first, Paul couldn’t   remember right away but later could remember what happened vividly and gave a confession and later his children confirmed to Ofshe that event never happened, Ingram has created an entirely false memory.  Ofshe considered this memory implantation evidence of Paul Ingram’s suggestibility and its opinion it questions that carry accuracy of Ingram’s other confessions The above-given case is a perfect example of False memory Implantation or Reconstructive memory and that makes memory vulnerable One of the famous experiment of reconstructive memory/ false memory implantation was carried on by Elizabeth Lofte. The Experiment had of 45 people participating. In the laboratory and each participant were to watch a video clip of an accident for about 5-30 seconds, after that the participants were asked to describe what they saw. Then the participants were asked   questions with careful words. The main question was “what was the speed of the car when it _______ against each other ?”   The careful words were Contacted, Hit, Bumped,  Smashed, Collided.

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  The claim is to see that if  change in verb has an effect on the participants’ answer. The participants who were asked the question with the word “smashed” or “collided” answered the car went against each other at  a high speed, the participants who were asked the question with the word “hit” or “contacted ” answered that the speed was the car did not go at  a high speed. This experiment showed that memory can be played with if persuaded properly with even just words. We take knowledge we have, we make assumptions we have about how things work and take actual data we retrieved and We pull all those together and we have a nice replay of memory, but the problem with  human memory is we have trouble distinguishing between actual memory and the assumptions we have , it seems concrete to us but most of our  memory we have is mostly assumptions overlayed on. Sadly Paul Ingrim was a victim of that and he himself confirmed those allegations. That’s one of the reasons there is a person present in the court to check if the lawyer is trying to carefully word his sentences  the witness because the trail may depend on the witness testimony and that cannot be controlled by the lawyerThere are many Paul Ingrims in the world believing something they never did.



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