In this era medical imaging modalities become more advanced among medical areas like plain radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and dental radiography etc. radiation is the most powerful tool that used in medical imaging to diagnose purposes (Arkadiusz Szarmach et al., 2015). Radiation can be categorized into two approaches; they are ionizing radiation and nonionizing radiation. The use of ionizing radiations for the diagnose diseases and make decisions based on these imaging modalities. According that usage of ionizing radiation, those who deal with radiation hazard must be aware of these imaging modalities and concern of radiation protection. Radiation can also directly ionize or damage DNA and other biologic molecules: RNA, proteins, lipids. ( Colosi & ColosI, 2011).
Medical imaging tests are non-invasive procedures that let doctors to diagnose diseases and injuries and to see inside the body in order to diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. Some of these tests allow exposure to ionizing radiation which can present risks to patients. Although medical staff or other staff who are working with ionizing radiation should have a proper knowledge on minimum radiation dose and high radiation protection methods. Ionizing radiation may effect on the gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, gonads or even the whole body (Mojiri & Moghimbeigi, 2011). Several medical procedures, including angiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography and radiographic imaging, utilize ionizing radiation. The primary purpose of radiological imaging is to achieve the optimum quality image using the minimum possible dose. Therefore, it is extremely important to consider the safety of both the patient and the medical professional performing the procedures. In addition, it has been identified that healthcare personnel often do not have sufficient knowledge about the risks posed by x-ray exposure and the measures that should be taken to get serious those risks (Ay?egül Yurt et al .,2014).
Medical uses of ionizing radiation involve all three categories of exposure,
• Occupational exposure for those involved in the performance of radiological procedures
• medical exposure, primarily for the patients undergoing the radiological procedures, but also for cares and comforters and for volunteers subject to exposure as part of a programme of medical research
• public exposure for members of the public, such as in waiting rooms
The requirements for radiation protection and safety can be classified into category of exposure. Although the adverse health effects of ionizing radiation such as cataract, skin erythema, and cancers among others, are known to vary according to the dose and duration of exposure, it is assumed that there is actually no safe dose of ionizing radiation (k.J awosan, 2016). In developing nations, more recent studies show that about 3.6 billion imaging studies per year are carried out worldwide, leading to an increase of 70% in worldwide collective effective dose for medical diagnostic procedures.. All radiology field workers require appropriate monitoring, as well as protection tools and equipment. They must also receive education and training relevent to their jobs. The level of training should be based on the level of risk.
International bodies, e.g. the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognize the importance and necessity of education and training in radiation hazards and safety measures, especially with regards to deterministic effects. Many studies have pointed at the poor knowledge among health care professional on radiation protection due to insufficient tranning.. One of the reasons for inadequate knowledge could be of not having basic training programs (Mynalli, 2017).
According to this survey, main point is assessment of awareness level of radiation protection and knowledge of dose levels, risks among medical staff who engaged with ionizing radiation at their workplace. It is most important because there should be a significant increase in knowledge about radiation to protect patients health and improve their knowledge to avoid radiation hazard that affects the adverse effects on medical personnel.