In addition, agenda setting is also important because of how itrelates to priming. Priming refers to the phenomenon that the issues thatpeople judge to be important often become the criteria by which they evaluatepoliticians (e.g., Krosnick & Kinder, 1990). Meaning any factor affectingpublic agendas has the possible potential of affecting politically relevant factorssuch as a president’s approval.Agenda setting and priming concern the issues that are onpeople’s minds.
Framing, in contrast, is concerned with presenting the issuesor events and the degree to which the nature of that presentation can affect orhad affected people’s opinions about the issue. In the word of Druckman’s(2001), “A framing effect occurs when in the course of describing an issue orevent, a speaker’s emphasis on a subset of potentially relevant considerationscauses individuals to focus on these considerations when constructing theiropinions” (p. 1042).Druckman (2001) has dedicated an entire line of research that qualifiesclaims about the popularity and force of framing. In one study, he found thatthe credibility of the media source matters in how effective a frame can be. Forexample, information that is presented as coming from the New York Times had amuch greater effect than the same information when presented as coming from alesser known source called the National Enquirer. This shows to the largerpoint that one shouldn’t speak about media effects in general terms.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
Rather,one should think about the effects of specific types of information, when presentedin certain ways, by a certain source, to a specific audience, and also undercertain circumstances.Another important point to consider, especially in regards to framing,is that frames seldom have monopoly status (Nelson & Kinder, 1996). If oneparty or candidate frames an issue in a certain way, the opposite side willlikely try to find a different way to frame the issue, which just might beequally or more compelling. This of course then forces people to balance these differentframes.