In Chapter one, the focus is on the Party’s ideology of hatred, and how hatred and fear, as promoted by the Party, empower it and allow it to stay in control.
At the center of the chapter’s discussion is the Two Minutes Hate. The significance of the Two Minutes Hate lies in its purpose, which is to create dependence on the Party by spreading fear through the threat of an external enemy, be it Eastasia, Eurasia or Emmanuel Goldstein and his Brotherhood. Fear in the shape of paranoia also dominates the thought processes of the Outer Party members, as any aberrant behavior is reported to the Thought Police. Freedom of speech, thought and assembly are associated with the enemy, which in turn delegitimizes these concepts as viable alternatives to Big Brother and the Party’s grasp on power. Also, the Party offers the only accepted emotional outlet for Party members, the Two Minutes Hate, which offers a form of pleasure to the audience.
The result of these machinations is that the Party creates dependence, as the Party members seek protection from the enemy. The Party also offers comfort, and is the only comfort allowed to its members, as the familial bonds have been eradicated. In the second chapter, the focus lies on Winston Smith and his resistance to the Party, as well as his relationship to Julia.
Winston’s misogyny is discussed, and it is found to be related to the Party’s deliberate alienation of the sexes, as not only are familial bonds eroded, but also the very concept of romantic or sexual relationships between men and women, as distrust is grown, leading to, in Winston’s case, sexual frustration and hatred for women. Additionally, the chapter discusses unconscious and conscious hate in Winston, suggesting that his ability to control and direct his hate on an unconscious level is derived from the Party, which has fostered such an ability in Winston. The unconscious hate can be directed toward any enemy, which is a powerful tool for the Party, as it allows for countless threats and enemies to the Party, all of which can be used to keep it in control, as the population is rallied against whatever opposes the Party.
The chapter concludes that Winston’s mind has been breached, and that his rebellion and his feelings of hate are manipulated by the Party. If hatred has guided Winston all along, his rebellion offers little hope for the future of Oceania. Winston is a man that believes he is truly free, and because of his belief he rebels so that others might free themselves.
He is not free, because most of his emotions and his thoughts are manipulated by the Party. His rebellion is ultimately false, and it is not just because it is likely that the Party gave him the tools and the motivation to act, but because it is based on hatred. I do not think that hatred, born from fear, paranoia and distrust, if it is found in the core of a resistance movement against an authority, can ever be considered morally or ethically right. Hatred begets hatred; it is similar to fighting fire with fire. The ends do not justify the means.