I works and so on, petrochemicals may

I have commissioned the site investigation work, thefindings of the geotechnical engineers have shown that the site has land filldebris to a depth of 6 metres, with subsequent contamination of the soil. Thisdesign report will be for the proposed light industrial/commercial buildings.The buildings will be framed with cladding, of various sizes. Some will be leftas a shell with basic services others will be fitted out with offices onmezzanine floors.RemediationAs the site was previously used as a landfill site, engineershave shown that the site has land fill debris to a depth of 6 metres, withsubsequent contamination of the soil. These contaminants may include chemicalssuch as acids, alkalis, paint works and so on, petrochemicals may also becontaminating the soil with things such as hydrocarbons and asbestos fromthings like fuel storage.

Metals are very likely to have contaminated the soilwith metals like Fe, Cu, Zn and even asbestos from iron or steel works fromthings like old car parts. This makes the Rutherford Way land a brownfieldsite.There are 3 main categories of contaminated land remediationthese are removal of contaminated material, site engineering and In SituTreatment. The removal or remediation of these contaminants is costly asprofessionals are needed to dispose or contain the contaminants correctly. Themethods of removal of contaminate can be the traditional approach which will bethrough digging up and disposing the soil, this method is affective but movesthe problem from one place to another also because of this transportation costswill be high.

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The next method of treatment is site engineering solution thiswill be containing the contaminants by using impermeable barriers such asmembranes and capping to create a barrier between the contaminated soil andclean soil. This can be costly to get professionals to contain the soilcorrectly and safely. Another form of treatment is In-situ immobilisation of amaterial by washing, transforming or separating the soil they all change thenature of the contaminate to make it safe. Examples of this method arebioremediation which enhances actions of microorganisms to ‘eat’ thecontaminates. Soil washing when soils are washed with detergents to cleancontaminates out. Vitrification, when the ground is electrocuted to reach hightemperatures and make solid. All these methods are costly as the price forprofessionals, labour, plant and tools will need to be taken intoconsideration.

For the site at Rutherford Way previously used as a landfillsite I recommend to use the method of bioremediation to minimise and controlthe current contamination of the soil on the site. This method of remediationworks by using microbes and microorganisms to consume the contaminants andconverting them into water and carbon dioxide. This is an environmentalfriendly approach to remediating the soil as it uses natural processes to getthe end result of safe uncontaminated soil.

However, conditions for this mustbe right with an adequate temperature, nutrients and oxygen. If some soil isuntreated the soil can be excavated and placed over perforated piping this iswhen air is pumped through pipes to enhance the process. With the rightmicrobes and microorganisms used they can get rid of petrochemical, oils, heavymetals and many more contaminants. According to: (Chudley and Greeno, 2006)     Foundations – Substructure The standard type offoundation that is most commonly used to support a steel portal frame buildingis a pad foundation. These are constructed with concrete and reinforced withsteel rebar, they are usually in a cube shape with a simple design.

However,this type of foundation isn’t suitable with the soil at the Rutherford Way siteas they are simple not deep enough and don’t allow for variations in the soil.Another type offoundation that could possibly be used for this development is a raftfoundation, this type of substructure is very effective at spreading the loadof the superstructure around the larger base of the foundations to reduce theload per unit area being imposed on the soil making it suitable to use with lowbearing soils. This is constructed of a reinforced concrete raft which issimple in design and also simple in construction. However, this form ofsubstructure tends to be wasteful in the amount of concrete used in itsconstruction and isn’t used often for a portal frame building but for buildingswith masonry load bearing block or brick walls which the new proposal won’t usebut would be a suitable foundation to use if selected.As the site has contaminated soil up to 8m a form of pileswould be the most suitable form of substructure to use to support the load ofthe superstructure and other loads.

After remediation of the soil it is stillpossible for some of the soil to not be able to take the loads of thefoundations this then limits the types of foundations you can use in yourdevelopment. Piles are foundations which can effectively transfer the loads ofthe steel portal frames and other loads through the weak (previouslycontaminated soil) down to much stronger and stable soils capable of supportingsuch loads without failure.  A form of pilefoundation is replacement piles also known as bored piles these are constructedby a hole being bored into the ground to the required depth, then the void madebeing with either reinforcement of insitu concrete. This type of pile does whatit says in the name the pile will replace the soil it is in.

replacementfoundations are typically used in cohesive soils and when the site is locatedclose to other buildings as displacement piles, may move the neighbouringfoundations causing them problems. However, on the Rutherford Way site this isnot necessary as no buildings are too close, making other methods offoundations more suitable.For the substructure of the steel portal frame buildings Ibelieve the best option would be displacement piles. This foundation type willuse long columns driving into the ground to transmit the loads of the structureto a lower level of subsoil 8m deep that wouldn’t have previously beencontaminated. This foundation works by being driven into the ground displacingsubsoil through which it passes.

This is one of the more cost-efficient formsof piles as the process of construction is quite simple with basically a cranedropping a weight onto the pile column forcing it to go down into the soil, thisprocess is repeated until the pile has been driven into desired depth or cannotgo any further into the soil. The piles will then disrepute the loads into theground. The actual column of the pile will usually be made from concrete withsome form of steel reinforcement inside for added strength. The piles can thenbe joined above ground using concrete beam or pads placed above this thenallows the structure to sit on top of the foundations.       Frame – SuperstructureTheir a number of different frames you can use as thesuperstructure of a building a few of the most common are wooden frame,concrete frame and steel frame. Wooden FrameAwooden frame building is likely to be made out of timber as it’s a strong andcheap wood compared to other variety’s. This form of frame can be one such ascross laminated timber (CLT) where TLC panels just slot together around atimber frame, these panels are made in a controlled environment of site.

Thestructure of a timber frame can vary but will use beams normally timber andcolumns to support the structure, then connected together using glues and nails.However, this is unlikely to be used for an industrial building due to thematerials property’s.    Concrete FrameConcrete can also be used to create a frame, this will bemade by pouring the concrete into formwork to mould the concrete and steelreinforcement in the concrete for added strength. The formwork may be pre-madeof site and put together on site after concrete will be poured into theformwork and once dry the concrete will take the mould of the formwork. Theframe will also use columns and beams to support the structure. A concreteframe is more likely to be used for an industrial building due to itsproperty’s and strength.

         Steel FrameThe last example Ihave given is a steel frame this is constructed by bolting the steel columnsinto the concrete pad, the columns can then be bolted to the steel rafters tocreate the roof. One of the positives of a steel frame is that it can cover alarge volume of space with minimal columns or support separating or obstructingthe open space, this makes it an ideal construction method when creatingindustrial or commercial buildings. This is one of the most common frames foran industrial building and the type of frame I would recommend on using foryour development.

Some of the buildings will be fitted with offices, these willbe located on mezzanine floors. The offices will be separated using studinterior walls followed with plaster board and then finished with paint. Theoffices will also have fully working electrics including sockets and lighting.They also may need radiators for heating only in the offices. The offices canbe added to the building by creating a mezzanine floor within the structure, thisis when the wasted space above is used by a 1st floor being added, it’s spanwon’t cover the whole surface area of the room.

This can be built similar tothe superstructure using steel columns and bolted into the concrete floor, thenhorizontal beams to support the wooden flooring. A steel staircase will beadded to reach the mezzanine 1st floor from the ground floor. As some of the buildings will be just the shell of the steelportal frame, this means the services will be capped off but accessible for thebuyer/user if needed. For the units with just a shell I recommend the steelframe to be a symmetrical pitched roof portal framed building.        Some of the steel portal frame will need all services fittedin and offices located within building. For these types of units, I recommend asymmetrical pitched roof portal frame with an internal mezzanine floor. Both varieties of steel frame will have metal cladding onthe exterior of the building, this will create the buildings envelope.

Theshell and the fitted portal frame will both need to provide a controlledenvironment that protects workers or occupants from the weather. The use of thebuilding will determine the internal environment needed and what kind andspecification of cladding will be needed. The walls and the roof will needcladding fitted around the building on all faces.  https://www.

steelconstruction.info/Building_envelopesThe walls of the frame can be cladded in an outer layer ofsteel sheet with weather proof paint, this layer will act as the weather prooflayer making the building water tight. A cavity that contains insulation willact as the layer that helps insulate the building helping keep the warm air inand the cold air out. Then an internal leaf of steel liner sheet to make thecavity wall, this layer acts as the finishes with other finishes may also beadded such as paint. Finally, metal fasteners will be added to hold the 3 maincomponents of the cladding together and fixed in place to the bracing, columns,purlins etc. The roof cladding will very similar to the wall cladding maybeeven the same just different finishes in colour. http://www.cwct.

co.uk/design/options.htmExample of Cladding         Primary services will be brought onto the site from the roadwayElectricity, gas and mains drainage are available on thenearby main road.Drainage – Drainage pipes are usually laid under the road soyour plans and designs must suit the existing drainage plan and be able toconnect to it this is a factor you will need to consider when designing yourbuildings and layout.

These drains will usually start from the building goinginto gully’s or allocated drainage areas, from there an underground drain pipeusually made from clay or plastic will transport the drainage water to the maindrain pipes in the road, these main road pipes will then lead the water to asewer or treatment site, where the water will be cleaned to use again.Water supply – Clean water will start its journey from areservoir where all the clean water will be stored once filtered and treated.The water will then be pumped from the reservoir to underground water mainpipes usually in the roads, from the mains a service line pipe connects thewater to the building, a water metre will be in that pipe to monitor water useand so the water companies know how much water you are using.

Everything pastthe water metre is the building owners responsibility and the water metre andeverything past that is the water companies responsibility. Electricity – Electricity will traditionally come from thenational grid. It tends to start its journey at a nuclear power station,hydroelectric plant, solar farm, wind farm and a variety of other sources ofenergy. Once the energy has been created and transformed into electricity theelectricity will run through wires to the step-up transformer, this transformerraises the pressure so it can travel long distances. The electric current thenruns through power lines to a substation where the pressure is then lowered. Therewill be a substation close to the site as the land sits on a commercial/lightindustrial area.

The electricity then goes to either a pole transformer or atransformer box and the pressure is then lowered again. From here theelectricity then goes to the building to a service box which measures how muchelectricity you use. According to: (Electricity-guide.org.

uk, 2018)Gas – gas will traditionally come from drilling deep intothe earth where pumps will then extract the natural gas from the ground to theearths surface. The gas then travels through pipes underground called gasmains. Pipes leading of from the mains then transport the gas through pipes toa building where they will reach a metre that measures how much gas youuse.    Primary services distribution in the buildingsAs some of the buildings on the site will be just the shellof the building this means all services will be capped off with easy access tothe building if required. However a number of the buildings will be fitted outwith services and offices this then requires they must have all services in thebuilding working to be used.Drainage – There will be a number of different drainagepoints in the buildings. The first being surface water drainage this will becollected from the roof using gutter systems which will lead to drains anddrains in the pavements and roads which will collect the water. Fowl or wastewater will come from things such as sinks and basins and waste water that doesnot contain excreta.

Soil water comes from urinals and toilets with water thatdoes contain excreta. Both foul and soil will connect to a soil and vent pipethat works by letting gasses vent out of the top and the drainage water drainaway down pipes to an inspection chamber that will connect the pipes together,the pipes will then lead to mains sewer work.Water supply – The fully fitted buildings will need both a coldwater and hot water supply in the building, this will be used for things suchas sinks using cold and hot water, also water to the toilet will be needed tobe able to flush it.

Ducts with plastic pipes inside will be placed into thehard-standing floor normally 750mm below ground to avoid freezing. These pipeswill connect to the mains water supply that is already available from existingmains in the roads. The ducts and pipes will then come to the surface wheretoilets and sinks will be, either sticking out of the ground and capped off forthe shell buildings or more plumbing work connecting the utility’s such assinks and toilets so they are fully functioning.Electricity – In thebuildings with offices they will be fitted out with fully functioning electrics.These will include things like lighting in the main building and lighting inthe offices on the mezzanine floor, electric sockets, fire alarm system,security systems, phone line and internet. The lighting in the building will berun of electricity this means wires will be needed to connect the lights andswitches, things such as cable trays will be used to tidy up the wiring. Thesecable trays may be connected to beams and columns inside the building withfurther sheet materials and finishes added to cover up the wiring completely.

This technique of hiding and tidying up the wires may be used for most of theelectrical wires inside the buildings. In the offices this method isn’t likelyto work as a separate environment is needed to work in, it is likely the wiringwill be hide vertically behind the plaster board in the stud walls of theoffices. A distribution board or an industrial fuse box will be used in thebuildings as a circuit breaker and a main switch capable of turning off allelectricity in the building.Gas – Gas will be capped off in both the shells and thefully fitted buildings with offices as gas isn’t usually required in industrialbuildings. However, if the buildings do require a gas supply throughout thebuilding the gas shall pass through copper pipes.

Inside the offices theenvironment will be different to the open industrial working space, this meansthe offices will need to be heated. The heating in offices will come fromradiators. 

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