Hypertension, blood pressure is a condition in which

Hypertension, also known as high or raised blood pressure is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently raised pressure.Essential hypertension is the most frequent type of hypertension in adults (95%) and is defined in adults as systolic BP (SBP) ?140 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) ?90 mm Hg. An SBP ?120 mm Hg or DBP ?80 indicates prehypertension.Essential or primary hypertension is generally considered a disease of adulthood, with a prevalence of 30%, and although it is thought to be less common in children, it has its beginnings in childhood.There is growing evidence that mild blood pressure (BP) elevations are much more common among children and adolescents than previously thought, and BP abnormalities in youth frequently translate into adult hypertension (HTN), what is known as the tracking phenomenon.

The presence of hypertensive disease among children and adolescents is rising, with a prevalence ranging from 3% to 5% now reported in some populations. This rise in hypertension has been largely attributed to the obesity epidemic also being observed in developed countries and places a growing number of children at risk for the early development of hypertensive sequelae, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure.4By the time the diagnosis of essential hypertension is made in adulthood, considerable damage may have already occurred to the arterial system, heart, and other organs as a result of long-standing high BP, the changes of which are already evident in childhood.

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Evidence of target organ damage, such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and pathological vascular changes have been found even in young children and in children with newly diagnosed high BP.Even subtle neurological changes, which manifest as reduced cognitive function, have also been detected among children with high BP.Therefore, early recognition of such a prevalent and critical healthcare issue can be significant in reducing the associated morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis of hypertension in children is more complicated than in adults and thus remains frequently underdiagnosed.The new CPG for screening and management of high BP in children and adolescents was recently published in 2017 Pediatrics. This CPG was developed using the rigorous evidence-based approach recommended by the Institute of Medicine in 2011.

Longitudinal studies predicted that as many as 7% of prehypertensive children per year will progress to hypertension. Redwine et al found that the ”at-risk for hypertension,” which included patients who were either prehypertensive at baseline or who had an elevated BP that normalized prior to completing baseline screening had an even higher rate of progression to hypertension.The worldwide prevalence of pre-hypertension among children and adolescents is not known. Despite the number of studies that have been performed on quantifying Pediatric Hypertension prevalence, the prevalence of pediatric elevated BP worldwide is difficult to establish because of the regional differences in the definition, the distribution of reference BP data and the methods of BP measurement. Data on the Indian subcontinent is still lacking as cited in many studies, except for a few scattered, single centred studies from school going children of rural and urban areas of Karnataka, Shimla , Kerala and Wardha.Hence this community based study is being planned with the following aim and objectives.


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