How can integration be achieved Theorists has integrated three approaches on how integration can be achieved. The approaches include Multi-disciplinary integration, interdisciplinary integration and transdisciplinary integration. The multi-disciplinary approach allows the combination of different subjects during on lesson.
There are many ways to integrate the multi-disciplinary curriculum. The outline of the different approaches can be integrated around a theme. Once u have a theme the various subjects can be integrated into a lesson such as Music, Drama, Physical Education, Art, Mathematics and Home Language. The Approach allows us to integrate real life situations which require knowledge of several different subjects. During the use of this approach it encourages students to apply their prior and future knowledge in a more interactive and hands on approach. There are 6 steps in which you can achieve a multi-disciplinary lesson.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
The first step is pre-instructional planning, if you are teaching alone you need to make sure that you have all the materials needed from the different subject areas. You need to introduce the students to the method of teaching. Explain to them why the subject have different approaches to understanding it. When delivering the lesson make sure that when you teach your content it is clear so that the learners can understand the connections and points of how they relate together. In order to achieve an effective integrated curriculum. Make sure that your lesson include authenticity which includes a unit of real world context which can address issues that matter to the students. Apply learning where teamwork, problem solving and communication takes place. An interdisciplinary is when individuals integrate knowledge and modes of thinking in more than just one discipline, so that the students can create products, ask questions, solve problems and give them explanation of the world and their surroundings through single disciplinary means.
There are four elements that are structured in the interdisciplinary approach. Knowledge, which the ability to use relationships, theories and concepts. Methods which allows the students the ability to research methods, evidence and use their creation.
Purpose, which the knowledge can be used. Form the ability to use the language in forms of communication by writing essays, art work and scientific reports. The approach provides opportunities for students in the best way that they can by including a variety of learning and reporting. The learners are involved in making decisions themselves which is based on a study or topic. The approach encourages learners to think of questions based on their research.
Piaget described the young children as centred. In a young child’s mind, isolated concept tend to remain unrelated to the previous fund of knowledge. Transdisciplinary integration is based on an organised curriculum around a student’s concerns and questions.
The students develop life skills as they engage themselves with real life situations. There are two structures that can lead to a transdisciplinary integration. Project based learning and negotiating the curriculum. Studies of project-based programs show that students go far beyond the minimum effort, make connections among different subject areas to answer open-ended questions, retain what they have learned, apply learning to real-life problems, have fewer discipline problems, and have lower absenteeism (Curtis, 2002).Project based learning is when the student take on issues of a local problem. Project based learning can be involved in three steps. One the teacher need to provide topics on which the students are interested in, where teacher then finds out questions based on the child’s interest so that they can generate questions to explore. The students will then work together by completing activities and evaluating them afterwards.
The Product helps the students to make connections between the different subjects by asking questions, take in what they have learnt and apply them to real life situations. Negotiating the curriculum is when the students questions forms the basis of a curriculum by teaching methods, completing assessments around a topic or them that interest them. According to James Beane (1990, 1993,1997) “the theme revolves around personal growth and social issues. The Multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches integrate with each other because it allows deeper levels of connections with the students and as soon as they make connections another set appears.
The approaches provides the boundaries of students. The multi-disciplinary integration are discipline procedures which are dominant such as critical thinking. The interdisciplinary approach believes that maths and literature need to be rich in context. While transdisciplinary organize a curriculum around a real world context. The three different approaches will only exist if the teachers choose to integrate in order for the learners to make deeper connection as they become more experienced in what they do. No approach is suitable or advisable, they seem more as standard based planning, which is effective teaching and learning processes. Preparation to achieve integrationThe educator needs to intentionally bring in other subjects into their lesson. She/he need to make sure that all subjects are being taught equally and not 50% of the one and 20% of the other.
She needs to do research on a topic or theme that the students can relate to, something that is in their everyday surroundings and environment. The lesson can be taught in the classroom or outside area. When the educator is planning a lesson she need to take into consideration what the students are interested in.
in order to achieve this she needs to research, but at the same she needs to bear in mind that the topic or theme that she chooses provides enough knowledge and content that allow the students to think future, learn something from what they already know and apply that knowledge in the future. The integrated lesson must also include the CAPs curriculum. Another way of preparing to achieve integration is by partnering up with other teachers which covers up the same topic or theme.
For example in a life skills or history class if a teacher is speaking about history and an English teacher could have the students read sources that relate to that same history or era. In fact it is a method which can be incorporated between the different two subjects. During the integrated lesson the teacher must make sure that the learners are active and involved. They need to reflect back, which will require critical thinking and problem solving skills. There are 6 steps in which you can achieve an integrated lesson. The first step is pre-instructional planning, if you are teaching alone you need to make sure that you have all the materials needed from the different subject areas. You need to introduce the students to the method of teaching.
Explain to them why the subject have different approaches to understanding it. When delivering the lesson make sure that when you teach your content it is clear so that the learners can understand the connections and points of how they relate together. At the end of the day or week the teacher and learners need to reflect back on all the subjects that has been integrated and what has been learnt, In addition it should create a more profound understanding of the materials been used and repetition between the different subjects’. Environmental Adjustments for effective integrationThe classroom and environment setup plays an important component in the classroom, because it supports both teaching and learning.
The teacher need to make sure that there is a positive and physical atmosphere which can help to prevent behavioural issues and as well promote and improve learning inside and outside of the classroom. The community, staff, peers and students should treat others with respect, honesty and take up responsibility for their actions.Within any school or classroom, all students need to feel a sense of acceptance by their peers. The students should be treated equally inside and outside of their environment. The educator needs to create a warm and welcoming environment for the students. The school or class should maintain the integration of the different subject areas, and when integration is taking place students must be encouraged to ask question, which eventually becomes a positive sign and proof that students curiosity and the teachers teaching is effective while she is integrating different subject areas and methods.When integrating make sure that the community and school are open to ideas on how lesson, tests and assessment could be implemented. The environment and surrounding should keep an open mind and stay positive.
The teacher should allow mix learning techniques inside of her classroom, whether it is direct teaching, e-learning or inquiry based learning, so that it enriches her students learning experience when integrating during her lessons. The teacher should make sure she promotes integration of different subjects around the classroom and school and not only the important subjects. Learners should understand that all the different subject areas are equally important to one another, they should be able to make the connections and links of how each subject can be combined with one another. For effective learning and integration to happen, learners need to feel safe and active in the environment in which they feel belonged to. A good beginning to that is by promoting safety and encouraging the community to stand behind their students and push them up all the way to success, which they can later reflect on later in life.
The educators, students, peers and community should learn to be effective facilitators, because as a team grows and changes over time while new members arrive. They will understand that the environment is an active, understanding and learning environment.