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Homer J. Yabut’s study titled “Isang Paglilinaw sa mga Paniniwala at
Pagpapakahulugan sa Ispiritwalidad at Relihiyon ng mga Pilipino” aims to describe
and clarify Filipino beliefs about spirituality and religiosity, especially the
distinction between the two in the Philippine context. According to Yabut
(2013), Western literature has found that spirituality refers to a concept, a
principle or another person that is believed to be higher than a person. It
focuses more on the individual’s personal beliefs and, to an extent, suggests
that people may have different spiritual beliefs. Religiosity, on the other hand, refers to a system of beliefs
dictated by an institution to its followers. Still, they maintain that each
plays a role with another, although in an undetermined manner.

             In an attempt to understand
such concept in a religious country, Yabut (2013) used a qualitative research
design in order to preserve the context of the study. He employed the pakikpag-palagayang loob and the pagtatanung-tanong instruments to
extract answers from his key informants coming from Psychology, Anthropology,
Philosophy, History and Theology backgrounds. He found that spirituality is believed
to be both phenomenological and a connection between the Diyos and the self. Religion then is thought to be an expression of
spirituality; an avenue for people to practice their own rituals and spiritual
beliefs. In contrast to Western beliefs, spirituality and religiosity in the
Philippines is clearly interrelated.

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            This study is an example of a constructivist qualitative
research design. But first, parameters of why it is a field research must be
established. The actual pagtatanung-tanong
and pakikipag-palagayang loob was
done in a more natural setting and outside the laboratory premises. Additionally,
the instruments used themselves also make the study a field research as primary
data was obtained through interviews and pakikipag-palagayang
loob with the key informants. These same reasons also make this study a
qualitative research. Context was given a high importance which is why it was essential that the research be done in a natural
setting. The analysis of data relied on firsthand information gathered from the
testaments from the informants themselves. No manipulation and statistical
calculations were used in the analysis. It was also explicitly stated that the pagsasakatutubo sa loob method was used
in order to understand the concepts from the Filipino point of view. To do
this, purposive sampling was used in order to ensure that the informants they
gathered know well enough about spirituality and religiosity.

            Since the study aims to have a deeper understanding of
how Filipinos view and define the difference between spirituality and
religiosity, it is only right that they use constructivism in approaching the
problem. There mere use of pagsasakatutubo
mula sa loob makes constructivism more pronounced as it builds its own
definition and description of the two concepts based on multiple perceptions
from different people. Additionally, pakikipag-palagayang
loob was employed first to make the informants feel more comfortable around
the researcher before employing pakikipagtanung-tanong
in order to ensure authenticity of the responses given by the informants.
These statements were all accounted for and collated in line with
constructivism’s principle that there exist multiple truths. Categorical and
thematic analyses were done to find commonality and all their statements before
coming up with the conclusion that spirituality and religiosity exists interdependently
in the country, a clear opposition to the beliefs of the West.


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