Homeostasis is an understanding of how the human body works which means keeping things unbroken and it also comes from Greek words ‘homeo’ which means similar and ‘stasis’ which means stable. Homeostasis is an characteristic of how a system regulates the internal atmosphere and tends to have it stable.In P5 I will be explaining the concept of the homeostasis, I be starting off by talking about the main concept of homeostasis which is to control and maintain an constant atmosphere inside the body as it is doing this by controlling certain systems throughout the human body and allowing and keeping it at the normal atmosphere, however the external influences may have an negative impact on the atmosphere as homeostasis will make the body react quickly to these influences as it will quickly correct it back to the norm level, it is known as an negative feedback.
Negative feedback is when the receptors in the body will detect if something is not right or off balance as this will trigger the receptors to send an message to the effectors which are in the body, this then causes the effectors to cause an reaction inside the body so it can restore the balance up to its normal atmosphere, even though the receptor will continue to send signals to the effectors in the body. This is why it is called the negative feedback because it is something negative happening in the body.Homeostasis is to maintain the atmosphere or environment of four different main systems throughout the human body, the system are:- The blood sugar levels – Heart rate – The body temperature- Breathing rateThe blood sugar levelsGlucose is an very important substance in the body because it is one of the main source for energy for the natural functions in the body and is the only form of energy which is used for the nervous system and brain, as the amount of blood glucose in the human body is very important because if the blood glucose were to drop down dramatically or even rise there could be a very serious costs which could cause both hypo or hypoglycaemia which is both going to cause death , so therefore it is important that the blood glucose levels is to be regulated so it can achieve through homeostasis so for it to work effectively the homeostasis effective receptor will detect this, also if the level of blood glucose are high the receptor will send its signals to the pancreas which will control the concentration of the level of glucose in the blood if it does dramatically rise up. The pancreas will then produce an hormone which is called insulin, this cause the glucose to be transported form the blood in to the cells as this is going to lower down the concentration of glucose in the blood if ever to become high. This process mostly occurs after we have a meal that is filled with carbohydrates, for example sweets, rice, bread or pasta.The body temperatureOur bodies is able to maintain the normal body temperature of 37’C even if the temperature ranges between 16’C and 54’C, as the metabolic cells is a heating system of our body because of the cellular reactions will give heat as it is a side effect as when the body is starting to resist body heat which is being produced by the liver, brain, heart also the endocrine glands however when the muscles go active they begin to produce a lot of heat produced by these four organs, so therefore muscle activity can be increased by rubbing your hands together or even stamping feet which is used as a short way to raise body temperature. On the other hand a long term way to raise body temperature is the hormone thyroxin which is produced from the thyroid gland which helps stimulates the cells to an higher metabolic rate, an example is that the someone that lives within a cold climate is going to have a higher, metabolic rate than others who live within a reasonable climate. To locate the regulation centre of body you will find it within the hypothalamus which is very responsive to temperature changes in the arterial where the blood flows.
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Within the body it cools down when then a blood vessel is near the skin and being dilated so that warm blood that will pass through, this will allow the heat to lose the atmosphere by the radiation. Another way to cool down is by sweating as it evaporates the heat within the body. However if a body temperature starts to drop down very low the body will start to shiver and shivering has to requires the nerve impulses to send the signals to the skeletal muscles. Breathing RateWhen we breathe in air, we inhale oxygen into the alveoli of the lungs which is located where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is going to be taken place in as the blood inside the pulmonary artery which is an oxygen poor which is holding an higher concentration of carbon dioxide because the blood is passing through the capillaries which is close to the alveoli with oxygen it will diffuse into the blood and also then carbon dioxide will diffuses out of the blood and into the alveoli.
Later on the carbon dioxide then is exhaled by moving away from the alveoli to the nose as the blood that’s within the pulmonary vein is oxygen rich which also holds a very low concentration of carbon dioxide as it shows that the carbon dioxide has been exported for oxygen as blood will now pass through the lungs now. Inside the respiratory centre the medulla is found which releases nerve impulses repeatedly to the diaphragm and also the rib cage muscles the rib cage also does movements as it moves upwards and also outwards so the thoracic cavity will increase in its size and air as the pressure inside the expanded lungs will decrease and will rebalance by air that will be rushing in through the nose. If the respiratory centre starts to stop sending the stimulatory nerve impulses as the diaphragm and the muscle of the rib cage will return to their original position so that exhalation will happen.Heart rateThe hearts function is to make that blood is pumped throughout the body, as the heart does this it is able to regulate the oxygen through the entire body because when it moves around the body it delivers oxygen that comes from the lungs so when we inhale it will go to the cells. When the blood will now return to the heart it will release the carbon dioxide so that the lungs will exhale.
In the cardiovascular homeostasis the most important aspect of it is the heart rate because when you may be exercising you will be in the needs of more oxygen and also an blood vessel to contract raising you blood pressure, this is going to result in a nervous response that raise the heart rate and also maintaining the level of oxygen that’s in your cell so it can stop it from homeostatic imbalance.M2.In m2 I will be discussing how our body maintains homeostasis in response to exercising.Exercise and breathing rateWhen exercising ,your body has to have and maintain an constant amount of oxygen within your cells to support your muscles making movement, which is going to need like 15 to 25 more oxygen that when you are resting.
When you are exercising harder you breathe faster during exercising as the more rapid your breathing rate is going to become, as this also will help release carbon dioxide but however a lot of amount of carbon dioxide will lead up and build up lactic acid which will refrain your performance as for every breath of oxygen you are breathing in you are exhaling out any excess carbon dioxide out.Exercise and heart rate In your cardiovascular system it takes over and is in charge of supplying the blood and nutrients to your working muscles and also helping your body keep its temperature to its normal range as during exercising the muscles you worked out are in need of more oxygen as your body will response by raising the amount of blood that your heart will pump throughout your body