After this tragedy, I was really compelled to search more about this disease and find out what exactly it was, what went wrong, why someone so young was affected. I began researching to an even deeper extent when I took Physiology and I learned so much about this disease that I would like to share and inform others on (Credibility).
During this presentation I will discuss what causes Lymphoma on a cellular level, what common symptoms of the disease are, and how it is treated (Preview of Main Points). I. Hodgkin Lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic system (Monoclinic. Rag). A. This disease compromises your body’s ability to fight infection. 1 .
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Cells in the lymphatic system grow abnormally and can spread beyond the lymphatic system. A. Cells are the basic building blocks of any living organism; they provide structure, take in nutrients from food, and convert those nutrients into energy for the body (Genetic Home Reference). B. This helps the body carry out specialized functions, such as, protein synthesis, cellular metabolism, and protection against foreign pathogens. 2. Lymph nodes are composed of many cells known as lymphocytes.
A.Lorgnettes, just like other cells, have specific duties to perform inside the body. B.
Normal functions of the lymphocyte are to protect the body against pathogens and infected cells (Lamination. Org). B. With so many cells that make up our body, it is not uncommon that one or two could be abnormal, or mutated. 1 . In most cases this wouldn’t be an issue because our lymphocytes normally would get rid of these unwanted mutants.
A. Issues arise when mutated cells start producing faster than the healthy cells can eliminate them. B. Build up of these abnormal cells can lead to tumors and can ultimately turn into cancer (Patient. O.
UK). 2. In Hodgkin Lymphoma, the cells that are dated are called a-cell lymphocytes.
A. After mutation, the infected B- lymphocytes are known as Reed Sternberg Cells. B. These cells are specific to the lymphatic system. C. Typically, lymphoma cells form tumors in the lymphatic system, bone marrow, spleen, and blood.
1. If the disease has spread too much, the infected cells can travel and other organs of different body systems can be affected as well. A.
The infected cells can travel to other organs through blood. B. Blood travels all throughout the body, therefore it is an easy transport mechanism for these mutated cells. . B-Cells originate from stem ells in the bone marrow; after they mature they migrate to different parts of the body to perform specific functions. A. During developmental stages is when the B-cell can become malignant.
B. The exact reason why is becomes malignant is unclear; it is thought that it could be due to damages of certain genes in the cell that make it abnormal. Transition: Now that we have gone over about what Lymphoma is and what specific cells it infects, we can now move on to the risk factors, symptoms, and detection of this disease. II.There are quite a few risk factors involved with this disease and symptoms that are ere important to be educated on. A. There are few specific details on what actually causes lymphoma on the cellular level, why the cells become abnormal; we just know that they do. 1 .
Certain people are more likely to be affected by this disease than others, the reason being unknown. A. It is more common to get this disease in an miscomprehended individual, such as someone with AIDS. B. It is also more common in men, than women.
C. More common in individuals ages 20-25 and patients over 70 years of age. 2.Hodgkin Lymphoma in particular compromises 33% of all lymphoma cases (Medical-surgical Nursing). A. There are two different types Of lymphoma, Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin.
B. Non-Hodgkin is more common, but both can potentially be fatal. B. Symptoms of this disease are very important to pay attention to because they can be mistaken for common illnesses that are not fatal.
1 . Sweating, high temperature, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and itching all over the body are symptoms of Lymphoma. A.
These symptoms are also closely related to symptoms of the common cold, so they are easy to ignore. B.If you wait to bring these symptoms to your doctors attention, it could be too late. 2. The most common symptom and most apparent is swelling of the lymph nodes. A. You can swell in your cervical, auxiliary, iliac, or inguinal nodes.
B. Swollen lymph nodes tend to be painless, but gradually get larger in size. C. In order to confirm the existence of Lymphoma a biopsy is needed. 1. A biopsy is the extraction, dissection, and analysis Of potentially infected tissue, cells, or glands. A. A Biopsy removes the cancer from the body and allows doctors to see if the known cancer has spread, this is called staging.
. It also allows doctors to determine a plan for the cancer treatment depending on the severity. 2. There are three methods seed for a biopsy, the methods used gradually get more invasive, as needed. A. Fine-Needle Aspiration is the insertion of a thin needle directly into the gland removing cells.
B. Core-Needle Biopsy is the insertion of a needle with a special tip to remove a sample of tissue a little larger than the fine-needle; it is more tissue, not just cells. C. Open (Surgical) Biopsy is the complete removal of an entire lymph node and is very invasive.Transition: Risk factors, symptoms, and detection are all vital pieces of information in understanding this disease, we will now move onto the specific treatment options we are able to use, Ill. Like all cancer, there are a few different treatment options available, this does not guarantee that the cancer will be gone, and there are some risks involved, but overall these methods are very helpful in treating the disease. A.
The first type of treatment option is Chemotherapy. 1 . This is involves using anti-cancer medicine to kill cancer cells and stop them from multiplying. A. It is intravenous, straight into the vein. . Typically lasts several months.
2. There are major side effects involved with using chemotherapy treatment. A. Chemotherapy takes a huge mental and physical toll on someone’s mind ND body. B. Extreme nausea and hair loss are just a few of the side effects Of chemotherapy.
B. The second type of treatment used, also very common, is Radiotherapy, or radiation. 1 . Radiation is high-energy beams of radiation that are focused directly on the cancer tissue. A. This may be used alone in early stages of the disease. B. In later stages, it is paired with chemotherapy for a more effective treatment.
. Like chemotherapy, there are side effects involved with radiation. A. Radiation, much like chemotherapy, takes a mental and physical toll on a human, especially if the two are paired together. .
Dryness of the skin, itching, blistering and peeling are all side effects that can and most likely will occur on the surface of the skin being exposed to the radiation. C. The last treatment option is Stem Cell Transplant. 1 When high doses Of chemotherapy and radiotherapy kill all the abnormal lymphocytes, they are killing all the normal stem cells, as well, therefore they need to be replaced. . You are given this transplant of new stem cells so that you can make normal blood cells again. B.
This treatment option is very important so that there is no recurrence of the disease after it is treated tit chemotherapy or radiation, it allows your body to produce normal cells again. 2. There are five stages of Stem Cell Transplant. A. The beginning stages involve collecting stem cells from the bone marrow, and processing them in the laboratory, following with certifications, which is freezing the cells to preserve them. B.After you collect the cells and preserve them, then the regular treatment of chemotherapy and radiation are given to the patient, after treatment plan is complete, there will be a reemission of the thawed stem cells into the patient.
Conclusion The number of new cases of Hodgkin Lymphoma was 2. Per 1 00,000 men and women per year. The number of deaths was 0. 4 per 100,000 men and women per year based on the 2007 to 2011 cases and deaths. Approximately 0.
2 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with Hodgkin Lymphoma at some points during their lifetime, based on 2009-201 1 data.