HIV-AIDS, the name itself is enough to threaten everyone due to its deadly nature and fear of being infected. Though the first case of AIDS was reported back in 1980’s and the nature of disease has been understood to a greater extent today, but still several misbelieves persists which leads to stigma and discrimination of people living with the disease. HIV is the virus which leads to deficiency of immune system which protects the body from illness and if left untreated the body’s immune system can become very weak which ultimately leads to development of certain symptoms and illnesses. This can be considered as the end stage of HIV and person is said to be suffering from AIDS. HIV is the abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus which attacks the white blood cells known as soldiers of the body.
The important thing which many people still don’t know is all the people with HIV infection do not develop AIDS.HIV and AIDS are often used interchangeably but these are way two different conditions with AIDS being an advanced condition with no specific cure but HIV can be dealt with. HIV infection goes starting with one individual then onto the next through certain body liquids, for example, blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk. About 90% of new HIV diseases in the U.S. happens because of unprotected sex. Shared needles and infusion tranquilize utilize is the second most basic course of contamination.
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HIV can likewise spread from an infected mother to her infant though the chances are quite rare. HIV do not spread through easygoing contact for example, shaking hands, embracing, wheezing, sharing utensils, air and water, saliva, sweat, tears or closed mouth kissing, insects or pets or sharing toilets, foods or drinks.The worst part about AIDS is the problem with diagnosis as it can go undetected for years. It can take from three to ten years for the visible symptoms to develop after an exposure and this is known as the window period. The late it is detected the more dangerous it can be. Due to lack of appropriate knowledge and certain misconceptions, this disease is associated with stigma which makes it far more difficult to address. HIV-related shame and separation alludes to partiality, antagonistic states of mind and misuse coordinated at individuals living with HIV and AIDS.
In 35% of nations with accessible information, over half of individuals report having biased states of mind towards individuals living with HIV. Shame and discrimination additionally make individuals helpless against HIV. Those most in danger to HIV (key population) keep on confronting stigma and separation dependent on their real or seen wellbeing status, race, financial status, age, sex, sexual introduction or sex character or different grounds. Stigma and segregation can be seen from multiple point of views. Discrimination and other human rights infringement may happen in medicinal services settings, banning individuals from getting to wellbeing services or appreciating quality wellbeing care. Some individuals living with HIV and other key influenced population are avoided by family, peers and the more extensive network, while others confront poor treatment in instructive and work settings, disintegration of their rights, and mental harm.
These all limit access to HIV testing, treatment and other HIV benefit.According to Michel, at whatever point AIDS has won, disgrace, doubt, separation and lack of care was its ally. Each time AIDS has been crushed, it has been a direct result of trust, transparency, sense of unity among people and networks, family support, human solidarity, and the human determination to discover new ways and arrangement.The dread encompassing the rising HIV pestilence during the 1980s to a great extent perseveres today. Around then, next to no was thought about how HIV is transmitted, which made individuals frightened of those contaminated because of dread of virus.
This dread, combined with numerous different reasons, implies that loads of individuals erroneously accept that HIV and AIDS are constantly connected with death, HIV is related with practices that a few people object to, (for example, homosexuality, tranquilize utilize, sex work or disloyalty),HIV is just transmitted through sex, which is a forbidden subject in a few societies and HIV contamination is the consequence of individual unreliability or good blame, (for example, disloyalty) that has the right to be rebuffed. HIV-related stigma and discrimination exists around the world, despite the fact that it shows itself diversely crosswise over nations, networks, religious gatherings and people. In sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, hetero sex is the primary course of disease, which implies that HIV-related shame in this locale is predominantly centered around disloyalty and sex work. Researches have ruled out several consequences of stigma associated with AIDS which are loss of pay and occupation, loss of marriage and childbearing choices, poor consideration inside the wellbeing area, withdrawal of providing care in the home, loss of expectation and sentiments of uselessness, loss of notoriety.
These individuals are progressively discriminated, from society, as well as from the administrations they must shield themselves from HIV. For instance, in 2016, 60% of countries in the European Monetary Zone detailed that social insurance experts’ adverse and oppressive behavior towards men who engage in sexual relations with men and individuals who infuse drugs hampered the arrangement of HIV avoidance administrations for these gatherings. Over 90% of new HIV diseases in Focal Asia, Europe, North America, the Center East and North Africa in 2014 were among individuals from key populaces and their sexual accomplices, who represented 45% of new HIV contaminations worldwide in 2015.
Ongoing examinations propose that, universally, individuals who infuse drugs are multiple times more prone to secure HIV than the overall public, sex laborers are far more vulnerable and men who engage in sexual relations with men are multiple times more probable. Besides, transgender individuals are multiple times more susceptible and detainees are multiple times more inclined to live with HIV than grown-ups in the all-inclusive community.UNAIDS and the World Health Organization (WHO) cites fear of stigma and discrimination as the main reason why people are reluctant to get tested, disclose their HIV status and take antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). One study found that participants who reported high levels of stigma were over four times more likely to report poor access to care. This contributes to the expansion of the global HIV epidemic and a higher number of AIDS-related deaths. An unwillingness to take an HIV test means that more people are diagnosed late, when the virus may have already progressed to AIDS.
This makes treatment less effective, increasing the likelihood of transmitting HIV to others, and causing early death. For example, in the United Kingdom (UK), many people who are diagnosed with HIV are diagnosed at a late stage of infection, defined as a CD4 count under 350 within three months of diagnosis. Although late diagnosis of HIV has declined in the UK in the last decade, from 56% in 2005 to 39% in 2015, this figure remains unacceptably high. In South Africa, stigma stopped many young women involved in a trial on HIV prevention from using vaginal gels and pills that would help them stay HIV free. Many reported being afraid that using these products would lead them to being mistakenly identified as having HIV, and so the fear of the isolation and discrimination that being identified as living with HIV would bring led them to adapt behaviour that put them more at risk of acquiring the virus.
It’s going to be hard to attain a zero level of disease until and unless the stigma associated with the disease is tackled. Each one of us need to unite our hands to fight this disease. Rather than discriminating the suffers we should embrace the key population and help them beat the disease. Certain steps can be taken in order to provide an effective response to HIV epidemic and to fight the root cause of stigma making it sure that services are accessible to those who need them.
Some of the measure include involving key populations in healthcare services, design and implementation as it is rightly said Nothing about us without us. Adding stigma and discrimination reduction as a goal in national strategies. Empowering the people to understand and demand their rights and to act on violations can help a lot. Educating people to address fears and changing their attitudes.?