History of Election
As defined by (Gibbins, Eulau, & Webb, n.d.), election is the formal process of selecting a person for public office or of accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting. As stated in (ESSAYS WRITERS, n.d.), Hawkesworth & Kogan (2004) says that elections provide a legitimate means of making political choices and therefore for an election to be effective voters should have a free and genuine choice between at least alternatives. The use of elections in the modern world originated from the gradual emergence of representative government in Europe and North America in the 17th century. In the Philippines during the Spanish Colonial period there were few attempts nationally of electing local officials. ‘After establishing total control of the Philippines by 1901, the American colonizers governed their newly acquired territory through the appointive Philippine Commission under the supervision of the United States governor general. The commission performed both executive and legislative functions, with token Filipino participation, until 1907. Soon after, the Americans introduced elections to allow greater participation of the Filipino elite in colonial governance’ (Teehankee). Taking a cue from the elite experience at limited municipal elections during the last days of Spanish colonial rule, the American colonial government proceeded to lay down the foundation for municipal, provincial and national elections (Paredes, 1989). Initially, the Americans conducted municipal elections in areas pacified under military rule. The first election in the country was held in Baliwag, Bulacan on May 1898 under American supervision. This was followed by four Cavite municipalities, in compliance with General Order No. 40, Series of 1900, issued by the military governor, for establishing municipalities in the Philippine Islands. The military government first granted wide rights of suffrage but later limited the franchise (Teehankee). ‘Elections are integral to democratic governance. Through the mechanism of elections, politicians are held accountable for their actions, and are compelled to introduce policies that are reflective of and responsive to public opinion’ (Teehankee). Ideally in the book of (Heywood, 2000)elections serve as a ‘major source of political recruitment, a means of making government, and of transferring government power, a guarantee of representation, and a major determinant of government policy’.
(n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elections_in_the_Philippines#History
ESSAYS WRITERS. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://essayswriters.com/essays/Description/election.html
Gibbins, R., Eulau, H., & Webb, P. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from Election Political Science: https://www.britannica.com/topic/election-political-science
Heywood, A. (2000). Key Concepts in Politics. London: Macmillan Press.
Paredes, R. R. (1989). Philippine Colonial Democracy. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Teehankee, J. (n.d.). Electoral Politics in the Philippines. Retrieved April 4, 2018, from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/01361006.pdf
History of Election