MERIYANI JAMI 150280106134NEICHUTUONUO YHOME 150280106135VEKROLU 150280106139PROF.N.N BORAD(Faculty Guide)INDEX1) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT2) CERTIFICATE3) ABSTRACT4)INTRODUCTION ON GRAVITY DAMS5)CASE STUDY ON SARDAR SAROVAR DAM7) SUMMARY8) ADVANTAGES OF PROJECT9) CONCLUSION10) REFERENCES11) PLAGIARISM REPORTChapter – IIntroduction Design of concrete gravity damsLoads on damsForces that stabilise and unstabilise the damChapter – IIGeneral introductionProject designingSalient feature of the Sardar Sarovar DamBenefits of the projectBenefit of the project in briefSalient features in terms of costParts or components of the projectSlow rate of resettlement and rehabilitation Stakeholders Submergence effects on topology, ecology and tectonicsCatchment Areas and Compensatory Afforestation AreasConflicts of the projectJustifications of the projectChapter IIIConclusionACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe would like to express our profound gratitude to chancellor of the Gujarat Technological University and all the staff working under him for giving us the opportunity to undertake the project entitled “STUDY AND DESIGN OF GRAVITY DAM”We would also like to thank ourPrincipal of LD college of Engineering and also our HOD of civil engineering who provided us the necessary information and help us with the collection of data at the study area and all the staff working under him for giving us the opportunity and the luxury to pursue our project.Last, but not the least, we would like to thank our faculty guide, PROF. N.N BORAD for helping us and providing us with necessary knowledge regarding our project.CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project report, submitted along with the project entitled “STUDY AND DESIGN OF GRAVITY DAM”has been carried out by MERIYANI JAMI ,NEICHUTUONUO YHOME,VEKROLU.under guidance in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering, 7th semester of Gujarat Technological University Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-2019.

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These students have successfully completed project activity under my guidanceABSTRACT A gravity dam is a solid structure, made of concrete or masonry, constructed across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream. The section of the gravity dam is approximately or almost triangular in shape, with its apex at its top and maximum width at bottom. The section is so proportioned that it resists the various forces acting on it by its own weight. Hence the name gravity dam is given. CHAPTER 1: Case study on gravity dams: INTRODUCTION Dams constructed out of masonry or concrete and which rely solely on its self weight for stability fall under the nomenclature of gravity dams. Masonry dams have been in use in the past quite often but after independence, the last major masonry dam structure that was built was the Nagarjunsagar Dam on river Krishna which was built during 1958-69.

Normally, coursed rubble masonry was used which was bonded together by lime concrete or cement concrete. However masonry dam is no longer being designed in our country probably due to existence of alternate easily available dam construction material and need construction technology. Gravity dams are now being built of mass concrete, whose design and construction aspects would be discussed in this study.It is important to note that, it is not just sufficient to design a strong dam structure, but it is equally important to check the foundation as well for structural integrity.

For concrete dams, the stress developed at the junction of the base becomes quite high, which the foundation has to resist. Usually concrete gravity dams are constructed across a river by excavating away the loose soil till firm rock is encountered which is considered as the actual foundation since the structure needs a rigid foundation for its weight to fall on which facilitates in the transfer of load and hence contribute to the stability of the structure. Nevertheless not all rocks are of the same quality; they vary with different geological materials and the process by which they have been formed over the years.

Therefore proper geological survey by professional geologists are required to survey the area prior to construction of the dam to check the suitability of the foundation with the type of dam to be built above it.Design of concrete gravity Dam sections Fundamentally a gravity dam should satisfy the following criteria: 1. It shall be safe against overturning at any horizontal position , within the dam, at the contact with the foundation or along an geological feature withim the foundation within the foundation. 2. It should be safe against sliding at any horizontal plane within the dam, at the contact with the foundation or along any geological feature within the foundation.

Safety of the dam structure is to be checked against possible loadings, which may be classified as primary, secondary or exceptional. The classification is made in terms of the applicability and/or for the relative importance of the load. Loads on the dams1. Primary loads are identified as universally applicable and of prime importance of the load. 2. Secondary loads are generally discretionary and of lesser magnitude like sediment load or thermal stresses due to mass concreting. 3. Exceptional loads are designed on the basis of limited general applicability or having low probability of occurrence like inertial loads associated with seismic activity.

Technically a concrete gravity dam derives its stability from the force of gravity of the materials in the section and hence the name. The gravity dam has sufficient weight so as to withstand the forces and the overturning moment caused by the water impounded in the reservoir behind it. It transfers the loads to the foundations by cantilever action and hence good foundations are pre requisite for the gravity dam. The forces that give stability to the dam include: 1.

Weight of the dam 2. Thrust of the tail water The forces that try to destabilize the dam include: 1. Reservoir water pressure 2.

Uplift 3. Forces due to waves in the reservoir 4. Ice pressure 5. Temperature stresses 6. Silt pressure 7. Seismic forces 8. Wind pressure The forces to be resisted by a gravity dam fall into two categories as given below: 1.

Forces, such as weight of the dam and water pressure which are directly calculated from the unit weight of materials and properties of fluid pressure and 2. Forces such as uplift, earthquake loads, silt pressure and ice pressure which are assumed only on the basis of assumptions of varying degree of reliability. In fact to evaluate this category of forces, special care has to be taken and reliance placed on available data, experience and judgement. Case study on Sardar Sarovar ProjectGeneral introduction:The Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) is an interstate, multipurpose joint venture of four states, viz., Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, with a terminal dam on river Narmada in the state of Gujarat. It is the largest water resources development project in India and possibly in the world .

based on the size of the reservoir,it is the largest dam in the world. However when the heigh or length id considered,it may not be considered the largest.The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada River crossing Gujarat in India. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams.

The project took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity. The agreement of sharing and using water by the four states were defined by the Narmada Water Dispute Tribunal (NWDT) in 1979 after conflict arose between Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and also between the other two states,i.e., Rajasthan and Maharashtra on various issues, maybe social,economical or financial.

Under this award, Gujarat was allocated 11,000 Mm³ representing about one-third of the 75 percent dependable usable annual water flow, and was authorized to implement a project comprising: the Sardar Sarovar Dam,a 1,200 megawatt (MW) riverbed powerhouse (RBPH)a 250 MW canal head powerhouse (CHPH),a canal system to irrigate 1.87 m. ha in Gujarat and 70,000 ha in Rajasthan, and a water supply system for about 30 million people in the droughtprone areas of Saurashtra and Kachchh. On this basis, Gujarat prepared the Sardar Sarovar Project in 1980, which was to be implemented in various phases over a period of about 20 years. Phase I comprised of: the Sardar Sarovar Dam,the RBPH and CHPHthe first 144 km of the main canal up to the Mahi River a network of branch and distribution canals and drainage system to irrigate about 450,000 hai.2.

Project DesigningThe project preparation and organization took a span of four years from identification in the year 1979 to pre- appraisal in 1983. It was completed by Narmada Planning group with assistance from the United Nation Development Program (UNDP). The Narmada Development Department that was in charge of implementing the project had prepared the detail designs and cost estimates of the project.

Later in the year may 1988, responsibility for the implementation of the project was transferred from the Narmada Development Department, a government agency, to the Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Ltd. (SSNNL), a parastatal corporation organized along functional lines. The Bank and borrowers reviewed the basic hydrological data used for the project design and gave a satisfactory report.

The Narmada Water Dispute tribunal had set the annual 75 percent dependable water availability for the project at 28 million acre feet (MAF) (34,580 Mm³) with 65.2 percent allocated to Madhya Pradesh, 32.1 percent to Gujarat. 1.

8 percent to Rajasthan, and 0.9 percent to Maharashtra project design. The project vested its first priority to water supply, second to irrigation and the last to power generation. As per the original design of the project, the Sardar Sarovar dam was to irrigate 17.92 lakh ha land in Gujarat and 73,000 ha of land in two districts of Rajasthan. The beneficiary states claimed that in the first phase of command area development, a total of 2.

46 lakh ha land of would be irrigated. At the time of raising the height of the dam to 121.92 m, it was estimated that 3.5 lakh ha of additional land will be brought under irrigation.SALIENT FEATURES OF SARDAR SAROVAR PROJECT 1. Location State Gujarat District Narmada River Narmada Location 120 km upstream of Bharuch city 2. Reservoir Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 138.68 m (455 ft.

)Maximum Water Level (MWL) 140.21 m (460 ft.) Minimum Draw Down Level (MDDL) 110.64 m (363 ft.) Length of reservoir 214 km Maximum width of Reservoir 16.1 km Average width of Reservoir 1.

77 km Gross Storage Capacity 0.95 Million ha m (7.70 MAF) 3. Dam Type Concrete gravity Length of Main Dam 1210 m Top R.L.

of Dam 146.50 m Maximum height above deepest foundation level 163 m Spillway Type Ogee Crest Level 121.92 m (400 ft.) Spillway gates Type Radial No. & size 23 nos. 18.3 m x 16.76 m for service spillway 7 no.

18.30 m x 18.30 m for auxiliary spillway Spillway capacity 84949.25 cumecs (30 lakh cusecs) 4. Power installation River Bed Power House Canal Head Power House No.of Units 6 5 Capacity of each unit 200 MW 50 MW Installed capacity 1200 MW 250 MW Type of turbines Francis (reversible) Vertical Kaplan (conventional) Type of Power house Underground Surface5. Canal System Length of Main Canal up to 458.318 km Rajasthan border.

Discharge capacity at head 1132.66 cumecs (40,000 cusec) Full supply level at head 91.45 m (300 ft.) Bed width at head 73.1 m Full supply depth at head 7.

6 m6. Direct Benefits Irrigation Gujarat 17.92 lakh ha. (As per NMC Status Report Rajasthan 02.

46 lakh ha. March, 2015) ——————- 20.38 lakh ha. ——————- Power (installed capacity) (i) River Bed Power House 1200 MW (ii) Canal Head Power House 250 MW ————- 1450 MW ————- Drinking Water (i) Population of 350.25 lakh in 8,215 villages and 135 Urban centers in Gujarat including the whole of Saurashtra and Kutch region fully covered for Drinking water purposes. (ii) In Rajasthan besides Irrigation, drinking water facility will also extended to 45.88 lakh people in 1336 villages and 3 towns situated around the irrigation canal. 7.

Estimated Cost As approved by the Planning Rs.39240.45 crore Commission at 2008-09 price level.

8. Expenditure incurred Up to December, 2015 Rs. 48390.81 CroreTable 2: Salient Features of Sardar Sarovar DamSl no. Design Parameter Value of the parameter1 Length of the dam 1210.02 m2 Maximum height above foundation level 163.

00 m3 Top of dam Elevation Level (EL) 146.50 m4 Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 138.68 m (455 feet)5 Maximum Water Level (MWL) 140.

27 m (460 feet)6 Minimum Draw Down Level (MDDL) 110.64 m (363 feet)7 Gross Storage Capacity of the Reservoir 0.95 Million hectare metre (7.

70 Million acre feet)8 Dead Storage Capacity 0.37 Million hectare metre (7.70 Million acre feet)9 Live Storage Capacity 0.58 Million hectare metre (7.70 Million acre feet)Benefits of the project in briefIrrigation :The Sardar Sarovar project will provide irrigation facilities to 18.45 lac ha.

of land , covering 3112 villages of 73 talukas in 15 districts of Gujarat. It will also irrigate 75000 ha. of land in the strategic desert districts of Barmer and Jallore in Rajasthan and 37500 ha. in the tribal hilly tract of Maharashtra through lift.

About 75% of the command area of Gujarat is drought prone. Assured water supply will soon make this area drought proof.Drinking water supply: A special allocation of 0.86 MAF of water has been made to provide drinking water to 135 urban centres and 8215 villages (45% ofthe total18144 villages of Gujarat) within and outside command in Gujarat for present population of 18 million and prospective population of over 40 million by the year 2021. All the villages and urban centres of arid region of Saurashtra and Kachch and all “no source” villages and the villages affected by the salinity and fluoride in North Gujarat will be benefitted. Water supply requirement of several industries will also be met from the project giving a boost to all round production.

Hydro power:There will be two power houses viz. River bed power house and canal head power house with an installed capacity of 1200 MW and 250 MW respectively. The power would be shared by three states- Madhya Pradesh-57%, Maharashtra-27% and Gujarat-16%. This will provide a useful paking power to western gridof the country which has very limited hydel power production at present.A series of micro hydro power stations are also planned on the branch canals where convenient falls are available.Flood protection:It will provide flood protection to riverine reaches measuring 30000 ha.

Covering 210 villages and Bharuch city and a population of 4 lac in Gujarat.Salient Features of the Project in terms of cost:Estimated to cost about Rs.6400 crore at the 1986-87 price level, the construction of SSP has been divided into four major work components as brought out in Table 2Table 2: Construction Components of the Sardar Sarovar ProjectSI.No. Description Estimated Cost in Rs. Croreat 1986-87 price level1 Dam & Appurtenant Works 1019.452 Main Canal 1588.543 Hydropower Complex 979.

954 Branches and Distribution System. 2818.10Total 6406.04Current Estimated Project Cost:The original project estimate approved by the Planning Commission pertained to 1986-87 price level amounting to Rs.

6,406.04 crore. The revised project estimate corresponding to 1991-92 price level was approved by government of Gujarat for Rs. 13,180.

62 crore, but could not be approved by the SSCAC.The latest available estimate corresponding to 1996-97 price level is tentatively placed at Rs. 22,775 crore, of which only dam (about Rs.4474 crore) and power (about Rs.2185 crore) components have been approved by the SSCAC.Parts or components of the Sardar Sarovar Project:1.Narmada RiverThe river Narmada, referred as the holiest of holy rivers by Shri Adi Shankaracharya, rises near Amarkantak in the Shahdol district of Madhya Pradesh and traverses about 1,312 kms before joining the Gulf of Cambay in the Arabian sea. The first 1,077 kms is in Madhya Pradesh and the last 161 kms is in Gujarat.

Of the remaining length, 35 kms forms a common boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, and another 39 kms between Gujarat and Maharashtra.The Sardar Sarovar Dam on river Narmada is located barely 12 kms from the Maharashtra-Gujarat border, and the length of river up to Sardar Sarovar Dam is 1163 kms (SSNNL, 2000). Considered as the largest 6 west flowing river, Narmada has a catchment area of 97410 Sq. kms, of which about 88.14% lies in Madhya Pradesh, 1.

7% in Maharashtra, and 10.16% in Gujarat. The total drainage area of the river up to the dam site is 88000 Sq.

kms. The average annual rainfall in the basin is 112 cm. The maximum recorded flood at the dam site is 70847 cubic-metre-per-second (cumecs), i.e., about 25 lacs cubic-feet-per-second (cusecs). 2.

Main DamThe NWDT has fixed the design parameters of Sardar Sarovar Dam with a view to derive optimum7 irrigation and power benefits. The 1200 m long and 163 m high concrete dam is designed to pass a maximum flood discharge of about 87,000 cubic-metre-per-second through its spillways, and the volume of concrete involved in construction is estimated to amount to 6.82 million cubic meters (SSNNL, 2000). The other salient features of this major dam8 are summarised in table 2. The reservoir formed by dam will submerge about 37533 hectares of land out of which about 30% will be agricultural land, about 36% will be forestland, and balance 34% will be riverbed and wasteland.

About 193 villages will be affected in Madhya Pradesh; however the extent of land submergence in 114 villages will be less than 25%. In Madhya Pradesh, only habitation areas will be affected in 21 villages while only government wasteland area will be submerged in 9 villages. About 33 villages will be coming under submergence in Maharashtra; and extent of private land submergence will be less than 25% in 12 villages.Powerhouse ComplexThe hydropower complex will have 1450 MW installed capacity. It will comprise of an underground River Bed Power House (RBPH)10 with six units of 200 MW capacities; and a surface Canal Head Power House (CHPH)11 with five units of 50 MW capacities. The 440 kilo Volt (KV) double circuit transmission lines will evacuate the combined generated power to the three beneficiary states. The discharges from canal head powerhouse will be led to main canal for irrigation (and drinking) usage in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Four inter-linked ponds – with a combined storage of 63 million cubic meters – have been constructed between powerhouse and main canal head regulator with a view to control daily operational mismatch between power releases and irrigation demands.

Canal SystemThe main canal in Gujarat is contour aligned, thereby restricting the supply only to areas falling on left side of the canal. Starting from dam site (Kevadia) it would cover a distance of 458 kms in Gujarat before entering the state of Rajasthan (in Tehsil Sanchore, district Jalore), wherein it would run for about 74 kms of which 54 kms is contour-canal (irrigating left side) and the balance ridge-canal (irrigating both sides). The main canal is designed to carry a maximum discharge of 1133 cubic-meter-per- second (40000 cubicfeet- per-second) at its starting point. The tail-end discharge capacity would taper down to 75 cubic-meter-per-second at Gujarat – Rajasthan border. Entire length of main canal is to be lined with concrete; and mechanised equipments are being deployed to achieve uniformity, quality control and speed of construction. Regulators at intermittent distanceswith automated gates are being provided to control water levels during normal and emergency operations, to store water during shut-down, and to isolate reaches and river crossings in case of a breach in main canal.

Escapes at specific locations have also been provided to divert water in emergency situations (NCA, 2003b). Apart from the main canal, the irrigation network in Gujarat would comprise of 42 branch canals13 with gross length of 2524 kms, about 7500 kms long distributaries, and nearly 30000 kms of minors and sub-minors. The vast network of distribution system, including field channels, will stretch over an aggregate length of about 75000 kms.

In Rajasthan, there would be 9 major distributaries with a total length of 282 kms; and the total length of minors and sub-minors would be 485 kms and 636 kms respectively.Slow Pace of Resettlement and Rehabilitation ProgressThe trial in Supreme Court was mostly focused on matters related to R&R {SupremeCourt Orders, 1994-2000); and even after Court’s final judgement the issue of R;R continues to remain the most critical factor in completion of full dam height. As per latest estimates, the total number of project-affected families (PAF) is about 40,963. State-wise break-up of affected villages and number of affected families are presented in Table 3Sl no. States Families to be rehabilitated1 Maharashtra 33212 Madhya Pradesh 330143 Gujarat 4728Total 40963As per the directions of NWDT, Gujarat has to resettle all the project-affected persons who are willing to resettle in Gujarat, including those from the state of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The persons who are unwilling to resettle in Gujarat are to be resettled in their respective states based on similar land based policy.Gujarat further liberalised the package by including encroachers and landlessagricultural labourers, and making them entitled for 2 hectares of agricultural land.Each project-affected person, including major sons, is allotted 500 square meters of residential plot free of cost, and also given certain grants21 (NCA, 2003a).

Attempts are made to resettle project-affected person in groups so as to maintain their social life. The relocation sites are provided with living amenities like approach road, internal roads, drinking water facilities, electrification etc, apart from several civic amenities22 prescribed by the Tribunal. Other services like registration in electoral rolls, issuance of ration card, accessibility to co-operative societies, and vocational training are also being given.STAKEHOLDERS’Farmers in GujaratOut of 9.00 MAF of Gujarat’s share in Narmada water, 7.

94 MAF of will be used for irrigation purposes. The command in Gujarat is allowed to spread wide on the well founded notion 35 that for the greatest benefit, extensive approach is desirable. Thus, in the present formulation of project the farmers of Gujarat spread widely over 62 talukas in 14 districts (Table 5.14) are the main beneficiaries. Geographically the command can be divided into three categories:main land Gujarat,Saurashtra and Kachch. The soil and the climatic conditions of these three regions distinctly vary and hence influence the cropping pattern. In Saurashtra and Kachchh regions, crop yields are poor and cattle rearing are practised to supplement the income of family.

The pastures here have coarse grasses with poor yield, resulting in uncontrolled grazing leading to increased desertification. A common feature of the entire command is that the precipitation (in total quantity and distribution) varies greatly from year to year, and the entire crops suffer as a result of moisture stress.The farmers in the command are industrious, progressive, enterprising and commercially oriented, although the agricultural economy without SSP was mostly dependent upon vagaries of monsoon. Compared to other states, farmers here are advanced in use of fertilisers, pesticides, and adoption of high yield varieties. The command area has welldeveloped co-operative sector and also has financing institutions such as Land Development Bank, Nationalised Banks, Agricultural Financing Co-operations etc. The area also has very good network of transport and communication services, and also possibilities for growth of marketing and storage facilities needed for deriving optimum benefit of agricultural production under irrigated system of SSP.Beneficiaries of Drinking-water in GujaratUndoubtedly the economic benefits of SSP to agro sector are significant, but the greatest benefit will be the mitigation of droughts frequently faced over a greater part of Gujarat.

About 0.86 MAF of SSP water will be used for the domestic36 and municipal use, benefiting about 135 urban centres and 8215 villages This will cover an estimated population of 20.63 million (1991 census) and prospectivepopulation over 35 million by the year 2021.Beneficiaries of hydro powerplant:All the three beneficiary states coming under western region will get additional advantage from the fact that the SSP will provide peaking benefits in the power starved western region. Besides, in comparison to the available alternate source of power generation, the power produced at SSP is totally free from air pollution 37 and is environment friendly.

In financial terms, the capital cost of power complex – at about Rs. 4.175 crore per Mega Watt38 – is significantly less than the available alternatives of thermal or nuclear power plants.Industrial-water BeneficiariesOut of 9.

00 MAF of Gujarat’s share in Narmada water, about 0.20 MAF of water will be used for the industrial purpose. This share is expected to benefit industries in petroleum sector, chemical and fertiliser sector, and thermal power stations. About 671 million litre per day is planned to be supplied to industries that are coming up in Jamnagar, Bhavnagar, Kachchh, Sabarkantha, Panchmahal, and Ahemedabad districts, and to the ports located on Saurashtra and Kachchh coastlines. The water to the industries is likely to be made available at such rates that may help the government to implement cross subsidization of the domestic sector by the industrial sector.Beneficiaries of Flood Protection The rivers Tapi and Narmada are the only two perennial rivers of Gujarat, while all others bring water during monsoon only. Even in case of Narmada and Tapi, seasonal variation in discharge is very high with almost 90% of annual flow occurring during monsoon months.

Peculiar to Gujarat, the floods of high magnitude occur at somewhat long intervals, frequently intervened by long spells of droughts. Another feature of these rivers is that they bring flash floods without sufficient warning. They also bring huge amount of silt, which gets deposited at river mouths causing additional rise in water levels (GID, 1980).Flood history of Narmada shows that about 210 villages that lie on or close to theriverbanks, and the populous city of Bharuch, suffer periodically from floods.

The total population affected is over 4.0 lacs spread over about 30,000 hectares of land. Almost every fifth year, Narmada runs in spate39 causing immense damage to lives and properties. Though SSP is not specifically designed for inducing flood benefits, yet it is expected to provide sufficient flood cushion to mitigate Narmada’s flood intensity to a large extentBeneficiaries of Irrigation and Drinking-water in RajasthanThe entire command of SSP in Rajasthan is drought prone. The share of Narmada water will benefit the farmers of Rajasthan with accumulated holding of 73,157 hectares of land in the districts of Jalore and Barmer. With a gross command area of 1,42,020 hectares, the irrigation benefit will be spread over 89 villages (74 in Jalore district, and 15 in Barmer district).

The SSP will also provide drinking water to a population of about 3.0 lacs living in 124 villages around the irrigation canal .Cattle and Other Livestock in Project’s CommandGujarat has a very large segment of population dependent upon cattle for livelihood. On account of periodic scarcity and drought conditions in Gujarat, the position of fodder and drinking water becomes acute for the large number of cattle and livestock. It may be pointed out that before partitioning of the country and creation of Pakistan, people with their cattle used to migrate to adjoining territory of Sind (now in Pakistan) during periods of drought (GID, 1980). But, in the past may decades the drought situation has caused people to abandon their cattle and livestock to die of hunger and thirst.

The Narmada water, which is expected to reach far-off comers of Gujarat, will resolve the problem of fodder and water for the cattle and other livestock of the region.Submergence Affected Topology. Ecology, and TectonicsThe water spread at full reservoir level of dam is about 370 square kms.

It has amaximum length along the river of about 214 kms and maximum width of about 16 kms. Parts of Broach, Baroda and Narmada districts in Gujarat, West Khandesh district in Maharashtra, and Jhabua, Dhar and West Nimar districts in Madhya Pradesh are affected by submergence. The gorge is narrow and water spread is confined mainly to the river portion for a fairly long reach, about 113 kms immediately upstream of the dam and about 32 kms in the tail portion of the reservoir . The submergence caused by SSP is expected to affect about 13,385 hectares of forest cover, maximum (about 48.5%) being in Maharashtra, followed by Gujarat (about 31%) and Madhya Pradesh (about 20.5%) A good proportion of the forest going in submergence is degraded, and no part of it can be considered virgin. Though a substantial proportion of flora will also be lost and a great variety of fauna will be drowned or displaced, no known endangered species of theirs is affected. No deposits of known important minerals are undergoing submergence.

Other than few temples of prominence, no important archaeological monuments are getting submerged.Though the main dam is situated close to a major fracture zone (namely the Tapi-Narmada-Sone lineament extending roughly East-Northeast to West-Southeast), noadverse impact of project reservoir is perceived by the geologists on the plate tectonics of the region. The Project falls in the seismic zone m (as per the IS-1893-1984, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structure) and has been accordingly designed for peak ground acceleration of the order of “0.

25g”. Calculations have established that the Sardar Sarovar Dam can withstand an earthquake of the magnitude of 7.5 (on Richter scale) occurring at 12 kms radius and at a depth of 10 kms (SSCAC, 2002). For a comparative understanding, it may be worth noting that the Bhuj Earthquake (of 26th January 2001) measured 6.9 on Richer scale and occurred about 400 kms from the dam site with a focal depth of 25 kms.

Based on the recommendations of the Dam Design Review Panel, expert advises of University of Roorkee and India Meteorological Department, a networkof nine seismograph stations in the vicinity and around the reservoir periphery have also been established for monitoring the seismicity of project area.Catchment Areas and Compensatory Afforestation AreasIn case of SSP – which is the first major project in India subjected to exactingenvironmental conditions subsequent to 1980 enactment of Forest Conservation Act – even the general environment, the forest cover, and the wild life of areas upstream of project are affected in a beneficial way. The stated benefits of substantial proportion have come by way of the soil conservation treatment given to catchment areas, and the compensatory afforestation programmes taken up at project costs. As part of project execution, soil conservation measures are being carried out in catchment areas to conserve the storage capacity of reservoir and to improve the post monsoon flow of river by increasing monsoon infiltration. The soil conservation measures would also cause benefits of soil erosion control and increasing of soil fertility; and will also augment the supply of timber and fuel from forests in the catchment area. The soil conservation measures involving afforestation, pasture development, terracing and bunding of cultivated lands, gully control, stream bank protection and provision of check dams are already being undertaken in the three states.

As the largest part of catchment area is in Madhya Pradesh, most of the conservation benefits will accrue to it. In parts of Gujarat where catchment area plantations were completed long back, the area has already established into multi-layered ecosystem, with sustained improvements in thefloral and faunal diversities. Rare endangered trees like Arborea, CoelospermumRelgiosum, Oroxylum Indicum, Ougenia Oobeinensis, Casea Tomentosa, BoswelliaSerrata have flourished, and better grasses like Themeda, Appluda and Dicanthium have replaced the poor species. With the increased faunal diversities, Panther, Hyena, Jackal, Porcupine and few four homed antelope can be easily seen. With the increased tree cover, birds like Golden Oriole, Treepic, Drongo, White Breasted Kingfisher, Muniyasand lora can also be seen now. Part of Shoolpaneshwar wildlife sanctuary forms the catchment area of SSP, and has been immensely benefited. With the improved habitat conditions of the sanctuary and reduction in biotic pressures, there has been increase in the rare wildlifeviz. Barking Deer, Four Homed Antelope, Slothbear, Giant Squirrel, Grey Hombill, Grey.

Jungle Fowl etc.4. Conflicts in the ProjectDespite the existence of explicit operational benefits the Sardar Sarovar project hasbeen the most controversial and much debated project in the contemporary India and across the globe. Gradually it became a mere legal issue and a pressing concern for the environmentalist.

No other river project in the world has ever before been held up for decades and locked in such ardent controversy as the Narmada. Later after 1980s the project was widely protested and one such protest took the shape of a spanner film documentary-Drowned out (2002), which follows one tribal family who decide to stay at home and drown rather than make way for the Narmada Dam. The submergence created by the dam has a number of direct and adverse impacts. However, there is no greater impact than the ousting of hundreds of thousands of people. The main issue, which is still the object of the debate, is the most fundamental one, the number of people who are displaced by the dam. When the NWDT Award was given, only estimates of the number of oustees were available.

It was estimated at that time that 6,147 families were displaced. By the early 1990s the report given by the five member group gave a figure of 40,245 families affected by the SSP. It is not only the large number of people displaced that attracts attention but the environmental aspects of the SSP have also been controversial. The project has several adverse impacts on the ecology of the region in addition to submergence of 13385.45 ha of forestiv. An assessment of this issue reveals that environmental safeguards are not being effectively implemented.

The catchment needs to be properly treated in order tocheck soil erosion and siltation in the reservoir as both contribute to degradation ofwater quality of the reservoir and reduce the life span of the dam. The differences and the conflict became greater leading to the formation of Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save Narmada Movement) which was formed inMaharashtra in 1989 and later spread to include 150 affiliates in other parts of India. It organized village committees in various areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra that would be affected by Sardar Sarovar and other dams on the Narmada, and succeeded in maintaining a coalition between adivasis in Maharashtra and western Madhya Pradesh and members of the landowning Patidar caste in the plains. It registered its opposition to the Narmada Project on human rights and environmental grounds and staged a series of demonstrations and road blockades against its continuation. NBA increased its pressure against the whole Narmada Project by demanding that the World Bank withhold the loans and that India stop construction of Sardar Sarovar, calling on supporters to undertake “direct action” if the Bank did not announce a withholding and condemning the World Bank for promotingneocolonialism through its financing of the Project. In May 1994, Narmada Bachao Andolan sued in the Supreme Court of India to restrain further construction, technically by asking the question of whether the terms of the NWDT Award and related agreements regarding resettlement were being carried outvi.

The apex Court responded in January 1995 with a stay order restricting construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam which has already-attained 80.5 meter (263.3 feet) height for five years to provide additional time for resettling oustees.Another visible and neglected issues that have resulted in numerous conflicts andcontroversies over the SSP have been the lack of accountability of agenciesresponsible for protecting, promoting securing the rights and entitlements of thevulnerable people affected by the dam construction. As a result, though there havebeen multiple agencies authorized to carry out the necessary tasks, violation of rights of people and environmental pre-conditions continues with impunity.

This is the situation in a project monitored by the Supreme Court of India. When responsible and accountable government institutions and agencies fail to be faithful in reporting to the Supreme Court, the affected people have no way of realizing their rights and entitlements.The impact of all these changes was foreshadowed in the Indian Supreme Courtafter the February 1999 decision to permit raising the Sardar Sarovar Dam from 80.3 to 85 meters (278.8 feet). NBA was unhappy to see the project given new life, pro-dam opinion was unhappy to see that the height was short of the 110 meters (360.

8 feet) needed to create a reservoir high enough to fill the canal. It became clearer in October 2000 when a three-member benchvii of the Indian Supreme Court ruled on the case Narmada Bachao Andolan v.Union of India and Others.viii In a two-to-one decision, it invoked the common law doctrine of latches to rule that the NBA had failed to raise its objections in a timely manner, that the Court was not going to review issues related to design of the Sardar Sarovar Dam itself but only the fundamental rights of the oustees guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution of India, and reminded the parties that the decision of a Water Disputes Tribunal (WDT) could not be challenged by private parties once it became binding on the states involved. The decision rejected NBA claims that the Ministry of Environment and Forests decision to grant conditional clearance of the project in 1987 was itself a violation of Article 21 because it was taken on political grounds rather than after taking full account of the environmental impacts.In the same judgment Justice Mr. Bharucha gave directions to Madhya Pradesh andMaharashtra (the Grievance Redressal Authorities of Gujarat) that before furtherconstruction begins, they should certify (after inspection) that all those displaced by the raise in height of 5 metres have already been satisfactorily rehabilitated, and also that suitable vacant land for rehabilitating them is already in the possession of the respective States. This process shall be repeated for every successive five meterincrease in height.

Justifications for the project:Sardar Sarovar is a classic example of a development project which id deemed to be in the “nations interest”. The justification of this project is thatit will bring enormous benefit to millions, whilst displacing relatively few people.It will bring drinking waterto about 40 million people living in the drought prone regions of Gujarat. As well it will bring irrigation facilities to a vast area within Gujarat and 2 districts in Rajasthan, increasing expected net value of their agricultural production sixfold.

These justifications are couched in the utilitarian terms of balancing the needs of the many against those of a few. Moreover, even the discomfort of the few is seen tobe minimal according to many project proponents. The majority of people to be displaced by this project “are tribal people whose lands are said to consist of steep, rocky and degraded forests”.

It is possible that development-induced environmental displacement could be justified in certain cases where the people to be displaced were properly consulted beforehand, and then sufficiently compensated in ways acceptable to them. This justification entails an implicit moral responsibility on the part of states and international institutions to ensure the proper compensation of people displaced as a result of development initiatives.It cannot be said that the Sardar Sarovar Dam is a case wherein all the victims are fully compensated, let alone a case wherein the different social groups are equally sharing in the cats and the benefits of the project. Rather, it is the most vulnerable social groups which are disproportionately carrying the burdens through loss of land and culture.

It is also disputable whether or not the development project can even be said to be in the public interest. The project will submerge fertile valley land so as to irrigate a larger area of less fertile land elsewhere. It will potentially cause waterlogging and increase soil salinity. It will provide ideal sites for malaria-carrying mosquitoes to breed, causing potential health problems, and submerge a vast area of forest at a time when forest conservation is an acknowledged priority. In addition, it is questionable as to whether the dam can provide the amount of hydroelectricity which proponents suggest.

Environmental Victimization: Jeopardizing Lives and LivelihoodsIn all of these cases, these are people who fit El-Hinnawi’s definition of an environmental refugee since they “have been forced to leave their traditional habitat, temporarily or permanently, because of a marked environmentaldisruption,” caused by the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project, “that jeopardized their existence and/or seriously affected the quality of their life”. Although circumstances varied widely, and thus not all people were affected in the same wayor to the same degree, in general, the dam project substantially affected people’s economic livelihoods, their culture and their health. As a result, it seems highly unlikely that these environmentally displaced people, even with the aid of the resettlement scheme, will be fully rehabilitated to the standard of living which they were enjoying prior to the development project.Environmental Displacement These displaced people include thefollowing categories:There are the “oustees,” i.

e. those who are being outright evicted to make way for the dam project. Included in this category are those who are not formally recognized as “Project Affected Persons,” since they are being evicted to make way for the canal system, rather than the reservoir. There are those who are being displaced as a result of losing a part of the environmental resources upon which they depend for their livelihood.Included in this category arepeople who are:i) not actually losing their agricultural land to rising dam waters, but will be losing surrounding lands which theyused for other important purposeii) those who will potentially loseaccess to environmental resources as a result of catchment area reforestation plansiii)those who will lose access to environmental resources as a result of the canal creating a physical barrier between themselves and those resources Finally, there are those whose environment alters to the point of putting their economic livelihoodsin jeopardy, including:i) downstream fishery-dependent people andii) people who customarily occupy or utilize public land in areas which are targeted for rehabilitationCultureMany of these people are also victimizedin terms of their cultural well-being. Perhaps the most important means of cultural victimization is the policy stance taken by both the state of Maharashtra and the state of Madhya Pradesh. “Oustees” have the choice of being resettled within their own state, but for many there is very little in the way of a real choice. Most “oustees” in these two states would be considered landless oustees (eligible only for a houselot) because they hold no legal title to land.

However, in the state of Gujarat they would be given a minimum of 2 hectares of land. Also, the state of Gujarat has more land available in larger sections, allowing for the potential of at least some families or community groups to resettle together worse. However, in cultural terms, resettling in Gujarat is a loss. For many it would mean moving away from other important family and other social ties. As well, language would become even more of a barrier, since few tribal men and no tribal women know languages other than their own and even then it would be only the official language of the state that they live in.HealthThe physical and psychological wellbeing of all of those who experienced a drop in the standard of their living would potentially be threatened as a result of the resettlement process. As discussed earlier, the loss of one’s culture, place, and economic security would certainly affect psychological well-being.

And in many cases, even a temporary drop in economic livelihood could result in a loss of access to an adequate and nutritious diet, which would especially affect the health of the very young. Stress and anxiety which would result simply from the anticipation of having to move could quite possibly have both physical and psychological affects.Benefits of the projectAfter examining current status of the project on the benefits as per official data the argument is always in favour of the Sardar Sarovar Project as the benefits are so large that they substantially preponderate over the costs of the immediate human and environmental disruption. Without the dam, the long term costs for people would be much greater and lack of an income source for future generations would put increasing pressure on the environment.

If the waters of the Narmada River continue to flow to the sea unutilized, then there appears to be no alternative to escalating human deprivation, particularly in the dry areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The Project has the potential to feed 20 million people, supply domestic and industrial water to 30 million, and provide employment to more than 1 million. Apart from the above benefits it provides valuable peak electricity in areas with high unmet power demand. Gujarat has received Rs 4,887 crores and Rajasthan has received Rs 625 crores under the Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme from 1996 to 2008 from the Central Government for the Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) command area for creation of the canal network which is lagging behind.

However the drinking water benefits of the SSP have always been presented as a strong argument in its favor, whenever it was gripped by controversy. The government of Gujarat also planned to generate solar power by placing solar panels over the canal, and making it beneficial for the surrounding villages to get power and to reduce the evaporation of water. The Narmada Basin hydro-meteorological (hydromet) network for forecasting flood and reservoir operation is another important project component.The dam will also irrigate 17,920 km2 (6,920 sq. mi) of land spread over 12 districts, 62 talukas and 3393 villages (75% of which are drought-prone areas) in Gujarat and 730 km2 (280 sq. mi) in the arid areas of Barmer and Jalore districts of Rajasthan. The dam will also provide flood protection to riverine reaches measuring 30,000 ha (74,000 acres) covering 210 villages and Bharuch city and a population of 400,000 in Gujarat.

Conclusion:Overall the Sardar Sarovar dam has faced much controversy. The project has been disputed between state governments and has invited even the concern of the activists.Like any big dam, it has the problems related to rehabilitation and the division of benefits equally among stakeholders. A dam of this magnitude needs land, which means displacement of thousands of families and disrupting the ecology of the land according to the activists who have been campaigning for the rights of tribals and farmers.However, the benefits derived from this dam are far off on a different level as it provides irrigation to over 18.45 lac ha. of land.

A special allocation of 0.86 MAFof water has been made to provide drinking water to 131 urban centres and9633 villages within and outside Gujarat for a population of 28million. The power generated from the canal house will be distributed among the three states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. It will also provide flood protection for riverine reaches measuring 30000 ha covering 210 villages and Bharuch city. Annual additional agricultural production would be Rs.

1600 crores, power generation and water supply Rs.175 crores aggregating to about Rs. 2175 crores every year.The site of the dam also provides much opportunities from students all over the country to visit and study the engineering marvel along with the statue of unity which is to be the tallest statue in the world. This may also lead to upgrade in the tourism sector of the country.

With the current degradation of the economy of the country such structures which benefits the country are very much needed in times like these. Since most of India’s population derives their income from agriculture, this project has proved to be a saviour in areas where droughts are prominent.REFERENCEwww.sardar sarovardam.orgIrrigation and water power engineering by Dr BC Punmia, Dr.

Pande B.B Lal, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun Kumar JainResearch India publicationsWorld Bank, Project Completion Report – India – Narmada River Development -Gujarat Sardar Sarovar Dam and Power ProjectNWDT Award, Clause IV (1), at page 47Report of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee,Government of India, Ministry of Irrigation and Power (Khosla Report).Sardar Sarovar Project- an overview by Philippe CulletStatus report of Sardar Sarovar Project (December 2015)Sardar Sarovar Dam- a case study of development induced environmental displacement


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