GradeModule codeENGL215Assessment typeEssayGraded by 1st Marker2nd MarkerAssessment Date24th January 2018Date GradedModule learning outcomes assessed. In completing this assessment you should Demonstrate the ability to apply critical thinking and contextual information to the analysis of texts Demonstrate the ability to write with clarity and concision Demonstrate the ability to present cogent, coherent and well structured written arguments Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between dramatic literary texts and their historical and cultural location Demonstrate an understanding of literary and poetic language, structure, and terminology as well as dramatic convention, process, performance and production NB Final grade determined by how well the criteria have been met overall and not the sum of the individual aspects of the work.Feedback Grade based feedback see the following pages for detail of each grade assignedFailMarginal FailThirdLower SecondUpper SecondFirstExcep. FirstArgumentAnalysisConceptsResearchEvaluationWritingPresentationBibliography Criterion ACriterion BCriterion CQuality and coherence of argumentLevel and sophistication of literary analysisUnderstanding of the relevant contextual and theoretical issues FailLittle or no sense of shape or argument.
Poorly organised. Poor understanding of the purpose of literary analysis. Little or no attempt to apply appropriate terms to appropriately selected texts. Little or no understanding of the key terms, nor of related theoretical terms or context.
Marginal FailLimited sense of shape or argument. Paragraphs not organised logically. Poor grasp of literary detail, some understanding of appropriate terms, but only sketchily applied. Poor grasp of relevant conceptual, contextual and/or theoretical issues relating to key issues.
ThirdSome sense of shape and argument awareness that an argument might be developed sequentially through linked paragraphs, but inability to do this with any confidence. Little attention to literary detail vague descriptions of themes or narrative techniques that are only tangentially relevant.Intermittent, but poorly developed understanding of key conceptual, contextual and/or theoretical terms relating to key issues.Lower SecondArgument stated at the outset ordered sense of development between paragraphs, but there may be gaps or faults in the argument.
Tends to be descriptive rather than analytical, relying on recaps, thematic descriptions, basic understanding of poetic techniques. Examples often drawn from lectures/seminars. Some understanding of key conceptual, contextual and/or theoretical issues, accompanied by a reasonable attempt to apply them appropriately. Tends to rely on examples used in lectures and seminars.Upper SecondArgument stated clearly at the outset paragraphs link coherently to develop and debate a train of thought fluently from beginning to end. Ability to explore the nuances of the argument.
Texts selected thoughtfully, and examples well chosen. Literary analysis coheres with argument and deploys carefully-chosen terms and conventions with accuracy and confidence. Good understanding of the appropriate contexts in which key conceptual and/or theoretical ideas might be deployed or developed. Ability to apply this understanding to selected texts with some intellectual independence. FirstArgument proposed confidently at the outset and developed consistently and coherently throughout. Ability to debate the strengths and weaknesses of the argument in an informed way.
Texts selected thoughtfully, with perhaps broader reference to texts outside the module. Literary analysis full, accurate, detailed, showing confident use of aptly selected terms and conventions.Theoretically-informed understanding of material ability to debate strengths and weaknesses of theoretical or conceptual viewpoints in relation to judiciously selected texts. Good knowledge of contextual issues.
Exceptional FirstArgument introduced with unusual confidence and awareness at the outset, and debated perceptively, imaginatively and originally throughout.Choice of texts reflects understanding of a range of reading broader than that taught on the module. Sophisticated, elegant use of literary terms and conventions, showing subtlety and originality.
Subtle and sophisticated awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of relevant theoretical and/or conceptual issues. Originality in showing how this analysis illuminates appropriately selected texts. Criterion DCriterion ECriterion FQuality and extent of researchAbility to comment on or evaluate secondary or critical sources Fluency and accuracy of writing FailLittle or no attempt to research relevant secondary sources.Little or no reference to secondary or critical sources.Writing style marred by inaccuracies and errors in sentence structure, word choice, grammar.
Marginal FailLimited and/or inappropriate use of secondary sources (perhaps academically untrustworthy determined by Google alone, etc.) Limited reference to secondary or critical sources, and little attempt to evaluate them. Writing style lacks clarity and confidence, but is broadly grammatically accurate.ThirdSecondary sources located and noted, but perhaps without proper awareness of their relevance or otherwise.
Some reference to secondary or critical sources, but cited randomly.Clear writing style maybe showing some common errors (poorly-integrated quotations, inappropriately informal tone commas, semi-colons, colons used inaccurately etc.) Lower SecondGood number and range of secondary sources located, selected and commented on.
Tendency to use secondary and critical sources as information i.e. uncritically, with little attempt to integrate, contextualise or evaluate. Clear writing style, occasional errors, but nothing that would impede communication. Formal, scholarly tone.
Upper SecondSubstantial bibliography, demonstrating good use of research skills in locating, selecting and synthesising relevant sources.Shows confidence in identifying relevant intellectual debates and in explaining the value, coherence or usefulness of the critical material selected to the essays argument. Fluent, pleasing writing style, mostly devoid of common errors (misplaced apostrophes, run-on sentences, etc.) Confident, scholarly voice.
FirstLengthy bibliography, revealing excellent use of research skills in locating, evaluating and synthesising a good range of highly relevant sources. Sophisticated judgements deployed in evaluating critical positions and in appraising their contribution(s) to the argument being presented.Clear, concise, elegant style, ambitious in lexical choices, confident in scholarly expression.Exceptional FirstExceptionally imaginative use of research skills and tools in order to seek out, evaluate and critique an extensive range of sources, some of which may be archival or hitherto unexamined. Outstandingly sophisticated understanding of the range, extent and implications of the intellectual debates surrounding the material.Concise, elegant, fluent and scholarly.
Of publishable standard. Criterion G PresentationCriterion H Referencing and bibliographyFailShows little knowledge of, or interest in, deploying scholarly presentation conventions. Inadequate grasp of referencing and bibliographic conventions. Gaps, errors, missing elements.Marginal FailSome attempt at deploying scholarly conventions, but with errors and inconsistencies. Referencing and bibliographic conventions understood, but with some errors in presentation.
ThirdClear, sustained attempt to integrate scholarly presentation conventions, but may make occasional errors. Referencing and bibliographic conventions mostly accurate only minor errors.Lower SecondScholarly conventions deployed Appropriate font and font size used essay double-spaced pages numbered books, essays, poem titles italicised or placed in inverted commas as appropriate.
Referencing and bibliographic conventions accurately deployed. Upper SecondAll scholarly conventions deployed with confidence and accuracy. Full and accurate bibliography and references, showing evidence of independent research. Confident use of footnotes. FirstAll scholarly conventions deployed with confidence and accuracy, including those that may have been researched in, e.
g., the MHRA Handbook. Accurate and extensive bibliography and references, showing considered independent research and an understanding of the ways in which footnotes may be deployed.Exceptional first Exemplary presentation standards.
Publishable.Exemplary bibliography and references, all accurately presented. Range of reference significantly beyond taught or recommended material discursive, constructive use of footnotes. Cross-Dressing for a New Reality Audiences today might not understand the complexities behind William Shakespeare and the way he wrote his plays. Until the 17th century, the morals of society differed greatly from todays more liberal take on certain matters, and cross-dressing is a perfect example.
Shakespeare goes deeper within the messages he portrays in his plays compared to other writers of his generation. His plays at times are running social commentaries on the morals of the day. He never left something out or added anything in by accident — there was always a purpose.
In William Shakespeares plays Twelfth Night and As You Like It, both of these plays introduce the idea of cross-dressing and showed a deeper meaning behind it. Defined by the Cambridge Dictionary, Cross-Dressing is the HYPERLINK https//dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/act act of HYPERLINK https//dictionary.cambridge.
org/dictionary/english/wearing wearing HYPERLINK https//dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/clothes clothes usually HYPERLINK https//dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/worn worn by the HYPERLINK https//dictionary.cambridge.
org/dictionary/english/opposite opposite HYPERLINK https//dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/sex sex.
While it was customary at the time for males to play both male and female roles in a play, in these instances the lead female characters dress up as male characters which was not the norm. Both of these plays are meant for comedic purposes and theatre entertainment and in both scripts the female characters changing into male characters is seen as a joke, but because of the societal norms in the society in which Shakespeare lived, it went beyond being mere entertainment into being a showcase of the types of gender inequality women experienced at that time. During the Elizabethan era, men were held in higher regard than woman. Men being superior, women had limitations placed upon them but women curiosity, too. If a woman wanted to become a man, it would be a disguise, but under no circumstances could it be permanent. In both plays, the problems occurring could never be solved by a woman but by only men who were able defend themselves while solving the problem.
Men needed to be the hero. Against the backdrop of the limited role woman had back then in society, Shakespeare gave women more of a voice in the theatre because of their limitations in civilization, his talents helped them create a world where they mattered a bit more and women gained a little more freedom because of it. The theatre life during the Elizabethan era, (and actually theatre in general) was very opposed to the strict rules society imposed on its citizens, women especially. In Shakespeares era, when one understood their rules of society, they are more focused on what they could do to change it. Shakespeare was known to create controversy through his plays cross-dressing being one of the issues that he tackled.
He used comedy to soften the message because some people felt it defied religious lines, beliefs and/or traditions. Cross-dressing was interpreted by some that you did not feel like you belonged to your gender and were leaving it by choice and this was not accepted. If men and women started wearing each others clothes outside of the theatre environment that would be unnatural. Since men played womans roles in Shakespeares plays, audiences were expected to be more tolerant of cross dressing in the theatre, however in real life it would be taboo and would see it as something that should be forbidden. While others would turn their heads and smile, seeing the theatre simply for what it was originally intended, as entertainment, some would also argue that the appearances of the characters mattered. For example, what they wore signified their social class and their gender.
There were specific rules to follow and laws called The Tudor Sumptuary Laws which were basically A legal act that applied to all in society. These laws told you what you could wear according to your position, making clear class distinctions. Besides following societies rules of live theatre, if the clothing someone was wearing was not suited for their class or gender, this would have been viewed as a fairly significant transgression of social boundaries and therefore, in many cases, people viewed cross dressing as something forbidden.
During the Elizabethan Era, and during the promotion of Shakespeares play performances, all plays performed on stage were always male only casts. Women were not allowed to be actors on stage, and they had very little rights in society at all. Shakespeares play Twelfth Night gives a good example of showcasing the significance of cross dressing and the freedom women gained by dressing as men. As men, they could do what they pleased and no longer be marginal parts of society. Viola, one of the main female characters in Twelfth Night, helps the play live up to its provoking and curious story line. Giving women a voice in his plays was not something that just randomly happened, it was deliberately written that way by Shakespeare he still wanted women to be seen as a part of society and at a little higher position than what they actually were seen.
Perhaps he regarded them as much more complex than given credit for, because his women characters were very compelling. Viola was an important character and was a very complicated one. By disguising herself as Cesario, and moving on from the shipwreck that caused her to change her identity, she showed strength and courage, things women were not taken seriously for. Viola caused a triangle of love between herself and two other characters, and showed lot of contrasting and deep emotions as she tries to deal with the strange and complicated situation. Viola gives light to difficult issues women dealt with, like having no voice in Elizabethan era London anywhere outside the theatre. This was a serious issue for woman at the time, and Violas life as a man showcases their plight in a way that was acceptable because it was artistic.
At the very same time and at the other end of the spectrum the comedic aspect her character was a man, dressed as a woman, dressed as a man. Twelfth Night could be a very controversial play if it was brought to the stage for the first time today. Modern audiences would see no reason why women could not play a woman character, that would be rather unusual, but this play was set in Shakespeares time.
This play raised questions of how these topics like gender, identity and sexuality, could and should be performed onstage, and coincidently those were the issues Shakespeare was not afraid to show an interest in. The fact that this main female protagonist, Viola, is played by a young boy who plays Violas character, playing as an another boy character provided gender confusion and raised more questions about identity and the flexibility of it. Shakespeare brought attention to daily lives by putting this disorienting scene of a boy playing a woman playing a boy to light on stage.
Because at the time in London, boy actors were only able to perform, Shakespeare followed the rules of crossdressing but none the less, he did leave his audiences thinking about the issues that surrounded them. Through the use of cross-dressing, and the subject everyone could relate on, which is love, Shakespeare brought attention to an everyday love affair by focusing on Viola and the love she has for Orsino. In scene 2, act 4 Viola speaks her love as so Our shows are more than will for still we prove Much in our vows but little in our love. This scene helps signify how limited women truly were because in order to be themselves, they had to disguise themselves as men to have a better chance, or even to be taken seriously. What is even more ironic is that even being themselves under their disguise, they still werent being taken serious as themselves but who they were disguised as, when trying to be themselves.
Shakespeare showed those true complications on stage by addressing it through his scripts, powerful scenes and his characters. Shakespeares play As You Like it also deals with cross-dressing in the theatre and also exploring the freedom women had when they would disguise their identity as a man, but it was more of a comedic effect that Shakespeare aimed for in this play as he tried to make it clear to his audiences that indeed, gender roles could be imitated and preformed not only in the theatre, but in real life too. Both plays are very similar with the aspects of cross-dressing. This play shows that Shakespeare would also cater to his women audience members as well because like in the play Twelfth Night, As You Like It too features a cross-dressing female lead whose disguise allows Shakespeare to continue to explore the variability of gender without limitations, thus done by cross-dressing. For example, when Rosalind flees into the woods for her safety, she disguises herself as a young boy whose name is Ganymede.
By Rosalind changing her disguise, she has now challenged the traditional ideas about what it means to be a man or a woman, or at least what society thinks it should mean. In simpler words, Rosalinds male character, Ganymede, disguise gives the opportunity of a new freedom, a chance to explore her identity because it allows her to behave in ways that were considered collectively improper for women during that era. During a play, the audience is the main focus and the experience. As much as possible, the story is supposed to be felt, understood with imagination and the characters are supposed to be relatable. The full extra-theatrical experience and reality of the play can be realized before or after, there is not a specific order. In As You Like It, we see another complex situation of cross-dressing.
A similar example as in Twelfth Night, the reader encounters a male actor who plays the role of a female, who pretends to be a male, who performs in the role of a woman. With another love triangle in a Shakespeare play, this play introduces more sexual matters towards the end of the conclusion. A direct reference to the real sex of the character playing Rosaline is addressed and seen as another example of being able to thrive on mistaken identities while on stage, this was an intention Shakespeare never intended to haze out sexual differences, specifically between the sex of the male actor and that of the female character he is set to play.
Sexual ambiguity enriches plots by making them more elaborate in addition, it helps resolve the plots and helps restore gender identities back to patriarchy. Cross-dressing has always been a widely used comic addition in Elizabethan drama a theatrical device, especially in Shakespeares writing but with him it goes far beyond just theatrical performances and plays, in the extent that cross-dressing puts forward the issue of gender. We are now familiar with the fact that all feminine parts were played by male actors during Elizabethan times. With the rise of feminist criticism, however, and backed by psychoanalytic approaches, too, it has been pointed out that this theatrical cross-dressing may have not been so innocent, after all.
Especially not, when, as often on Shakespeares stage, the boys, playing women, cross dressed into male clothes, for various purposes Shakespeare always concluded his plays by bringing both worlds back to a balance, the fictitious and reality. He cared about gender and woman always had a say, and or a main part in his plays. Yet he never failed to have women return to their place being under the authority of men, and understanding of their roles in society, even if they were unpleased, because they still achieved their goals disguised as men. Hence the way Shakespeare would shake the rules in the world of theatre. Cross-dressing allowed two worlds to be seen, when most were settled in one. Shakespeare brought to life on stage all of what a woman should not be because he knew it needed to be presented, performed.
Shakespeare may be more responsible for pushing the boundaries of cross-dressing and what his audience would take and believe from it, but maybe it was the point of the theatre not always needing to present the most realistic picture, but what could become reality if we pictured it. Bibliography Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Dictionary (2018) https//dictionary.cambridge.org accessed 10 January 2018. Howard, E.
Jean, Crossdressing, The Theatre, and Gender Struggle in Early Modern England, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 39.No. 4, (1988), 418-440. Karim-Cooper, Dr.
Farah, Globe Education (2016) playingshakespeare.org accessed 15 January 2018. Kerchy Anna, Szonyi E. Gyorgy, Kiss Attila, The Iconology of Law and Order, Order and Its Subversion in Dress-Code Crossdressing, (Szeged JATEPress, 2012), 274 (p.
110-22). McCarthy, Andrew , Tudor Fashion Police- The Sumptuary Laws (March 2016) Maryrose.org accessed 15 January 2018. Shakespeare, William, As You Like It, ed. By Barbra A.
Mowat and Paul Werstine (New York Washington Square Press, July 2004). Shakespeare, William, Twelfth Night, ed. By Barbra A.
Mowat and Paul Werstine (New York Washington Square Press, July 2004). d. by Barbra Washington Square Press, July 2004) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Dictionary (2018) https//dictionary.
cambridge.org accessed 10 January 2018. Andrew MCcarthy , Tudor Fashion Police- The Sumptuary Laws (March 2016) Maryrose.
org accessed 15 January 2018. Dr. Farah Karim-Cooper, Globe Education (2016) playingshakespeare.org accessed 15 January 2018. Shakespeare William, Twelfth Night, ed.
By Barbra A. Mowat and Paul Werstine (New York Washington Square Press, July 2004), p.75 Anna Kerchy, Gyorgy E. Szonyi, Attila Kiss, The Iconology of Law and Order, Order and Its Subversion in Dress-Code Crossdressing, (Szeged JATEPress, 2012), p. 110-22. 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