Global and Bangladesh, it covers nearly 4,000

warming is a great perl, the most pretentious areas are the coastlines of less developed
countries and India is one of them. Mainly, the deltas of river are facing the
brunt of climate change and these effects can be expected to rise with a pace in
the course of this century.The Sunderban Rainforest are one of the region
in India having a great threat.

The Sunderbans is the
world’s stupendous mangrove forest. Designated as a United Nations World
Heritage site in both India and Bangladesh, it covers nearly 4,000
square miles (10,000 square kilometers). The forest provides home to the Bengal
tiger, as well as other rare and endangered species of aquatic mammals, birds and

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mangrove ecosystem, (between 21032’–220 40′ North and between 880 85’–89000
East) is an unique, productive and highly valued ecosystem in terms of economy,
environment and ecology (Chakraborty, 2011). Although, mangroves of India
account for only 0.67% of the total designated forest area of the country,
their presence remain utterly important under growing concern of global
reduction of mangrove habitats and need special attention. The Indian mangroves
contribute significantly towards the shrinking of global mangrove reserves with
approximately 2.7% of the world’s mangroves those exist along the 7516.6km long
coastline of India (Giri et al.,2011). Several conservation strategies have
been adopted to protect Indian mangroves in view of ongoing and persisting
ecological and anthropogenic threats.(Bhatt and Kathiresan, 2012). The
Sundarbans Mangrove Forest is particularly critical and a highly fragile ecosystem
because of its complexgeo-morphological and environmental settings, enormous
population density and gradual shrinking of the islands under the rising Sea
level (Das Gupta and Shaw, 2013).

OF BIODIVERSITY Field surveys, collection, and identification of floral and
faunal components during last two decades following standard literatures
(Chaudhuri and Choudhury 1994, Chakraborty, 2011, Giri and Chakraborty, 2012).
parameters of soil and water were analyzed following standard methods (APHA,
2005) and with the help of water quality checker (Towa, Model No. WQC 22A
Japan). Meteorological parameters (Rainfall, Temperature) of previous decades
were collected from the Indian Meteorological Department, Alipore, Kolkata
(Chakraborty et al.. 2009).

OFREMOTE SENSING AND GIS Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery has proven to be
effective in mapping temporal and spatial variations in environmental indicators
within large water bodies, as well as phyto-environment, pedological
characterization, land use/cover system etc. For land use/cover thematisation,
Optimum Index Factor (OIF) has been used for selecting the potential band
combination, which is based on the total variance within bands and correlation
coefficient between bands. The products of vegetation vis-s-vis forest cover
mapping derived from remotely sensed images are being objectively verified and
communicated in order to enable to chalk out proper strategies for sustainable
environmental management. However, the role of vegetation indices and textural
images improving land-cover classification performance is still poorly
understood, especially in moist tropical vegetated regions such as the Sundarbans
mangrove forest areas.

The Sundarban Biosphere Reserve which was
declared in 1989 is one of the three greatest marine biosphere reserves in the
country. The main objective of the marine biosphere reserve is protection,
conservation and judicious utilization of the marine environment. The
Sundarbans Project Tiger and National Park and the three Wildlife Sanctuaries i.e
Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary, Lothian Island Sanctuary, Haliday Island
Sanctuary are located within the biosphere reserve. The other areas in the reserve
are habitations and cultivated fields. People living in these forest areas are
predominantly either fishermen or farmers. The Sundarban Biosphere Reserve has
been divided into two regions for effective management. They are the Sundarbans
Tiger Reserve under the Field Director (Gosaba) and D.F.O Parganas South


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