Global urbanization has negative impacts on the way people interact in a society that can cause many issues and problems.GlobalConsequences:Foremostamong the global consequence is the Habitat loss both Terrestrial and aquatic.Deforestation and Habitat Loss:Large areas of land need to be cleared in order toprovide the population with urban housing as well as other facilities that leadto deforestation around the world. Tropical Rainforest have received mostof the consideration in connection to Habitat destruction .
From theapproximately 16 million square kilometers of tropical rainforest habitat thatoriginally existed worldwide, less than 9 million square kilometers remaintoday.6 Once the areas are cleared, they can be used foragricultural purposes to provide adequate food supply. This also encouragedslash and burn agriculture mostly practiced in the Amazon rainforests. Slash-and-burn is used by 200–500 millionpeople worldwide.
7 In 2004 it was estimated that in Brazil alone, 500,000 small farmers each clearedan average of one hectare (2.47105 acres) of forest per year8 . Through deforestation on unsustainable lines, there has been a cut inannual rainfall, tree burning releases carbon di oxide that contributes toglobal warming. It is estimated that more than 1.
5 billion tons of carbondioxide are released to the atmosphere due to deforestation. 11 Carbon foot prints haveincreased in size. Due to lack of trees, the removal of carbon di oxide andaddition of oxygen becomes inefficient.
The average global temperature on Earthhas increased by about 0.8the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius(1.
4° Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade. The average temperature has risenglobally that have led to the melting of polar ice caps and increase in sealevels. There is a reduction in biodiversity and threatened extinction ofspecies such as Siberian Tiger, Iberian lynx, Brown spider monkey etc.
that imposesdisturbances in the food chains finally affecting the human population.Case Study: Indonesia Indonesia is a country of over 3000 islands including Java, Sumatra,Maluku etc all of which lie closer to the equator. Indonesia’s rainforests areone of the Earth’s most biologically rich landscapes that manifest over 3000animal species including Sumatran tigers, pygmy elephants, orangutans etc.9 However, the rates of deforestation are increasing and deforestationof tropical rain forest is the main issue concerning Indonesia. Estimated Amounts of Deforestation in Indonesia 1970s 300,000 hectares per year 1980s 600,000 hectares per year 1990s 1,000,000 hectares per year Figure 0.
5 10There is a clash of ideas in concerningwho is most responsible for this issue. There is blame on government and its developmentprojects on a macro scale. Others blame the greed of logging companies.
Somealso believe it to be the effect of rapid urbanization and high populationgrowth.Causes of Deforestation:Political:1- Transmigration programof the government to move people from overcrowded big cities like Java to lesspopulous areas of the country that involves clearing up of forests toaccommodate the population. Up to one million hectares of forests have alreadybeen destroyed.
102- Concessions have beengiven to logging companies in 1998 which are run by influential politicalfigures.3- There has been a delayin legislation to control illegal cutting of trees.Economic:1- Indonesia is a major exporter of wood and woodproducts that also encourages cutting down trees to obtain wood2- Money from exports isneeded to pay off international debts.3- Around 700,000 peoplework in the logging sector of the country where unemployment rates haveworsened due to high population growth.
Social:1- Increased population growth and rapid urbanizationincreases competition on natural resources2- Slash and burn farming practice is promoting use onunsustainable lines.Effectsof Deforestation:OnEcosystem:1. There is a reduction in biodiversity and biomass,2.
Loss on naturalhabitats for animals that later endanger the species or in worst cases resultsin extinction.3. More competition within the food webs.4. Lower rates of net primary productivity OnLocal people and Environment:1- Degradation in the quality of air causes breathingproblems and diseases in respiratory tracts.2- Conflicts between the government and indigenouspopulation living in tropical rain forests.3- Increased soil erosion due to lack of interception andinfiltration by trees4- Siltation in the reservoirs leading tolower water storage capacity and HEP generation5- Forest fires; sometimes lit deliberately by loggingcompanies to clear large areas of land.