Global urbanization has negative impacts on the way people interact in a society that can cause many issues and problems.Global
among the global consequence is the Habitat loss both Terrestrial and aquatic.
Deforestation and Habitat Loss:
Large areas of land need to be cleared in order to
provide the population with urban housing as well as other facilities that lead
to deforestation around the world. Tropical Rainforest have received most
of the consideration in connection to Habitat destruction .From the
approximately 16 million square kilometers of tropical rainforest habitat that
originally existed worldwide, less than 9 million square kilometers remain
today.6 Once the areas are cleared, they can be used for
agricultural purposes to provide adequate food supply. This also encouraged
slash and burn agriculture mostly practiced in the Amazon rainforests. Slash-and-burn is used by 200–500 million
people worldwide.7 In 2004 it was estimated that in Brazil alone, 500,000 small farmers each cleared
an average of one hectare (2.47105 acres) of forest per year8 .
Through deforestation on unsustainable lines, there has been a cut in
annual rainfall, tree burning releases carbon di oxide that contributes to
global warming. It is estimated that more than 1.5 billion tons of carbon
dioxide are released to the atmosphere due to deforestation. 11 Carbon foot prints have
increased in size. Due to lack of trees, the removal of carbon di oxide and
addition of oxygen becomes inefficient. The average global temperature on Earth
has increased by about 0.8
the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius
(1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since
1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade.
The average temperature has risen
globally that have led to the melting of polar ice caps and increase in sea
There is a reduction in biodiversity and threatened extinction of
species such as Siberian Tiger, Iberian lynx, Brown spider monkey etc. that imposes
disturbances in the food chains finally affecting the human population.
Indonesia is a country of over 3000 islands including Java, Sumatra,
Maluku etc all of which lie closer to the equator. Indonesia’s rainforests are
one of the Earth’s most biologically rich landscapes that manifest over 3000
animal species including Sumatran tigers, pygmy elephants, orangutans etc.
9 However, the rates of deforestation are increasing and deforestation
of tropical rain forest is the main issue concerning Indonesia.
Estimated Amounts of
Deforestation in Indonesia
300,000 hectares per year
600,000 hectares per year
1,000,000 hectares per year
Figure 0.5 10
There is a clash of ideas in concerning
who is most responsible for this issue. There is blame on government and its development
projects on a macro scale. Others blame the greed of logging companies. Some
also believe it to be the effect of rapid urbanization and high population
Causes of Deforestation:
of the government to move people from overcrowded big cities like Java to less
populous areas of the country that involves clearing up of forests to
accommodate the population. Up to one million hectares of forests have already
Concessions have been
given to logging companies in 1998 which are run by influential political
There has been a delay
in legislation to control illegal cutting of trees.
Indonesia is a major exporter of wood and wood
products that also encourages cutting down trees to obtain wood
Money from exports is
needed to pay off international debts.
Around 700,000 people
work in the logging sector of the country where unemployment rates have
worsened due to high population growth.
Increased population growth and rapid urbanization
increases competition on natural resources
Slash and burn farming practice is promoting use on
There is a reduction in biodiversity and biomass,
Loss on natural
habitats for animals that later endanger the species or in worst cases results
More competition within the food webs.
Lower rates of net primary productivity
Local people and Environment:
Degradation in the quality of air causes breathing
problems and diseases in respiratory tracts.
Conflicts between the government and indigenous
population living in tropical rain forests.
Increased soil erosion due to lack of interception and
infiltration by trees
Siltation in the reservoirs leading to
lower water storage capacity and HEP generation
Forest fires; sometimes lit deliberately by logging
companies to clear large areas of land.