Gender linguistics – is a scientific direction in the interdisciplinary gender studies, with the help of a linguistic conceptual apparatus studying gender 1.For the first time the concept of “gender” was introduced into the conceptual apparatus of sciencein the late 60 – early 70-ies of the twentieth century. Gender issue researchers paid particular attention to the formation of gender stereotypes in the language sphere 2.The difference between the two terms “sex” and “gender” was introduced by psychologist Robert Stoller and endocrinologist John Monie. “Sex” (sex) – denotes the biological sex, while “gender” (gender) is sociocultural construction.
Two of these concepts are at different poles in the life of a person. “Sex” (sex) is the starting position, something a person is born with, whereas “gender” (gender) is a kind of result of socialization of a person in society in accordance with his/her sex 1. Gender studies of images of masculinity and femininity in culture, ideology and mass consciousness, the differentiation of male and female roles and activities is relatively new aspect of the evaluation of linguistic material. Abroad, gender studies are intensively developing in the 1970s years of the twentieth century and represent a theoretical continuation of the “second wave” of feminist movement. Gender theory, unlike feminism, postulates the study of the roles of both women and men. In its origins, gender linguistics is associated with feminist criticism of the language. In the center attention to gender linguistics is the problem of studying the gender features of discourse, discursive strategies of men and women and the associated socio-linguistic aspects of speech representatives of different sexes.
The rise and rapid development of the feminist movement contributed to the understanding of women its importance and the possibility of self-realization in various spheres of activity in many Western countries, especially English speakers. That is why research, which is now known as gender linguistics, are conducted on the basis of the English language. The concept of gender is already enough widely entered into all spheres of social and academic life, so there is little doubt The need for gender analysis in the humanities. And although gender is beforesocial phenomenon, it is directly manifested not only in sociology and psychology, but also inlanguage.The idea of equality between a man and a woman in all spheres of life – political, social,scientific and educational, household and personal – quickly gained popularity. Because the language isreflection of our perception of the surrounding reality, the movement for women’s freedom and rightsImmediately affected the vocabulary of the language. The problems of gender in the English language are devoted to the work of domestic and foreign scientists, researchers and methodologists (Bazylev VN, Gorodnikova MD, Gritsenko ES, Kirilina AV, Malishevskaya D.
C., Martyniuk AP, Potapov VV, Sergeeva MV, Khaleeva II, Kholod AM, Coats J., Tannen D.
, Miller, Swift, Spender, etc.). The relevance of the study is determined by the need to study the impact of the role of the gender factor, as a social factor, on the development of the vocabulary of the English language, in particular functioning of gender-marked units.
The aim of the work is to study the word-formation features and characteristics the functioning of gender-marked units in modern English.The following research methods were used in the work: the method of semantic analysis, the methodcomponent analysis, the method of vocabulary definitions, the method of sampling, the method of quantitative calculations.The materials of the study are modern English dictionaries: the American HeritageDictionary, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, Collins English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, of which 100 gender-tagged units were selected by sampling.The term “gender” came to linguistics from anthropology in the early 70s of the twentieth century. For the first time he G. Rubin was used in the article “Exchange of women. Notes on the “political economy” of the sex “and is defined as “a set of conventions that entail a regulatory influence on the biological sexas an object of social activity “1, 108.
The purpose of the term “gender” is demarcation of sociocultural (gender) and purely biological (sex) characteristics of a person 2, 7.Gender should be viewed as a sociocultural category, which is regularly recreated in structures of linguistic awareness of the individual, due to the peculiarities of a particular culture and sociocultural norms, i.e. This set of stereotypes and patterns of behavior, speech, proposed society representatives of both sexes. A gender stereotype is a separate type of stereotype, which reflects culturally and socially conditioned thoughts and presuppositions about attributes, attributes and norms of behavior of representatives of both sexes in the language. Each society in a certain period of its historical development forms stereotyped standards of femininity and masculinity, other in words, stereotypes of “typical woman” and “typical man”, that is, features, norms, roles, typical or desirable for those whom society singles out as men or women.English-speaking society turned out to be subject to men who occupy the main positions in public life, business, politics.
All these realities were updated in the term male-dominated society 3. A woman, according to gender stereotypes, weak, passive, depends on the man,