Furthermore, For example, the colonisation trigger conflicts and

Furthermore, traumatic events not only distresspeople who experienced but also people has relationship with or those nearby. Infact, traumatic events can may be one off or contain a chain of distressingexperiences through the years. In terms of Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslander communities, lots of bureaucracy caused transgenerational trauma duringcolonisation.

For example, the colonisation trigger conflicts and massacres.Also the invaders dispossessed the conventional lands and resources from Ingenuouspeople while after the massacres, due to a high mortality rate and lack ofresources, new diseases were added and starvation occurred over the land. Likewise,Indigenous forms of governance and network were destructed as a result ofcolonisation.

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In the meantime, since Aboriginal and Torres Strait people havedifferent skin color, language and spirituality, Indigenous people eventually experiencediscrimination and racism, it led to lack of societal resources such as medicalcare, education, job opportunity and housing. Hence, stress and anxiety affecttheir mental well-being. The stolen generation, referred as Aboriginalchildren who pressured to bring apart from their family under the policy ofAssimilation of Federal and State and Territory governments during colonization,in order to break and end Aboriginal culture. Therefore, children were harmedphysically, emotionally and sexually abused because stolen girls and boys becameorphan and domestic servants, while malnourished and starving were happeningdue to unpaid or cheap wages. Also, stolen children taught to cast-off their Indigenousheritage, it caused them to feel ashamed of their culture and forced to adopt withwhite families which living conditions were extremely controlled, such as lowlevel of education as they expected to work as domestic servants. Yet some of the stolen families or children are still lookingfor their parents, while other never succeeded as parents themselves and turnedto substance abuse.

Thus, stolenchildren have a high occurrence of depression, anxiety and suicide between the StolenGenerations. In addition, trauma for indigenous children might happenthrough bearing witness of the previous traumatic encounters for their family andcommunity as an aftereffect for colonisation, constrained removals and otheradministration strategies. Also, interact with the victim of colonisation orothers has relationship nearby, and talking about historical trauma from their familyencountered through massacre, dispossession, slavery, rape and violence.

Besides,a large number of children and adolescent in indigenous communities encountertrauma straightforwardly because of the exposure to family violence, childabuse and neglect and substance misuse, which may be original traumaexperienced by parent or care giver. As shown above, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanderpeople colonisation and subsequent policies have created unresolved traumawhich has been surpassed down from era to era. Despite the fact that thiscontributes to the social and health disadvantages experienced through Indigenouspeople, the effect of unresolved trauma is frequently omitted in policy andpractice.

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