Forensic a search for any weapons nearby or

Forensic evidence is not the only technique
used in court. There will be a search for any weapons nearby or at the
location, CCTV will be used to follow any alibis the defendant may claim to
have and the defendant will also be investigated to see if there was any motive
behind the crime.

Alibis are a source of testimonial evidence
and can be presented in court by defendants. They can provide crucial evidence to
the case, for example, saying that they were with or saw the defendant at a
certain time and this can also provide a time frame for investigators to focus
on. However, a study in 2015 by Ricardo Nieuwkamp highlighted that only 1.6% of
alibis presented in court out of 191 studied, were deemed as believable. Alibis
are believed to be extremely biased. Usually the alibi is a friend of the
accused or someone who knows them personally and so this type of evidence is
rather weak. Overall, there has been very little investigation into the
reliability of alibis.

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Humans have a natural bias which is
known as cognitive bias, which can be broken down into contextual bias, when
someone is influenced by any background information they may already know, and conformational
bias, when someone us trying to interpret their findings to support what they
already believe. This is commonly found in witness testimony, where a witness
to the event will stand in court and describe the events that took place. They should
explain in as much detail as possible to give the jury a clear idea of exactly
what happened. However, it is common for these statements to be slightly
deviated from what happened due to shock or fear. Elizabeth Loftus discovered through
the use of psychological studies in 1974 that the different terms used when the
witness was asked questions had an effect on the response given (10). This shows how
easily a witness can be manipulated by lawyers and therefore reduces reliability
as there is no way to judge how much psychological tricks have had an effect on
the witness.


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