Concrete operational stage (8 to 12) Children learn to discern cause and effect.
They can anticipate possible consequences of an action without having to try it out. They begin to understand the views of others. They also understand that quantities remain the same even when their shape or form changes. (ex.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
Same amount of water poured into a tall skinny glass or short fat glass) Formal operational stage (13 and older) Children can reason using abstract concepts. They can understand future consequences and evaluate the probable outcomes of several alternatives.They can evaluate their own thoughts and consider major philosophical issues, such as why pain and suffering exist. . Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parenting- Parents who use an very demanding, rigid, punitive. They expect absolute obedience from their children and often use forceful measures to control their behavior. Permissive Parenting- Parents are usually warm and responsive but undemanding.
They place few requirements on their children for orderly behavior or household task. Authoritative Parenting- Parents are demanding.They impose rules and standards of behavior but they are also responsive and supportive. They encourage autonomy and self-reliance and uses positive reinforcement rather than harsh punishment. Uninvolved Parenting, parents are neither supportive nor demanding because they are indifferent. They spend little time interacting with their children and know little about their whereabouts or interests. 3.
Latchkey kids are children who return home after school and let themselves in to an empty house or apartment, where they are alone and unsupervised until their parents or adult comes home. . Globalization-the growth and spread of investments trade production communication and new technology around the world. 5. Wealth- is the money and economic assets that a person or family owns 6. Income- is the amount of money a person eceives usually through wages or salaries but it also can include rents interest savings accounts dividends on stock or the proceeds from a business.
7. Glass ceiling- women hit a collection of attitudinal and organizational biases in the workplace that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions. 8.Battered- woman syndrome-a condition that describes a woman who has experienced many years of physical abuse and feels incapable of leaving her partner.
A. Phase One- The Tension-Building Phase-minor battering occurs Woman tries to reduce her partneds anger by catering to him or staying out Of his way. 8. Phase two- The Acute Battering Incident- partners explodes in rage and beating or otherwise abusing his partner.
C. Phase Three- Calm (The “Honeymoon Phase”)- partner begging for woman’s forgiveness and promising that he will never beat her again.Give up whatever cause his anger, He say. Baby Boomers, now in their late 40s and early 60s, are often referred to as the sandwich generation because they must care not only for their own children but also their aging parents. 9. phases Of Separation Preseparation-the partners may fantasize about what it would be like to live alone, escape from family responsibilities, or form new sex liaisons. Early Separation- besides feeling ambivalent about leaving a marriage.
Questions arise about what tell family, friends, children teachers. Who get what items in home and economic issues.Midseparation- the harsh realities of everyday living set In. The pressure of two households meeting the children emotional and physical needs and unexpected expenses arouse; work college etc. Late Seperation – the partner must learn how to survive as singles again, such as doing all the housework or home maintenance. 10.
The Process of Divorce Emotional Divorce begins before any legal steps are taken. One or both artners feel unhappy or rejected. Legal Divorce is formal dissolution of a marriage. Couples reach an agreement on issues such as child custody property division and other economic assets.
Economic Divorce- couples may argue about who should pay past debts, property taxes and new expenses such as braces for children. Coparental Divorce- involves agreement about legal responsibility for financial support of the children their day to day care and the rights of the custodial and noncustodial parents in spending time with them. Community Divorce- during this stage they inform friends, family, teachers nd Others that they are no longer married. Psychic Divorce- in which the partners separate from each other emotionally and establish separate lives. Types of Custody 1 .
Sole custody- one parent has sole responsibility for raising the child; other parent has specific visitation rights. 2. Split Custody- the children are divided between the parents either by sex or by choice; the children decide who they want. 3. Joint custody- the children divide their time between their parents who share in decisions about their upbringing. 4. Co-custody- parents share physical and legal custody of their children equally. Process of Remarriage 1 .
Emotional Remarriage- is often a slow process. The person has to establish a commitment to trust in a new partner. 2. sychic Remarriage- their identify changes from single to a couple.
3. Community Remarriage- may have to change their community of friends when they remarry. They may have to sever close personal ties that they established after a divorce and lose valuable friendships. 4.
Parental Remarriage- involves developing relationships between a partner and the children of the new spouse. 5. Economic Remarriage- reestablishing a marital household as an economic nit. 6. Legal Remarriage- The legal system does not specify remarriage responsibilities , people are left to struggle with many problems on their own.Life Expectancy- the average length of time people of the same age will live, of almost 78 years compared with 47 years in 1900 and 71 years in 1970.
Ageism- to refer to discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older people. Grandparenting Styles: 1 . Remote or Detached- the grandparents and grandchildren live apart and see each other infrequently, maintaining a largely ritualistic , symbolic relationship. 2. Companionate and Supportive- is the most common pattern. They see grandchildren often and frequently do things with them. .
Involved and Influential- grandparents play an active role in their grandchildren lives. They may be playful and be spontaneous but they also exert substantial authority over grandchildren imposing definite-and sometimes tough rules. 4. Advisory and Authoritative- the grandparent serves as an advisor or a reservoir of family wisdom. Grandfather may acr as family financial advisor and grandmother plays a crucial role in grandchildren lives, especially if the mother Is young.
Mentoring the mother until she is able to handle parenthood.