Final Exam essay

In the case of “The Island President” it illustrates just how diverse the issue of climate change is. One reason this is so challenging is because, climate change affects every country in a different way, and would require many different approaches in policy making to correct and address the issue. For example the policy needs of the Maldives greatly differs from ours here in the United States.

Another reason is that there are so many factors that contribute to climate change, and more that aren’t yet specifically defined and understood.So, while a policy may address one factor, there would still be more that would to be covered and would go unchanged. Impeding the effectiveness of any policy that would be put in place. A third reason, and the most challenging would be that of gaining international cooperation. This largely would be in part to the economic status of countries and their ability or willingness to participate and cooperate with a policy.

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2. What is the role of values in environmental policy? Identify at least two conflicting values and discuss them in the context of grazing on federal lands OR drilling for oil in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge.Values play a critical role in environmental policy. They especially play a radical role in the discussion Of drilling for Oil in the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge. The conflicting values at hand here are that of wildlife habitat destruction and disturbance. The opposing value is that of human energy demands. On one end of the spectrum there is the importance of specific wildlife habitat and how drilling would negatively affect multiple species that live in the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge. Their survival directly correlates with how much of an impact we have on the environment.

With this being a National Wildlife Refuge, specially set aside to preserve habitat for the species hat rely on it for survival is a major controversy when deciding whether it would be ethically correct to drill here and disturb their habitat. The other value is that of human demands and our need for sustainable sources of energy. This value gives little consideration to wildlife habitat and focuses purely on human needs. 4. What does the term “common but differentiated” responsibilities refer to and what is its significance to this course?Discuss in the context of an environmental policy problem. Http://acids.

Org/public/docs/news/brief_common. PDF The term “common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the intuitions of developed and developing countries and how their contributions to global environmental pollution differentiate. This also states how the ability of developed and developing nations differs when it comes to their ability to take on these issues. Depending on their economic and technological capacities.This term is significant to this course, because we spent a great deal of time discussing policies and how they affect other countries in different ways. The type of contributions may be the same, yet differentiate in the amounts contributed to the environment.

This plays a roll in how much responsibility hey actually have when it comes to amounts produced. A current problem would be that of carbon emissions. For example, the United States and the Maldives both contribute to this issues, but the Maldives produces much less carbon emissions than the U.

S.Therefore, what we are contributing are common, but differentiate in that the U. S. Produces carbon on a much larger scale. Also, in the U. S.

We have a larger economic and technological advantage when it comes to being able to act on these issues. 1 . What distinctive challenges face those trying to create environmental policies in the United States? Describe at least THREE such challenges in your answer. Discuss in the context of water governance or genetically modified organisms (Smog).

How have US policies succeeded or failed in meeting the challenges you discuss?Be sure to use specific evidence from the course to support your argument. Genetically modified organisms (Smog) are becoming a hot topic in today’s’ world. We are seeing this term used in many current news articles and in online posts. The use of Smog’s has been going on for quite some time now, but has just recently been brought into the public spotlight. With more and ore people becoming Weary Of the food they eat and products they purchase, questions are being raised about how these products are produced.Also, the rising desire for “natural” and “organic” products really highlights these questions people have about Smog’s.

The practice of genetic modification is when a desired trait is exploited in an organism, and by changing its genetic make-up, we can better utilize that specific desired trait in an organism. A distinctive challenge for those trying to create environmental policies to regulate Smog here in the United States is that of unregulated Smog from there countries gaining entrance into the United States by the importation of certain foods and feed.A GYM that is unregulated and allowed in another country may be prohibited here. There is not currently a way of tracing these Smog and being able to identify them and their entrance into the IS. S. This makes regulating the extent of GYM use in the United States difficult because it cannot be certain if an unapproved GYM came from over seas or is being illegally modified here. Another challenge faced by policy makers in the U. S.

That support safe practices of genetic modification is that of escapes of newly modified genes onto the native or wild populations of plants and organisms.These escapes of genetically modified organisms are problematic, because they introduce the new gene sequence of a plant or organism to the native population. This is a big concern, because the newly modified gene will reproduce and that trait will take over and the native population will suffer. This also will cause a significant loss of biodiversity. Which makes the species very vulnerable to disease and other harmful effects. There is also a problem with the ethical values that people have when it comes to Smog . Many believe that That natural world should be left alone and to function as it was designed to.

While others think that if it is in our best interest to get the most benefit from our environment we should do so, even if that means genetic modification must take place. With such a wide range of opinions on what is right and how Smog should or should not be used it is very difficult for environmental policy makers to design such a policy to combat these varying opinions. Currently the United States regulations on Smog are relatively favorable to their development. They are economically important and the biotechnology industry is creating many jobs and opportunities in the U. S.There is no federal legislation that specifically addresses Smog.

I feel that this is a failure of our government and that there is a need for a policy to address and regulate these genetically modified organisms. 3. While vacationing in Berkeley, California, you see a bumper sticker on a 1968 VOW Bus (right next to the Grateful Dead sticker) that states: “If the people will lead, the leaders will follow. ” Discuss this motto with respect to environmental policy, using at least THREE specific environmental policy examples from the course. Do you agree that public participation and an active civil society are vital to good environmental policy?Why or why not, or under what conditions? Be sure to describe which forms of public participation are most effective, in your view, in helping to solve environmental problems. Be sure to defend your own view with specific evidence from the course. The saying, “if the people will lead, the leaders will follow’, is a powerful statement.

It speaks volumes when associated with environmental policy. It is the push behind nearly all-environmental policy in place. If it weren’t for the people who have the drive and passion to press our leaders with the environmental issues we are facing, important policies would not be in place today.A specific example of this statement in action comes to mind when I think of how environmentalist, Jerome Ring has made such a positive impact on environmental policy in the United States. While attending a presentation by Jerome Ring, at Purdue university I was able to see first hand, just how much of an impact a passionate individual can have on national leaders. Mr..

Ring recognized that there was a serious robber in the United States and that many people were suffering from harmful pollutants in their communities due to the careless deposition of chemicals into the soil and water, from local factories within the community.He took a stand and made his voice heard. By doing this he was able to gain the support Of many, in some instances the support Of entire communities. He enabled people’s voices to be heard, this in turn prompts government leaders to listen and to follow the people to address their concerns and needs for environmental policy. Another great representation of “if the people will lead, the leaders will allow”, is the case of “The Island President. After viewing this short film in class I was able to see that the actions of one to motivate a group of people can have global affects on leaders of nations. The Island President is a man by the name of Mohamed Gnashed. As a native of the Maldives he contested the president of the Maldives to make change, because he realized that the environment was changing his home island rapidly and something had to be done.

His actions lead to his imprisonment and harsh treatment. But he didn’t stop, he continued to press the issues of environmental instability on his island.Finally gaining the trust of thousands that now shared a common concern for their environment and the deteriorating condition of the island, due to rising ocean waters. This inspired change and the people elected Gnashed as President of the Maldives. He then spread word all around the world to different nations, expressing the critical issues of environmental pollution and the effects it was having on his country.

He demanded there be action taken and by doing So, world leaders have acted. The success of environmental policies is directly correlated with the amount and input of public participation.

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