EXPLORING CAREER GUIDANCE INITIATIVES IN GOROMONZI DISTRICT ZIMBABWEbyFiona Dandatosubmitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degreeMaster in Commerce in the subjectINDUSTRIAL AND ORGANISATIONAL PSYCHOLOGYat theUNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICASUPERVISORS: Professor LM Ungerer and Dr LSA MbatiNOVEMBER 2018DECLARATIONI, Fiona Dandato, student number 58536701, declare thatExploring career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District Zimbabweis my own work, and that all the sources that I have used or have quoted from have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.I also declare that the study has been carried out in strict accordance with the Policy for Research Ethics of the University of South Africa (UNISA). It took great care that the research was conducted with the highest integrity taking in to account UNISA’s Policy for Infringement and Plagiarism.
I further declare that ethical clearance to conduct the research has been obtained from the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa. Permission has been obtained from the participating organisation to conduct the research. SIGNATUREDATE 12 July 2018ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMy sincere gratitude and appreciation firstly goes to my academic supervisors Professor Leona Ungerer and Co-Supervisor Dr Lydia. Mbati, for their supervision and guidance during the process of producing this research.
Your patience, comments and encouragements are greatly appreciated.I also thank God the Almighty for making me who I am today. My continued appreciation goes to all who participated in this research. My innermost gratitude extends to the students, school principals and Mashonaland East Provincial Education offices for participating in the research. Deep appreciation goes to my family for their continuous encouragement towards the success of this research. Without them all these endeavours would not have been a reality.
May God continue to bless you.TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEDECLARATION2ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS3CHAPTER 1. SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION TO THE RESEARCHBackground of the study9Benefits of career guidance10Global career guidance initiatives 11Career guidance in Africa12Career guidance in Zimbabwe12The importance of early exposure to career guidance programs131.
2Problem statement and motivation of the research131.2.1Challenges faced in Zimbabwe131.
2.2Problem statement141.3The Research Purpose151.4Research Objectives151.4.1General Objectives161.
4.2Specific Objectives161.5The Research Questions161.6The Paradigm Perspectives161.6.1The Disciplinary Context171.
6.1.1Industrial Organisational Psychology171.6.1.
2Career Psychology184.108.40.206Humanism as the Underlying Psychological Paradigm171.7Research Design181.
7.1Research Approach181.7.2Research Methodologies and Methods181.7.3Data Analysis191.
5 Entree and Establishing Research Roles201.7.6Recording of Data211.7.7Strategies Employed to Ensure Validity and Trustworthiness211.
7.8Reporting 211.8Findings22 1.
9Conclusion, Limitations and Recommendations221.10 Chapter Layout221.11Chapter Summary22CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW232.1 Introduction232.2 Definition of Career Guidance232.
3 The role and benefits of Career Guidance232.3.1 Educational Benefits242.3.2 Social Benefits252.3.
3 Economic Benefits262.4 Global Career Guidance Initiatives 282.5 Career Guidance in Zimbabwe352.6 Theories and theoretical scaffolding362.6.
1 Theories of Process in Career Guidance362.6.1.
1Gottfredson’s Circumscription and Compromise Theory362.6.1.
2Ginzberg’s Theory of Career Choice372.6.2 Theories of Content in Career Guidance382.
6.2.1Parsons Trait and Factor Theory3220.127.116.11Hollands Theory of Personality392.
6.2.3Bordin’s Psychodynamic Theory392.6.3 Theories of Content and Process402.
6.3.1Krumbotz’s Happenstance Learning Theory402.
6.3.2Supper’s Career Development Stages402.
6.4 Theoretical scaffolding in this study412.7 Prior Related Research422.8 Chapter Summary44CHAPTER 3. BEST PRACTICE FOR CAREER GUIDANCE IN HIGH SCHOOLS: A META-ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY453.1 Introduction453.
2 The Research Process453.2.1 The Phases 453.2.
1.1 Phase 1: Getting started463.2.
1.2 Phase 2: Deciding what is relevant to the initial interest463.2.1.
3 Phase 3: Reading the studies503.2.1.4 Phase 4: Determining how the studies are related513.2.1.
5 Phase 5: Translating studies into one another518.104.22.168 Phase 6: Synthesising the translation543.2.1.
7 Phase 7: Expressing the synthesis553.3 Chapter Summary59CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS604.
1 Introduction604.2 Research Approach604.3 Research Methodology604.3.
1 Population614.3.2 Sampling 614.3.3 Entree and establishing researcher roles634.
3.4 Data Collection Methods634.3.5 Strategies employed to ensure quality data644.
3.6 Recording of data654.4 Data analysis654.
4.1 Textual analysis stage654.4.
2 The second stage622.214.171.124 Coding of themes 664.
4.3 The third stage674.4.4 The fourth stage674.
5 Research Findings and Reporting704.5 Chapter Summary72CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS735.
1 Introduction735.2 Research Overview735.2.1 Research Aim735.
3 Major Findings of the Research745.3.1 Parental Involvement in Career Guidance745.3.2 Career Guidance and Culture Intersect745.
3.3 Role Models and Peer Involvement755.3.
4 Career Guidance and the Social Media Intersect765.4 Conclusions765.5 Research Limitations775.6 Research Recommendations775.
6.1 Recommendations based on Theory775.6.
2 Recommendations based on Findings of the Research785.6.3 Recommendations based on Informing Policy795.6.4 Recommendations based on Practical Implications795.7 Conclusion80REFERENCES 81APPENDICES 90Appendix A Ethical Clearance Approval91Appendix B Participant Information Sheet95Appendix C Informed Consent Form/Parental Consent Form96Appendix D Interview Guide97LIST OF TABLESTable 2.
1 Goffredson’s Stages of Circumscriptions 37Table 2.2 Ginzberg’s Stages of Career Choice 37Table 2.3 Super’s Life Stages of Career Development Stages41Table 3.1 The CASP tool (2013)49Table 3.2 Article Summaries50Table 3.
3 Themes from the four Studies 51Table 3.4 Key Findings of the Studies 55Table 4.0 Participants Information 62Table 4.2 Table of themes62SUMMARYTITLE OF DISSERTATIONExploring career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District ZimbabweAUTHORFiona DandatoDEGREEMaster of Commerce in Industrial and Organisational PsychologyUNIVERSITYUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaABSTRACT/SUMMARYCareer guidance plays an important role in political, economic, educational, philosophical and social spheres of any modern society.
In spite of the gains it offers, limited empirical data is currently available regarding the efficacy of career guidance initiatives in the Goromonzi District of Zimbabwe. This research study sought to explore career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District Zimbabwe through the use of best international practices as a benchmark. Qualitative and explorative research method comprising a meta-ethnographic study as well as a phenomenological approach was used to gather data. The sample comprised of one boarding school and a day school. The sample participants comprised of, students, teachers and school principals. The findings revealed that parents are influential in career guidance decisions for their children, students are not well informed on the various career choices they can take, role models and peers help in career guidance decision making, and social media is crucial as a way of enhancing career guidance.
The study’s findings are useful to Industrial and Organisational Psychology and in the policy making processes of companies that enhance career guidance initiatives and implementations. The Ministry of Education and policy makers could use the results of this study to enhance career guidance practice in Goromonzi District and in Zimbabwe. Keywords: Career, Career counselling, Career decisions, Career guidance, High School Students. CHAPTER 1SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION TO THE RESEARCHIntroduction and background of the study This dissertation reports on a research study focused on exploring career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Chapter One contains the background of the study, the problem statement, the aims, paradigm perspective, research design and method as well as the chapter layout.Goromonzi District is a district in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe, in southern Africa with thirty-two (32) registered high schools (Oyedele & Chikwature et al, 2016).
In Goromonzi district, career guidance and professional learning initiatives over the years have had remarkably minimal impact on the ways in which teachers teach, students learn, or leaders lead in Zimbabwe (Mukeredzi, 2013). Students continually perform below the expected standard despite the introduction of programmes such as Performance Lag Address Programme (PLAP) in Zimbabwe; a strategy adopted at national level to examine outcomes to improve student learning (Ndlovu, 2013). According to Zvobgo (2004), schooling in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe is structured to provide education that fosters freedom or autonomy to all pupils. This is achieved by offering Mathematics, Science, English, History and Shona to equip students with the necessary skills to take charge of their own destiny.
However, this structure restricts students’ career choices. Despite being part of what is purported to be one of the best education systems on the African continent, students lack sufficient guidance in terms of their choice of school subjects, occupational choices and, in general, their life chances (Zvobgo, 2004).Career guidance and counselling fulfil an essential role in students’ transition from school to work and their eventual careers.
These services provide a crucial opportunity for students to investigate their possibilities for rewarding careers (Curry & Milsom, 2014). Mayston (2015) noted that career guidance among high school students worldwide play a crucial role in limiting career confusion in post-secondary career options, raising skilful leaders for the future and ultimately shaping the economy. These services provide a means for young people to reflect on their interests, qualifications and abilities. According to Mudyiwa (2015), career guidance helps students to choose which subjects to take, considering their dreams and goals. Career guidance assists students in receiving information on different career paths that equips them with the required techniques for fulfilling their dreams (Curry & Milsom, 2014).In addition, career guidance programmes among high school students include a sequence of support activities designed to help them plan and develop career options (Stern, Finkelstein, Stone, Latting & Dornsife, 1995). These programmes assist students in gaining an understanding of the relationship between school and work and promote student development at both the secondary and post-secondary level. More so, the programmes provide students with opportunities to develop comprehensive skills and competencies necessary for meeting the demands of the 21st century workplace (Curry & Milsom, 2014). Since global economies, industries and technology are changing, the preparation of students for the world of work has to change accordingly (Zunker, 2016).1.1.1Benefits of career guidanceCareer guidance touches all aspects of human life, since it has political, economic, educational, philosophical and social benefits (Zunker, 2016). Hooley and Dodd (2015) highlight that economically; career guidance supports the effective functioning of the labour market, education system and social equity. Socially, career guidance and counselling hold benefits for the employed, unemployed, as well as ethnic minorities. Career guidance and counselling programmes reduce the incidence of long-term unemployment, dissatisfaction, alienation and despair associated with long-term unemployment amongst post-secondary students (Curry & Milsom, 2014).Career guidance supports individuals in increasing their knowledge and capacity to manage their engagement in the labour market. It further leaves participants with enhanced human capital, delivering various economic benefits such as aiding labour market flexibility and enhancing the skill base of a particular country (Mayston, 2015). These benefits are characterised by an increase in self-esteem and sense of purpose, involvement in meaningful activity and social incorporation associated with an occupational role (Mayston, 2015). Finally, Hooley and Dodd (2015) suggest that these programmes support the acquisition of informal and formal skills and qualifications. Career guidance also assists individuals by encouraging them to commit to and complete formal and informal learning opportunities. 1.1.2Global career guidance initiativesThe global shift to support lifelong learning strategies and the advent of new technologies heighten the importance of providing career guidance to learners. According to McCulloch and Crook (2008), the United States was a pioneer in developing ‘guidance’ (including career guidance) in the public school curriculum from the 1920s.In Serbia, unemployment and vacant positions led the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological development of the Republic of Serbia in 2011-2015 to introduce career guidance in schools (Prokopenko, 2008).Constantly changing patterns of work and education worldwide made it essential that every student in New Zealand has access to career education and guidance (Sewell, 2009). In Canada, the government articulated policies that stressed the relationship between school guidance programmes and student success (Hamlin & Kidder, 2015). According to Hamlin and Kidder (2015), the policy introduced by the Ministry of Education in 2013, promoted comprehensive school guidance and outlined how schools should align career and life planning programs from kindergarten through grade 12.Career guidance and counselling have become a compulsory part of the comprehensive school curricula in all Finland schools. Salberg (2015) notes that it was assumed that when Finnish pupil remained in the same school unit by the end of their compulsory education, they would need systematic counselling about their options after completing basic school.1.1.3 Career guidance in AfricaThe South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) (2012) highlights that South Africa had a history of fragmentation in terms of thinking about, organising, managing and providing career- and labour market-related information, career guidance and career counselling services. According to SAQA (2012), the South African Ministry of Education introduced a policy framework with the aim to work towards a national model of career guidance services and activities intended to assist individuals of any age and at any point in their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers (SAQA, 2012). Further afield, the shortage of skills needed in the job market led to the creation of career guidance programmes in Ethiopian high schools. According to Joshi and Verspoor (2013), the rapid expansion of a job market requiring specific knowledge skills replaced an earlier market for which fewer skills were needed. A lack of alignment between schooling and the job market led to the creation of career guidance programmes(Joshi & Verspoor, 2013).The Ministry of Education and Culture launched a career guidance forum in Malawi in 1988 (Mpofu, 2011). This development permitted the distribution of career guidance publications among high schools to provide teachers and students with information on how best career counselling needs could be addressed (Mpofu, 2011).1.1.4Career guidance in Zimbabwe The Zimbabwean government introduced school guidance and counselling to all schools in 1987 (Mpofu, 2011). The Zimbabwean Ministry of Education Sports and Culture’s school counselling services reflect life-skills orientation and is provided only to high school students (Mpofu, 2011). Mpofu (2011) noted that although this was a positive development, guidance and counselling do not include the important component of career guidance and counselling, pointing to a knowledge gap in career counselling services in Zimbabwean high schools. School career guidance services in sub-Saharan Africa further tend to be provided as a school subject rather than a professional service (Mpofu, 2011).The Ministry of Education in Zimbabwe recently introduced the STEM programme in a bid to introduce career coaching and counselling among high school students. Technomag, the fastest growing online technology magazine, is spearheading a national career guidance programme dubbed [email protected] in conjunction with government and other key stakeholders (Mwenje, 2015). Mwenje (2015) noted that the above programme, which was advertised by almost every Zimbabwean media house, resulted in renowned entrepreneurs, industry gurus, CEO and decision makers from various technological companies advocating for career guidance in high schools by speeches that assisted in mapping the career journey for students studying Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Journalism.1.1.5The importance of early exposure to career guidance programmes It appears that career awareness develops earlier than the elementary grades. Children indeed may initially be exposed to occupations within their homes (Capuzz ; Stauffer, 2012) and not necessarily during adolescence. This idea was heavily supported by child development theorists such as Erik Erikson (1985) and Lev Vygotsky (1978), as well as career theorist such as Donald Supper (1990) and Linda Gottfredson (1981). Capuzz and Stauffer (2012) posit that Erikson’s initial stages of development impact on students’ development of initial career awareness. Career awareness helps students to determine the amount of trust they have in adults around them at school and their degree of self- efficacy. Vygotsky (as cited in Capuzz ; Stauffer, 2012) also believed that when children are guided by mentors who help them learn about the world of work during their elementary school years, it may increase their knowledge of career options. Career guidance is vital for children’s development during elementary school age because each child’s culture shapes how the child thinks (Capuzz ; Stauffer, 2012) PROBLEM STATEMENT AND MOTIVATION OF THE RESEARCH1.2.1Challenges faced in ZimbabweZimbabwe has a high unemployment rate, involuntary and voluntary economic turn-over and a high number of migrants leaving the country in search for better opportunities. According to Masekesa and Chibaya (2014), high levels of unemployment in this country lead to graduates becoming informal vendors. Most Zimbabwean graduates have lost hope of ever getting formal employment as the economy continues to shrink. Masekesa and Chibaya (2014) found in their interviews of recent graduates that there are high rates of unemployment in Zimbabwe. The greater the rise in the number of graduates per year, the greater is the rise in unemployment. Out of desperation, most school leavers resort to drug abuse, gambling and prostitution. Most students further are diverting their career path. Graduates often work in informal beauty boutiques or fulfil temporary teaching positions, but they prefer temporary teaching positions because the government at least pays them a monthly salary. Masekesa and Chibaya (2014) equate unemployment to a social curse in Zimbabwe and point out that it actually is a time bomb and a cancer in this country. Nguwi (2015), a renowned Zimbabwean human resources practitioner also highlights that most Zimbabwean people are not well-versed in terms of their career paths. Most people currently find themselves in careers that are not aligned with what they prefer because of the economic situation in Zimbabwe. A lack of employment opportunities often forces people to adhere to careers that they did not study for, in order to make a living. Most people are currently in careers that are not really in line with what they want as a result of the situation currently prevailing in Zimbabwe’s economy (Nguwi, 2015). Competition for employment in Zimbabwe is very intense because of the tight requirements needed to get into some of the professions (Nguwi, 2015). Corresponding to other countries, Zimbabwean youth face many of life’s most important decisions in the transition years between high school and the working world. Unfortunately, many students are unaware of the education and employment options available to them (Maskekesa ; Chibaya, 2014). According to Nguwi (2015), the path students follow to their careers is indirect, and their decisions are often based on inadequate information and on any available employment rather than on their self-determination and aspirations. There is therefore, a great need for a strategic and innovative career guidance that takes the current economic landscape in Zimbabwe into account. There is need for all policy makers and highest decision making boards to assist and aid in enhancing the practice of career guidance activities in Zimbabwe.1.2.2Problem StatementThe importance role career guidance plays cannot be ignored. When high school students do not have access to career guidance programmes, it causes a strain on a country’s economy and may contribute to a national skills deficit (OECD, 2011). The lack of clearly established career guidance programmes in high schools in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe, for instance, may result in career confusion among students, resulting in adverse effects on the economy (Muhamba, 2016). Although career guidance programmes are becoming increasingly common around the world, it is a relatively new development in Zimbabwe, particularly Goromonzi District, possibly explaining why little scientific research could be found in this field (Newsday, 2011). As a result this research seeks to explore career guidance initiatives in the District. The economic crisis that Zimbabwe seems to be recovering from has had devastating effects on various sectors of the economic and socio-political life and students had to find ways in which to adapt to the crisis. Students in Zimbabwe agree that whilst things seem to be normalising, the greatest concern is the dearth of a culture of career guidance in Zimbabwe (Charamba, 2016). Mapfumo and Nkoma (2013) believe that the most strategic place to take decisive action is the school hence there is need for vigorous well-conceived and dutifully and effectively implemented guidance and counselling programmes.A number of international studies investigated student’s opinions and perceptions of career guidance initiatives and implementation. To the best knowledge of the researcher, no large-scale Zimbabwean research investigated student’s opinions and perceptions of career guidance initiatives and implementation. Mapfumo and Nkoma (2013), for example, investigated the state of guidance and counselling programmes in high schools in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, while Chireshe (2011), investigated school counsellors’ and students’ perceptions of the benefits of school guidance and counselling services in Zimbabwean secondary schools. Chivonivoni (2006) further investigated the state of school guidance and counselling in Chiredzi North and Maturure (2004) investigated the problems faced by school counsellors in implementing the guidance and counselling programme in Masvingo district. While these studies contributed to literature in the field of career guidance, the Goromonzi District has not been investigated from the perspective of best career guidance practice guidelines.Teachers need to be at the heart of careers education for young people, ensuring that they receive the guidance and motivation needed to lead them towards a successful career (Latunji, Heaton, Hobby, Hooley & Morgan, 2015). For these reasons the researcher engaged students, teachers, principals and headmasters on the best practice and career guidance initiatives and implementations for career guidance in Goromonzi District. The research purposeThe purpose of this research was to explore career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District Zimbabwe. The research sought to enhance the practice of career guidance in Goromonzi District as well as in Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the purpose of the study was to cultivate career guidance culture in Zimbabwe. 1.4Research objectives 1.4.1General objectiveThe general objective of the research was to investigate career counselling initiatives and practices in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe. 1.4.2Specific objectivesThe specific objectives of the research were as follows:The specific literature aim was •To explore international best implementation and practice guidelines for high school career guidance.The specific empirical aims were To explore high school students’, teachers’ and principals experiences in terms of career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe.To compare career guidance implementation and practices in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe to international best practice guidelines.1.5Research questionsTo address the above aims, this research was designed to answer the following literature and empirical questions:What are the best practice guidelines for the implementation and practice of career guidance and counselling programmes in schools? (literature question)What are students’, teachers’, principals’ and Ministry of Education personnel’s experiences in terms of career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe? (empirical question)How is career guidance implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe? (empirical question)1.6The Paradigm Perspective The paradigm perspective of the study is evident in the disciplinary context of the study.1.6.1The Disciplinary ContextThe study was conducted within the discipline of Industrial and Organisational Psychology and related to the sub-disciplines of organisational psychology and organisational development, as well as career psychology.126.96.36.199Industrial and Organisational PsychologyIndustrial psychology is a branch of psychology that applies principles of psychology to the workplace, to explain and enhance the effectiveness of human behaviour and cognition in the workplace (Negi, 2010, p.3). Jex and Britt (2008, p.2) define industrial and organisational psychology as “the application of the methods and principles of psychology to the workplace”. Industrial and organisational psychology therefore is the science of people at work. It, for instance, is applied in talent management, coaching, assessment, selection, training, organisational development, performance, and work-life balance. 188.8.131.52Career PsychologyCareer psychology refers to the study of career development and career behaviour as an integral part of human development (De Villiers, 2009, p.10). Career psychology is concerned with human development through various life and career stages from occupation choice to retirement. This research explored students’ career stages, from high school to occupational choice.184.108.40.206Humanism as underlying psychological paradigmThe humanistic movement developed in America during the early 1960’s and was termed the third force in psychology. The humanist approach aims to investigate all the uniquely human aspects of experience such as love, hope, creativity. It emphasises the importance of the individual’s interaction with the environment (Hill, 2001). An assumption of the humanistic approach is that psychology should research areas that are meaningful or important to human existence and not neglect them because they are regarded as too difficult (Bentham, 2002). Psychology should be applied to enrich human life. In the current research, interviews and questionnaires were incorporated, based on the basic conviction that students actually know the value of career guidance programmes in their schools. Career guidance as a means to self-actualisation depends on how students perceive career guidance as a way to enrich their lives.1.7Research design The research followed a qualitative research design. Qualitative research is a way of knowing in which a researcher gathers, organises and interprets information obtained from humans using his/her eyes and ears as filters (Lichtman, 2010). It is a systematic subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning.1.7.1 Research approachThe research followed an explorative research approach. Exploratory research intends merely to explore the phenomenon of interest. It is conducted in order to determine the nature of the problem. (Saunders et al, 2012). This type of research is not intended to provide conclusive evidence, but assists in having a better understanding of the problem.1.7.2 Research methodologies and methodsThe researcher used qualitative research methodology. Each research question of the study was outlined with its own research methodology, as follows:What are the best practice guidelines for the implementation and practice of career guidance and counselling programmes in schools? The research methodology The research methodology for this research question was qualitative meta-ethnography. Meta-ethnography is a method for combining data from qualitative evaluation and research, especially ethnographic data, by translating concepts and metaphors across studies (Polit ; Beck, 2010). The researcher applied Noblit and Hares’ (1988) seven steps of meta-ethnography. These include getting started, deciding what is relevant to the initial interest, reading the studies, determining how the studies are related, translating the studies into one another, synthesising translations and expressing the synthesis (Polit & Beck, 2010).What are students’, teachers’, principals’ and Ministry of Education personnel’s experiences in terms of career guidance in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe?How is career guidance implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe?The methodological approach described below was employed to address the two research questions above. The methodological approachThe research followed a phenomenological research process. Phenomenology is a philosophical approach to undertaking qualitative research. The goal of phenomenology is to understand how others view the world, and how this view may vary from commonly held views by focusing on a person’s subjective interpretations of what he/she experiences (Trochim, Donnelly ; Arora, 2015). In general, the methodology is designed to be less structured and more open-ended to encourage the participant to share details regarding their experience. Phenomenology emphasizes subjectivity (Giorgi, 2012). Phenomenology searches for the meaning or essence of an experience rather than measurements or explanations. Participants describe their own experiences or ideas related to phenomenon to increase their own awareness of their underlying feelings (Giorgi, 2012). 1.7.3Data analysisThe qualitative data compiled during the interviews was analysed by means of a coding system. Walliman (2011, p.42) defines qualitative data as data that relies on words, especially nouns and adjectives that convey what exists. Coding is a concept of putting labels or tags to allocate units of meanings to the data (Walliman, 2011, p.101) Coding helps to organise piles of data and provides a first step in conceptualisation. It helps to prevent data overload resulting from mountains of unprocessed data (Walliman, 2011). Data was analysed manually by means of the phenomenological data analysis process.The phenomenological process of analysing data consists of four stages (Ballad ; Bawalan, 2012). The initial stage, textual analysis stage, involves reading the whole transcript more than once and recording some observations and reflections about the interview experience in a separate reflexive notebook.The second stage is to return to the transcript to transform the initial notes into emerging themes. During the third stage, the emerging themes are examined and clustered together according to conceptual similarities. This is followed by constructing a table of themes, consisting of the structure of major themes and sub-themes. The next step involves more than one participant. It consists of moving to the next case and repeating the process for each participant. Inevitably the analysis of the first case will influence further analysis. Once all transcripts have been analysed and a table of themes has been constructed for each theme, a final table of themes is constructed for the study as a whole. Finally, the data is presented in narrative format. The narrative account should be persuasive and mix extracts from participants’ own words with interpretative comments. 1.7.4Research settingThe research was conducted among Goromonzi District high school students, principals and Ministry of Education Officials in Zimbabwe.1.7.5Entree and Establishing Research Roles Permission to carry out the research was obtained from the Mashonaland East Provincial education offices. Ethical clearance was applied for and received through UNISA’s Department of Industrial and Organisational psychology. Potential research participants were contacted personally because this is the accustomed communication mode among the population of this district. Students and parental consent forms allowing the researcher to take notes during the interview and to audio-record interviews were prepared by the researcher (Terre Blanche, Durrheim, ; Painter, 2014). This ensured that the researcher was able to give students her undivided attention, and to keep a clear record to ensure objectivity.A pilot study was undertaken before the actual study. A pilot study is a preliminary trial of a research for helping to design a further confirmatory study (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). 1.7.6Recording of DataDigital recordings, audio recordings and verbatim transcription of the interviews and process notes on the data collection and data analysis were made (Potgieter ; Barnard, 2010). 1.7.7Strategies Employed to Ensure Validity and trustworthiness The researcher kept all information from the interviews confidential and it was only available to the researcher. Trustworthiness refers to the way in which qualitative research workers make sure that transferability, credibility, dependability, and conformability are evident in their study (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). Credibility is the concept of internal consistency, where the core issue is how we make sure accuracy and objectivity is evident in the research process (Guba, 2012). It determines how confident the investigator is with the truth of the findings based on the research design, informants, and context. Credibility can be accomplished by prolonged engagement with people, continual observation in the field, utilisation of peer briefers or peer researchers. Transferability refers to the level to which the audience has the ability to generalise the results of a research to her or his own context (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). It takes place when the investigator provides adequate information about the research outline. Dependability refers to consistency in the way the research is carried out across time and research analysis techniques (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). The procedure by which results are produced must be explicit and repeatable whenever possible. Conformability deals with the main issue that findings should signify, as far as possible, the specific situation being investigated as opposed to the beliefs or biases of the researcher (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). 1.7.8ReportingData from interviews was reported by means of a coding system. 1.8Findings The findings were reported by means of a coding system. Each variable was outlined and its findings were explained.1.9Conclusion, limitations and recommendations Conclusions, limitations and recommendations in terms of the research were based on the aims initially set out for the research. The conclusions will point out whether the aims of the study were achieved. Recommendations were suggested thereafter.1.10Chapter lay-out The chapter lay-out to report the findings in this Master’s dissertation is as follows:Chapter 1: Scientific orientation to the research Chapter 2: Literature Review and Theoretical framework Chapter 3: Research design Chapter 4: Data collection Chapter 5: Results / Findings Chapter 6: Conclusions, limitations and recommendations.1.11Chapter summaryIn chapter One the scientific orientation to the research was discussed. This contained the background and motivation, the research problem, aims, the paradigm perspective and the research design. The chapter ended with the chapter layout of the research. Chapter Two will present a literature review on career guidance benefits, importance, theories and career guidance initiatives in Africa, internationally and Zimbabwe. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1IntroductionThis chapter will provide the theoretical framework and the role and benefits of career guidance programmes among high school students. It will further explore career guidance benefits, importance, theories and career guidance initiatives in Africa, internationally and Zimbabwe theories and the global perspective on career Related literature in the field is also critically reviewed. 2.2Definition of Career Guidance To have a clear definition of career guidance this section defines both career and guidance and presents the definition used in this study. Career has been defined as a lifestyle concept that involves a sequence of work or leisure activities in which one engages throughout a lifetime (Schutt & Morem, 2012, p. 2). Guidance specifies the modalities available to the system in order to advise, orient, inform, instruct and guide the users throughout their interactions with the system (Schutt & Morem, 2012, p.2). Hence, the next section will highlight the role and benefits of career guidance. Career guidance therefore is a comprehensive, developmental programme designed to assist individuals in making and implementing informed educational and occupational choices. Career guidance and counselling programmes develop an individual’s competencies in self-knowledge, educational and occupational exploration, and career planning (Mwenje, 2015). In the context of this study, the definition applied was that of any developmental programme, classroom teaching or school initiative designed to help students prepare themselves for any career field. This entails exploring what students may deem as not career guidance to value it as a career guidance for its worth cause. 2.3The role and benefits of career guidanceCareer guidance and counselling programmes help people acquire the required knowledge, skills, and experience to identify options, explore alternatives and succeed in society. These programmes better prepare individuals for the changing workplace of the 21st century by teaching labour market changes and complexity of the workplace. They broaden knowledge, skills, and abilities, improve decision making skills, increase self-esteem and motivation. They build interpersonal effectiveness, maximize career opportunities, improve employment marketability and opportunities, promote effective job placement and strengthen employer relations (Mwenje, 2015).Career guidance assists students in reflecting on their ambitions, interests, qualifications and abilities. It helps them understand the labour market and education systems, and to relate this to what they know about themselves. Comprehensive career guidance plays a crucial role in teaching students to plan and make decisions about work and learning. Career guidance makes information about the labour market and about educational opportunities more accessible by organising it, systematising it, and making it available when and where people need it (Mwenje, 2015).All students, whether they are male or female, disabled, disadvantaged, from minority groups, incarcerated, dropouts, displaced homemakers, teachers, administrators, parents or employers benefit from career guidance programmes (Mwenje, 2015). Career guidance prepares students for the challenges of the future by supporting their academic, career, and personal/social development and community participation. It teaches the skills for a lifetime of learning, career self-management, and social interaction. It relates their educational programme to subsequent steps and future success. Career guidance also broadens knowledge of the changing world and facilitates career exploration and planning. It assures equitable access to opportunities (Mwenje, 2015).Some of the benefits that career guidance offer students will now be discussed. These benefits include educational, social, and economic values of informed career decisions. 2.3.1Educational Benefits Education and career guidance equip students with the necessary knowledge, skills and values to make informed decisions at each key education stage for successful transition from school to further education or work, and hence to manage their career pathways and lifelong learning throughout their lives (Ministry of Education Singapore, 2017) Career guidance nurtures students’ self-awareness, self-directedness and life skills for continuous learning and training. It enables students to explore viable education and career options through the provision of accurate and comprehensive information. Career guidance provides educational benefits in inculcating an appreciation for the value of all occupations and contributes to the well-functioning of society and it also equips students with the necessary skills and means to positively engage their parents and other career influencers (Ministry of Education, Singapore, 2017).Comprehensive developmental school counselling programmes positively impact students, parents, teachers, administrators, boards of education, other student services personnel, school counsellors, business, and industry (Poremba, Letoski, & Strohl, 2017). Career guidance prepares students for the challenges of the 21st century through academic, career, and personal/social development. Career guidance relates educational programme to future success, facilitates career exploration and development, develops decision-making and problem solving skills, assists in acquiring knowledge of self and others and enhances personal development. It assists in developing effective interpersonal relationship skills, broadens knowledge of our changing world provides advocacy for students, encourages facilitative, co-operative peer interactions, fosters resiliency factors for students and assures equitable access to educational opportunities (Poremba et al, 2017)2.3.2Social BenefitsCareer guidance directly benefits an individual. Indirect beneficiaries include, family, networks, and informal groups such as peer groups, schools, colleges and other educational training providers, employers, the local community and the nation as a whole (Hooley, 2015). Career guidance plays a preventive role in assisting young people to not be socially excluded from society. It has a re-integrative role by supporting those currently excluded to gain access to education and training and the labour market. According to Patton and McMahon (2014), career guidance avoids homelessness, drug abuse, juvenile criminality, a retreat into single parenthood, and all other ways in which young people are separated from fully participating in community life. Career guidance reduces social exclusion. This is achieved through career guidance programmes that operate directly to support educational participation and incorporate people in the labour market (Hooley, 2015). Career guidance plays an essential role in local initiatives aiming at reducing large groups of people experiencing multiple types of disadvantage people, contributing to social decay. Guidance services especially fulfil an important linking role between developing employment opportunities and local labour supply (Poremba et al, 2017).Career guidance combats social exclusion by enhancing people’s educational participation and achievement. Career guidance addresses negative aspects among school going pupils. Career guidance avoids truancy resulting from drop-outs by demonstrating the relevance of formal learning to working life. It clarifies the links between educational routes available and counter disillusionment and expectations of failure resulting from repeated previous failures (Hooley, 2015). Career guidance counteracts unnecessary and unrealistic embarrassments on expected attainment and aspirations related to family wishes, self and social expectations related to class, gender and ethnicity. (Poremba et al, 2017).Career guidance prevents taking part in education and training initiatives that are not related to people’s vocational interests and objectives. Such discrete vocational interests can cause failure in participation in career related programmes (Poremba et al, 2017).Career guidance provides support for people who are discriminated against or who are kept from accessing opportunities that correspond to their capacities. It provides a feedback mechanism to educational providers on learners unmet needs (Watts, 2010). A final important social benefit of career guidance is that it reduces the incidence of long term unemployment amongst ‘at risk’ groups and enhances these groups’ access to opportunities corresponding to their abilities and aspirations (Poremba et al, 2017).2.3.3Economic BenefitsCareer guidance offers economic benefits by enhancing individual decision-making about participation in learning and labour markets. It reduces the likelihood of people dropping out of employment and increases the possibility of taking part in the labour market again and supporting wider institutional reform (Watts, 2010). The economic value of career guidance involves correctly and comprehensively expressing abilities, skills and attributes in order to accurately advise individuals for or against potential ‘career moves’ Mayston (as cited in Hooley ; Dodd, 2015). Career guidance supports people’s development by increasing their knowledge, skills and capacity to manage engagement in the labour market. Participants’ human capital is enhanced which delivers various economic benefits including aiding labour market flexibility and enhancing the skills base of a country. When people’s career choices are improved and they are able to access high quality careers guidance, it results in positive outcomes at both the individual and societal level. Career guidance particularly serves the interests of the individual. It helps people make choices, and results in a number of primary economic outcomes such as increased labour market participation and an enhanced skills and knowledge base (Hooley & Dodd, 2015). These primary economic outcomes contribute to secondary outcomes and all outcomes collectively contribute to broader macro-economic benefits. Improved health outcomes, for instance, may also decrease unemployment and increase labour market participation (Hooley & Dodd, 2015).Human capital typically correlates with economic growth. At an individual level, human capital refers a person’s collection of knowledge, skill and abilities. . According to Mayston (as cited in Hooley and Dodd, 2015), the acquisition of qualifications is used as a means of measuring human capital. Career guidance supports the acquisition of both skills and qualifications by encouraging people to commit to and complete formal and informal learning opportunities. Career guidance further supports people by increasing their awareness of the skills that they have acquired informally and to consider how these skills may best be deployed. The acquisition of human capital plays central role in the economic value of career guidance. Career guidance increases the number of graduates with skills that the economy lacks such as science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) skills (Hooley ; Dodd, 2015). The core functions of career guidance include addressing skills mismatches, improving labour market and guiding the effective deployment of qualifications and skills. Career guidance consequently can support people both in increasing their human capital in general and supporting them in considering the best way to increase their human capital in the context of the labour market (Hooley ; Dodd, 2015).Social capital also makes an essential contribution to conceptualising the economic benefits of career guidance. Social capital refers to a person’s ability to secure benefits through membership in networks and other social structures (Hooley & Dodd, 2015). Social capital refers to the size of a person’s social network (whether you know a lot of people), the relative social and economic power of the network (whether you know rich and powerful people) and the ability to extract personal and career benefits from the network (whether you are willing and able to persuade people to help you). Social capital helps individuals cope and remain resilient during periods of unemployment. Social capital inevitably offers advantages to those who originate from families and communities which are powerful and well-networked (Hooley ; Dodd, 2015). Career guidance increases people’s job exploration and information search activities. Labour economists and labour market policy makers recognise that career guidance helps improve labour market efficiency. Career guidance recognition largely rests upon the value of information in improving labour market transparency and flexibility (Prideaux, Creed, Muller & Patton, 2000). Career guidance assists in reflecting a higher proficiency resulting from an improved match between individual talents and qualifications on the one hand and the skills and qualifications demanded by employers on the other (Prideaux et al, 2000). Career guidance particularly assists in reducing unemployment, for example, by assisting in reducing the incidence of voluntary employment terminations or by reducing periods of job search (thus reducing frictional unemployment); or by encouraging people who were made redundant to improve their qualifications or to seek new types of work in different regions (thus addressing structural unemployment) (Prideaux et al, 2000).2.4Global Career Guidance InitiativesThis section will highlight career guidance initiatives and practices that have been implemented around the world. The practice and implementation of career guidance initiatives in other countries will be described in this section. Career guidance was developed as a curricula in the United States in 1920. This strategic approach resulted in “career guidance” being alive and flourishing in US schools but this positive state of affairs unfortunately is not a global occurrence. More so despite Serbia’s successful market economy reforms and economic growth of recent years, unemployment and vacant positions in the Serbian labour market reflected a skills mismatch between workforce supply and demand. Potential employees no longer seemed to be suitable for the available jobs (Prokopenko, 2008).The European Training Foundation (2014) notes that unemployment rates in Serbia were highest amongst youth, women, low skilled individuals with secondary education or lower and the disabled. They were the most disadvantaged in the labour market and the least employable. To curb these problems the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development advocated that young people should receive the assistance they need to decide on their future careers, based on an adequate overview of the changing educational, training and employment markets and awareness of their own interests and strengths (Prokopenko, 2008).The New Zealand government developed strategic career priorities to engage employers and educators in career development. In their Statement of Intent for the years 2014-2018, Careers New Zealand highlights the needs for developing a career knowledge hub, digitising delivery, and strengthening collaboration with industry, government agencies, the education sector, and community organisations (Ottley, 2016). The New Zealand Ministry of Education (2009, p.4) also stated that “all schools can make career education and guidance an integral and essential part of the education they provide”. Career education and guidance furthermore were recognised as a vehicle to better engage students in learning as they think and prepare for their future. The Ministry of Education mandated career education and guidance by for all New Zealand secondary students through the National Administration Guidelines (NAG). Specifically, the NAG requires each school board of trustees, through the principal and staff to provide appropriate career education and guidance for all students in year 7 and above, with a particular emphasis on specific career guidance for those students who have been identified by the school as being at risk of leaving school unprepared for the transition to the workplace or further education/training (Ministry Of Education, 2012).Canadian schools are encouraged to develop the concept of the “guidance oriented school”. According to (MED, 2006) this trend is linked to wider competency-oriented school reforms. Personal and career planning forms one of five “broad areas of learning” during schooling. The aim is to support students’ identity development in primary school and to provide guidance in career planning throughout secondary school. Career guidance in Canadian schools is meant to ensure students understand the usefulness of their studies (e.g., in languages, mathematics and sciences) and why they are studying these fields. To implement the concept of the guidance oriented school, the number of qualified guidance specialists was increased. In addition, the active involvement of all stakeholders was promoted, firstly by encouraging discussion and collaboration between teachers and guidance professionals, and then by developing partnerships with parents and the community. Schools were permitted considerable flexibility in determining what a “guidance-oriented school” might mean within the broad parameters provided (Ministry of Education Canada, 2006).Career guidance further has been included in the Canadian school curriculum. According to the Ministry of Education (2006), grades 7, 8 and 9 are equipped with life and social skills, study methods and tutorial support in addition to career education for transitioning from primary to secondary school. Teachers deliver this curriculum with support from school psychologists. Employers and parents are involved by, for example, explaining occupations to students. It includes work experience or job shadowing, mentoring by students in higher grades, and personal projects. Career guidance and counselling are compulsory parts of the comprehensive school curricula in all Finnish schools. According to Salberg (2015), it was assumed that if Finnish pupils remained in the same school, they would need systematic counselling on their options after completing their basic school career by the end of their compulsory education, In the light of this, career guidance soon became a cornerstone of both lower and upper secondary education and has been an important factor in explaining low pass rates, grade repetition and drop outs in Finland (Salberg, 2015). Career guidance also served as a bridge between formal education and the world of work. As part of the overall career guidance curriculum, each student in basic school spends two weeks in a selected workplace to learn about the work environment (OECD, 2012). According to the OECD (2012), career guidance in Finland was intended to minimise the risks of students making irreversible choices about their educational futures.Finland’s Employment Office further employs about 280 specialised vocational guidance psychologists whose clients include undecided school leavers, unemployed people, and adults who want to change careers (OECD, 2012). Interviews take place on an appointment basis and clients typically have more than one interview with these psychologists. Since the demand is very high, it is not unusual for clients to wait six weeks for an appointment (OECD, 2012).It is compulsory for students between 9-15 years to attend school in Germany. Educational institutions in Germany have a legal responsibility to provide career guidance services in schools (Jenschke, 2011) and it is offered at the different school stages. Some of the types of career guidance offered in schools include advice and counselling on educational paths and on learning difficulties, psychological counselling and assessment offered by the school psychological services and classroom career education (Jenschke, 2011). Specially trained teachers, social workers, school psychologists and collaborating vocational guidance practitioners from the Employment Agencies (EA) provide guidance. School guidance in Germany is aimed at parents who influence their children’s school paths (Vogel, 2015). Career counsellors from the Employment Agencies support career education in German secondary schools. The country attaches considerable importance to apprenticeship training for vocational qualifications of a majority of school leavers (Jenschke, 2011). In special schools where persons living with disabilities are rehabilitated career education and preparation for the world of work and for career decisions are often also provided in connection with practical lessons and work experience periods (Jenschke, 2011). Ireland’s secondary schools typically have one guidance counsellor for every 500 students. These guidance counsellors are required to have a post-graduate diploma in guidance in addition to a teaching qualification (Egan, 2014). Staffing and qualification levels such as these are quite high in terms of OECD levels. Guidance counsellors are teachers, with a reduced teaching load to provide career advice, to help students with learning difficulties, and to help those with personal problems. Career education classes are not compulsory, but are included in some school programmes (Egan, 2014). Career guidance services in Australia are located in schools, and while school education is administered under the federal government, primary responsibility lies with state and territory governments. Career guidance services are also located in colleges of technical and further education and in universities (Trewin, 2013). The government maintains a role in providing leadership in areas of national priority, and extensively contracts out services in national career programmes. Many career guidance services for people in transition are also largely privatised as companies vie for tender opportunities with specific projects (Trewin, 2013). Responsibility for career guidance in schools rests with the state and this resulted in different structures in both the provision of counselling services and in the provision of career education (Trewin, 2013). Australia has a national career website (www.mufuture.edu.au/) which contains information about courses of education and training, labour market supply and demand at the regional level, the content of occupations, and about sources of funding for study. Users can explore their personal interests and preferences, and relate these to educational and occupational information (Trewin, 2013).In Austria three large career fairs, covering vocational training, tertiary education and adult education, take place annually. Thousands of people visit these fairs, that involve hundreds of professional and trade organisations, employers, trade unions and educational institutions, and they are strategically marketed to schools and the community (Euro guidance, 2018). In Austria guidance and counselling is provided by education and training institutions and by the employment administration and other institutions in the field of career guidance. Career guidance in Austrian schools is organised through career education, individual advice and a school psychology service (Euro guidance, 2018). Career education lessons are provided by careers teachers; individual advice is provided by student advisors; and both of these are supplemented by a School Psychology Service that can offer specialised assistance. These are supplemented by classroom teachers and a wide range of other individuals and agencies outside the school. (Euro guidance, 2018)In terms of career guidance for the higher educational levels, the Ministry of Education established six Psychological Student Counselling Service centres to assist students and prospective students in both universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (Euro guidance, 2018)). Career Service Centres in Austrian universities provide guidance regarding choices of profession and serve as recruiting service providers for young students and graduates (Euro guidance, 2018)For the public employment service, the Austrian Public Employment Service (AMS) is Austria’s leading provider of labour-market related services. Commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, the AMS assumes its role as an enterprise under public law in close cooperation with labour and employers’ organisations (Euro guidance, 2018)Guidance at Adult Education Level is promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education since 1999 through the development of institution-neutral educational guidance. This has led to the establishment of Project Networks for educational and vocational guidance in each province in 2011 (Euro guidance, 2018).From 1973, schools and colleges in the United Kingdom worked in partnership with the local careers guidance service to provide careers education, information, advice and guidance (IAG) to young people (O’Donoghue, 2014). Careers advice and guidance changed from local education authority (LEA) careers services, through privatised careers companies and, later, connexions, to local authority managed, or commissioned, IAG services (O’Donoghue, 2014). The services were universally available across England and available free of charge to schools and colleges. It was a national service, locally delivered and funded by government.Since September 2012 schools were required to secure access to independent and impartial careers guidance for their students, and in September 2013 this requirement was extended to colleges (O’Donoghue, 2014).Colleges were required to secure access to private careers guidance for all students up to the age of 25 (O’Donoghue, 2014).The National Careers Service in the United Kingdom provides career information and advice to young people through its website. Its mandate is to provide face-to-face career guidance though it is still currently limited to adults only (O’Donoghue, 2014). Career information in the United Kingdom is provided through a range of media including books, leaflets and posters; software, websites; social media for example twitter and telephone helplines; information talks from colleges, universities, apprenticeship providers and employers; visits to colleges, universities, training providers and businesses (O’Donoghue, 2014).The Career Development institution in the United Kingdom planned progressive frameworks for careers and work-related career education for students. The Career Development Institution also has a practical guideline for using the framework of activities in the curriculum. These programmes help students to develop the knowledge and skills to understand themselves (O’Donoghue, 2014). Employers in the United Kingdom contributed to enhancing programmes of careers education by contributing to classroom-based lessons, running curriculum vitae (CV) workshops, conducting mock interviews and supporting enterprise activities, as well as offering work experience and work shadowing placements (O’Donoghue, 2014).The guidance system in France was partly modified by education and vocational training reforms introduced in 2013 and 2014. Their aim was to increase the autonomy of individuals when making choices about their careers. National and regional operators work together to guarantee that all educational information training, vocational information and resources benefit from a consistent and uniform service over the whole of the country (O’Donoghue, 2014). French guidance services are administered by the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research although additional Ministries may be involved in providing educational information, vocational information and resources for instance, the Minister for Urban Affairs, Youth and Sports and the Minister of Agriculture. The guidance services of the Ministry of National Education target general and professional secondary education establishments along with higher education establishments (O’Donoghue, 2014).The Ministry of Employment and Work is responsible for informing and guiding all educational information and vocational information and resources to adults looking for jobs, adults wanting to change career paths, adults who choose or are required to be professionally mobile, or who desire to acquire additional competences (O’Donoghue, 2014). Counselling psychologists also visit secondary schools in France. They are responsible for the school adjustment of pupils and are involved in preventing and reducing the dropout rate. They support pupils in obtaining lifelong career decision-making skills. They act as technical advisers to head teachers to establish a customised guidance programme, in accordance with national policies (O’Donoghue, 2014). China introduced a new academic structure that incorporates career education across all school levels since 2013. The new secondary school (NSS) curriculum provides a smoother and wider range of articulation pathways for students via Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) and the Student Learning Profile (SLP) (Xiao ; Newman, 2014). Due to the impact of globalisation, China noticed that there was an urgent need to better prepare young people for making appropriate academic or career choices in accordance with their interest, ability and orientation, and through collaboration and co-ordination with relevant subject or activity committees in school (Xiao ; Newman, 2014).China has career frameworks that enable students to understand their own career and academic aspirations and develop positive attitudes towards work and learning. These frameworks include the Senior Secondary Framework, the Student Programme to Achieve the Vision of the New Academic Structure, Whole-person Development and Life-long Learning and the Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide (Xiao ; Newman, 2014).In Morocco, career guidance is available to both students and adults. Adults in particular are supported in their search for employment by the national Career Agency (Sultana, 2017).Morocco’s public employment service tends to focus on job placement, with guidance-related activities limited to workshops in job search techniques, CV writing and job interviewing (Sultana, 2017). Career pathways in Nigeria include acquiring a related university degree or picking skills and internship opportunities that can offer valuable and lasting experiences. The choice of an occupation is important because it could determine the prospect of students, friends, business associate, recreational activities, opportunities, salary status and general life style (Sultana, 2017).Nigeria is a developing country with serious economic problems resulting in unemployment across various occupational categories. Developments in science and technology led to new careers which most people may not be aware of. Many people lack competence in assessing themselves for realistic career choices. Information about various occupations further is not readily available to people who are contemplating career choices. Many people also leave their jobs because of a lack of job satisfaction (Sultana, 2017). Parents, sometimes do not have access to sufficient relevant information and force their children into particular careers which may become problematic or a setback for the children. Young people’s peer groups impact quite strongly on their career choices. It often happens that young people simply choose occupations based on their friends’ choice and they do not want to do anything different from their friends (Sultana, 2017). In Nigeria the inability of some youth to keep their career choice flexible has led to delays in getting admission and frustrations in meeting the requirements for the career of their choice (Sultana, 2017).2.5Career Guidance in ZimbabweIn Zimbabwe, guidance and counselling services were introduced in an attempt to respond to the needs of students in terms of academic, career, social and personal needs (Samanyanga & Ncube, 2015). Charema (as cited in Mawire, 2011), asserts that learning institutions should prepare a comprehensive guidance and counselling programme that forms part of the total curriculum to provide for students’ unique personal, social and educational needs. Counselling services assist students in coping with adolescence or challenges of growing up and students are consequently empowered to make decisions, solve problems as well as attaining positive behaviour (Samanyanga ; Ncube, 2015). Some secondary schools unfortunately seem not to be implementing guidance and counselling services. This is because they are not fully aware of some of the benefits of career guidance. It further appears that students have trouble in deciding about their careers. Zimbabwean schools do not formally, or in any structured form, cater for students’ career choices which are an important part of children’s development (Majoni ; Chinyanganya, 2014). Examples of planned interventions involve career days organised by the National Employment Services Division of the Ministry of Public Service and Social Welfare that sporadically occur about once a year in some provinces (Majoni ; Chinyanganya, 2014). A general trend in Zimbabwe has been for students to make their career choices, based on their academic performances and preferences (Samanyanga ; Ncube, 2015). This trend resulted in a lack of awareness of the importance of encouraging self-understanding and a firm grasp of occupational matters. It also led to growing numbers of young people struggling to determine their own future when entering adolescence. Young people such as these, occupy informal occupations after graduating (Samanyanga ; Ncube, 2015). This scenario is compounded by the economic challenges facing Zimbabwe. There therefore is an urgent need for planning career guidance initiatives for Zimbabwe’s young people.2.6Theories and theoretical scaffoldingA theory is a general principle of knowledge reached through accepted scientific processes that explain a phenomenon (Payne, 2016, p.4). It is a generalised set of ideas that describes and explains people knowledge of the world around them in an organised manner (Payne, 2016, p.5). It is a picture, image, description or representation of reality. It is a way for people to think about some part of reality so that they can comprehend it (Payne, 2016). Career guidance theories and research describing career behaviour provide the “conceptual glue” for career guidance and other interventions, and describe where, when and for what purpose these initiatives should be implemented (Arulmani, Bakshi, Leong & Watts, 2014).Career theories and models are divided into three categories, namely theories of process, content or both (Arulmani et al, 2014). Career theories will be used to explain and outline the role and benefits of career guidance.2.6.1Theories of Process in Career GuidanceTheories of process relate to interaction and change over time. This is characterised by theories that present a series of stages through which people pass. Theories of process include Gofferdson’s Circumscription and Compromise Theory (2005), as well as the theories of Ginzeberg and Super (1951) and Miller Tiedmann and Tiedmann (1999) who focused on stages of career development. 220.127.116.11 Gottfredson’s Circumscription and Compromise TheoryGottfredson’s (1981) theory highlights how career choice develops through a developmental process in young people. People build a cognitive map of occupations by picking up occupational stereotypes from those around them. Occupations are chosen using only a small number of dimensions such as sex-type, prestige level and field of work. As young people build this map, they begin to decide which occupations are acceptable and unacceptable, which fit with their own developing self-concept and those which do not (Patton ; McMahon, 2014). Gottfredson’s theory has four stages. Table 2.1 presents Gottfredson’s stages of circumscriptions.Table 2.1 Stage Age CharacteristicOrientation to Size and Power 3-5 years Children are aware that adults have roles in the world. They realise that they will eventually become adults and take on roles for themselves.Orientation to Sex Roles 6-8 years Children categorise the world around them with simple concrete distinctions. Children are aware of the more recognisable job roles and begin to assign them to particular sexes. They will start to see jobs which do not match their gender identity as unacceptable.Orientation to Social Values 9-13 Years Children have encountered a wider range of job roles and are capable of more abstract distinctions. They classify jobs in terms of social status (income, education level, lifestyle, etc.) as well as sex-type. Based on the social environment in which they develop they designate some jobs as unacceptable because they fall below a minimum status level and some higher status jobs as unacceptable because they represent too much effort or risk of failure.Orientation to internal/ Unique self +14 years Entry into the adult world approaches young people engage in a conscious search of the roles still remaining in their social space. In this process they use increasingly complex concepts such as interests, abilities values, work-life balance and personality to exclude options which do not fit with their self-image and identify an appropriate field of work.18.104.22.168Ginzberg’s theory of career choiceThe major concepts of Ginzberg’s theory in terms of the vocational choice framework are process, irreversibility, and compromise (Patton ; McMahon, 2014). In terms of process, Ginzberg highlights that career development is a process evolving over time. These time periods can be divided into several life stages. Table 2.2 highlights Ginzberg’s stages of career choice. Table 2.2Stage Age CharacteristicFantasy Stage Birth – 11 years Children primarily engage in playful acts, simulating occupations such as firefighter, police officer and race car driver etc. Ginzberg believed children transition from playful imitation to work imitation near the end of this stage, i.e from simply wearing costumes to acting out the specific duties of a job.Tentative Stage Adolescence 11-17 years Adolescent children are able to better focus on and recognize work requirements. The adolescent begins to develop values, interests and capacities as well as an increased awareness of work rewards and time perspectives (Patton & McMahon, 2014). There are four stages in this period i.e.Interest- where children learn likes and dislikesCapacity – where the child learns how much her abilities align with her interestsValues – where the child becomes aware of how work may fulfill her values.Transition – begins when the individual assumes responsibly for her own actions, becomes independent and exercises her freedom of choice.Realistic Stage Adulthood, 17 – 20 something It occurs when the individual begins to integrate interests, capabilities, and values and an increased awareness of these factors are applied to evaluate the real environment. (Patton & McMahon, 2014). It has three stages i.e.Exploration – explore college/formal training.Crystallisation – declare major/commit to certain type of work.Specification – specialise in grad school/specific job.2.6.2Theories of Content in Career GuidanceTheories of content relate to the characteristics of the individual and the context they live in. These theories propose that career choices may be predicted on the basis of individual characteristics, especially aptitudes, achievements, interests, values, and personality (Sharf, 2016). Parsons’ (as cited Patton ; McMahon, 2014) work gave rise to what became known as the trait and factor theory, which in turn gave rise to the more dynamic person-environment (PE) fit theories. This theory has particular relevance for the current study because it seeks to explore career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District and determine whether career guidance initiatives as explained by Parson (1909) and Holland (1959) are being practiced. 22.214.171.124Parsons Trait and Factor TheoryParson’s Trait and Factor Theory highlighted that occupational decision making occurs when people achieve an accurate understanding of their individual traits (i.e. aptitudes, interests, and personal abilities) (Patton & McMahon, 2014). Parsons (1909) argued that vocational guidance is accomplished by studying the individual, surveying occupations and matching the individual with the occupation (Supple, 2013). Parsons’ theory is based on the premise that it is possible to measure both individual talents and the attributes required in particular jobs. The theory further posits that it is possible to match a person to an occupation to ensure that reflects a good fit. Parsons (1909) suggests that when people find themselves in jobs that are best suited to their abilities, they perform best and their productivity is highest (Patton ; McMahon, 2014).Parsons’ (as cited in Patton & McMahon, 2014) second element relates to knowledge about the world of work, a concept he viewed as vital to comprehensive career planning and development, and that has always been viewed as critical in career development work. Matching a person to a suitable job assumes a degree of stability within the labour market. However, the reality is that the market’s volatility means that people should be prepared to change and adapt to their circumstances.126.96.36.199Hollands Theory of PersonalityAccording to Holland’s Theory of Career Choice, careers are determined by an interaction between people’s personality and their environment. Holland’s theory of Career Choice maintains that people prefer jobs where they can be around others who are like them when choosing careers (Grites, Miller & Givans, 2016). People search for environments that will let them use their skills and abilities, and express their attitudes and values, while taking on enjoyable problems and roles (Schrueder & Coetzee, 2011). Holland’s theory centres around the idea that most people fit into one of six personality types, namely Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional (Patton ; McMahon, 2014).People with a realistic personality type typically are interested in working with objects and animals. People with an investigative personality type tend to interested in working with ideas and science and Artistic personality types are interested in creative and artistic activities. The social personality type refers to people who prefer to work with others that helps, guides, cures or enlightens, while People with enterprising personality types refer to people who prefer to lead or to manage others to achieve goals, and The conventional personality type refers to who are interested in working with data and in orderly and structured activities (Grites et al, 2016). All in all, Holland (1959) believes that behaviour is determined by an interaction between a person’s personality and their environment.188.8.131.52Bordin’s Psychodynamic TheoryThe term, ‘psychodynamic’, refers to psychological systems that use motives, drives and related covert variables for explaining behaviour (Walsh ; Osipow, 2014). Bordin (as cited Walsh ; Osipow, 2014) applied the psychodynamic theory to career choice. Psychodynamic theory explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious desires and beliefs. Bordin believes that no matter what people’s age, they have the urge to play because it is an intrinsically satisfying activity that provides pleasure and joy. Play is an intrinsically satisfying activity that gives the individual a sense of wholeness and joy and in work. It involves the search for a self-satisfying vocation (Walsh & Osipow, 2014). All individuals seek this wholeness and joy in almost all aspects of life, including their work (Walsh et al, 2013). People want occupations that provide them satisfaction and their occupations have to involve something that they enjoy. When making decisions, people conduct a self-assessment to determine whether they would be happy with their choice (Walsh & Osipow, 2014). 2.6.3Theories of Content and ProcessTheories of content and process developed in response to a need for theory to take into account both these key areas. These theories encompass both the characteristics of individuals and their context, and the development and interaction between them. Krumboltz’s (1996) and Super’s (1950) theories will now be briefly discussed as examples of these types of theory. 184.108.40.206 Krumboltz’s Happenstance Learning theoryKrumboltz’s (1996) Planned Happenstance Learning Theory points out that it is good to not always plan, because unplanned events could lead to good careers (Walsh et al, 2013). According to this theory, indecision is desirable and sensible, since it allows people the possibility of benefitting from unplanned events (Patton & McMahon, 2014). The theory specifically addresses the need for people to deal with change within the rapidly changing labour market. Managing life transitions further is seen as an essential career management skill (Walsh et al, 2013). Krumboltz’s theory offers insight in how people could deal with the limited degree of control they have over some career experiences. The knowledge that unpredictable social factors, chance events and environmental factors are important influences on clients’ lives lies at the core of this theory (Patton & McMahon, 2014).220.127.116.11 Super’s Career development Stages Super (1950) established the ideas that developing a sense of self and realising that one changes over time is important when planning one’s career (Patton & McMahon, 2014). According to Super (1950), a person’s self-concept changes over time, and develops as a result of experience and career development consequently is a lifelong process (Swanson ; Fouad, 2015). Super extended Ginzberg’s (as cited Swanson & Fouad, 2015) life and career development stages from three to five, and included different sub-stages. Super argued that occupational preferences and competencies, along with a person’s life situations, change with time and experience. Super developed the concept of vocational maturity, which may or may not correspond to chronological age. People move through each of these stages when they experience career transitions Super’s five life and career development stagesTable 2.3 presents Super’s life and career development stages. Table 2.3Stage Age CharacteristicsGrowth birth-14 Development of self-concept, attitudes, needs and general world of workExploration 15-24 “Trying out” through classes, work hobbies. Tentative choice and skill developmentEstablishment 25-44 Entry-level skill building and stabilisation through work experienceMaintenance 45-64 Continual adjustment process to improve positionDecline 65+ Reduced output, prepare for retirementAccording to Super (as cited in Patton ; McMahon, 2014), people express their self-concept, or understanding of self in making vocational choices and their self-concept evolves over time. People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which they can express themselves and further implement and develop their self-concept 2.6.4Theoretical scaffolding in this studyThe above theories of career guidance sought to explain the best fit career guidance initiatives that can be implemented. All theories fit well in the research as they expand on the typical conditions that guide career guidance choices. If students are enlightened on the best career environments, personalities and career stages there would be no incidences of career confusion. The best career guidance practice is achieved if students, teachers and guardians are equipped with sufficient knowledge about what a perfect career guidance path entails. Key persons that aid students on career guidance should be knowledgeable on the best career paths that fit the personality of the individual. 2.7Prior Related ResearchA 2013 South African study among fifty students highlights high school students’ perceptions of Career Guidance and Development programmes for University Access (Dabula & Makura, 2013). The study’s objective was to determine whether students who enrolled at Fort Hare University were confident, had a positive look, were happy and proud, had self-knowledge, and were scared or confused about the career they were preparing for (Dabula ; Makura, 2013). The research used a qualitative approach and data was thematically analysed. Interviews were used to gather the data. Findings indicated that participants were satisfied with existing career guidance initiatives. Students felt confident, proud and happy about their career choices (Dabula ; Makura, 2013). A 2016 Malawian study undertook a review of career guidance and counselling programmes and practices in secondary schools. The review involved eight community day schools and private boarding schools, eight administrators, twelve teachers and thirty students (Munro ; Chandzunda, 2017). School administrators selected and identified the students based on their participation in career guidance activities. The study also involved a qualitative approach and interviews were used to gather the required information. Findings revealed that there were few career guidance initiatives at either the national level or the school level (Munro ; Chadzunda, 2017).Students reported that people who typically provided career counselling to them were their uncles and male friends of their fathers. These people occupied jobs that the students were interested in, and the students were able to speak directly to the person to determine which courses and subjects were needed to enter the particular sector (STEP, 2017). The findings also highlighted that some teachers guided students in selecting a suitable job. However, this guidance was provided in an ad hoc manner and there was no specific timetable for guidance on career selection (STEP, 2017).Career guidance research in 2015 aimed at identifying strategic solutions for secondary school students in Vietnamese rural areas by means of a literature review.The study explored existing literature and analysed mechanisms that investigated the importance of establishing career guidance at schools (Van ; Loan, 2015). The study compared Vietnamese school career guidance to the career guidance taking place in schools in six other countries (Singapore, New Zealand, Malaysia, America, Japan, and Hong Kong). The research used a qualitative approach and used a literature review as a data collection method (Van ; Loan, 2015). The findings revealed that Vietnam was deprived of the true spirit of career guidance and reflected a lack of vigorous research. In comparing the context of Vietnam to other countries, it was evident that career guidance in this country did not yet receive proper and adequate attention and career guidance consequently did not yet yield the desired objectives (Van ; Loan, 2015).A 2015 study involving 200 students from four high schools in Ghana investigated whether school counsellors played an influential role in guiding student’s career choices (Amoah, Kwofie & Kwofie, 2015). The objective of the study was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between the role played by the counsellor and the students’ career choice and it used a mixed method approach (Amoah et al, 2015). It was found that students strongly agreed that career guidance and counselling, career goal identification, and the organising career days and conferences influenced their career choice. A positive correlation further was evident between the role of the counsellor and their influence on students’ choice of career (Amoah et al, 2015). A 2004 study in Nairobi, Kenya, investigated students’ level of access to career guidance and counselling in the western province at Kakamega district secondary. The study also aimed to determine how important career guidance and counselling were to students, and to establish whether career teachers were trained to guide and counsel students (Achungo, 2004). The study further aimed to determine possible problems that hinder the provision of career guidance and counselling services in secondary schools. A survey research design was used and the study incorporated questionnaires (Achungo, 2004). The sample was selected by means of a random sampling technique. No significant relationship between students’ access to career counselling and their career and educational aspirations was identified. Girls and boys further did not differ significantly in terms of their career aspirations (Achungo, 2004). A significant difference was found between the academic achievement of students who had access to career counselling and those who did not. It was also evident that the guidance and counselling unit of the Ministry of Education did little in terms of organising seminars and workshops to acquaint career teachers with matters pertaining to career guidance and counselling or to provide necessary resource materials for career guidance and counselling purposes (Achungo, 2004). The success of career guidance and counselling was mainly hindered by teachers’ negative attitudes, a lack of information and training in career guidance and counselling skills among teachers. (Achungo, 2004).The above studies share a number of common features with the current study. All these studies are qualitative studies, they used purposed random sampling techniques and used interviews as the data collection instrument. Data in some of the studies was qualitatively analysed using the thematic data analysis technique. The main objective of these studies was to investigate career guidance initiatives among school going pupils. The studies took place in rural settings similar to the current study. However the studies differed in a few aspects from the current study. Some of the study settings involved universities, while the current study is mainly concerned with secondary school students. The sample sizes of the studies involved large groups whilst the current study will only involve six students. However, similar to these earlier studies the main goal of the current study is to get a better understanding on career guidance initiatives. 2.8Chapter SummaryIn this chapter career guidance benefits and roles were outlined in various ways. It is clear that career guidance and counselling provide educational, economical, psychological and social benefits to students and adults. Career guidance matches a person’s attitude, personality and environment to make a suitable career choice.The next chapter (Chapter 3) highlights a met-ethnographic study on the best practice for career guidance in high schools. The study highlights some of the initiatives that can be undertaken to have the best career guidance practice in high schools.CHAPTER 3BEST PRACTICE FOR CAREER GUIDANCE IN HIGH SCHOOLS: A META-ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY3.1Introduction BackgroundThe general objectives for career guidance and counselling are to help in the overall development of the student (Roy, 2011). Career guidance assists in the proper choice of courses and careers. It helps with students’ vocational development and readiness for choices and changes to face needs and challenges (Krishna, 2016). Career guidance minimises the mismatching between education and employment and assists in the efficient use of manpower. It motivates the youth towards self-employment and further assists in identifying and motivating students from the weaker sections of society (Roy, 2011). Career guidance among others direct students in their period of turmoil, confusion and when they are in need of special assistance, (Krishna, 2016). In order to get a sense of what the literature says about career guidance best practice, the researcher carried out a meta-ethnographic study. 3.2 The research processThe meta-ethnographic study was conducted to explore best practice guidelines for the implementation and practice of career guidance and counselling programmes in schools. Meta-ethnography is an interpretive approach for combining the findings of ethnographic research originally developed by Noblit and Hare (1988). This synthesis method provides a higher qualitative than quantitative level of analysis, generates new research questions and reduces the duplication of research (Sandelowski ; Barroso, 2012).Some authors suggest that the strength of this approach lies in its attempt to preserve the interpretive properties of primary data (Sandelowski ; Barroso, 2012).3.2.1The Phases In this meta-ethnographic study, the researcher used the seven phases suggested by Noblit and Hare (1988). This section defines each phase and describes the specific procedures adopted during the study in detail. 18.104.22.168Phase1: Getting started The current best practice guidelines for the implementation of career guidance and counselling programmes served as the main interest of this study. Therefore, the practicality of using an electronic database or digital library such as ProQuest and EBSCOhost to locate material was suitable for this phase of the research.Getting started involves determining a research question that could be informed by qualitative research (Sandelowski ; Barroso, 2012).In this phase, the meta-ethnographer identified a research question that informed an interpretive synthesis of a set of studies. The research question was, “What is the best practice guidelines for the implementation and practice of career guidance and counselling programmes in schools?” Meta-ethnography aims at producing explanations, through the interpretation of findings from several studies, which were not evident in any of the individual studies. This stage of the research involved ‘finding something that was worthy of the synthesis effort’. The UNISA online library was the main data source of the research question. Electronic databases EBSCOhost and ProQuest were used to search for the related articles. The key search terms were ‘career guidance, high schools, students, career development, and career guidance implementations. The search was limited to full text articles published between 2010 – 2017, articles that reported on qualitative methods, articles that involved students aged between 16 and 20 and articles in English. The research articles were based on students’ educational/vocational counselling services. The subject was high school students. Data was also searched from the search engines such as Google, using the same limiters’ and key words. The UNISA online library yielded three researches and the hand search yielded one with the necessary information. 22.214.171.124Phase 2: Deciding what is relevant to the initial interestThis stage involves several distinct decisions and processes. It involved systematically searching for, screening and appraising potential studies to decide which to include in the synthesis (Sandelowski & Barroso, 2012).Articles on career guidance and counselling from 2010-2017 functioned as the data sources for this study. The following descriptors were used to retrieve the articles on career guidance, career counselling, career education, high schools, qualitative research, and case study. Since the current research focused on career guidance practices, the selection was reduced to qualitative articles that focused only on case studies. Case studies were selected to match the high school context of the current study. These case studies provided the current research with relevant (a) descriptions, (b) explanations, and (c) evaluations of various ways that the perfect and best career guidance framework may be established. To match the recent practice of career guidance articles published between 2010 and 2017 were selected. The audit also identified articles that used qualitative research methods to match the meta-ethnographic research method. The search then delimited the results to articles that highlighted the best practice and implementation of career guidance programmes in schools. Out of the eight articles retrieved from the online databases (EBSCOhost and ProQuest), five articles were excluded because the studies focused on career education for high school mothers and had no relevant literature for the study. One article was hand searched. The final selection resulted in the following four qualitative case studies: Davis, Dodge and Welderufael’s (2014) work on students perceptions of career choice, barriers prohibiting students from engaging in a career of choice and their general hopefulness,Jahn and Myers’ (2014) work on the role of vocational anticipatory socialisation on youths educational and vocational interests, Lang’s (2012) work on sequential attrition of secondary school student interest in courses and careers, and Basham’s (2011) work on the role of career education and guidance for students in year 13 and its implications for students’ career decision making. The researcher undertook a systematic search of published qualitative studies reporting on best career guidance practices in other global and African countries. The search areas are evident in the headings below.Scope of the searchInclusions. The researcher consulted fully published reports of qualitative studies that explored students’ (16-18 years) and adults’ experience of career guidance initiatives in their country. Articles of students aged 16 – 18 years and adults (teachers and school headmasters) were consulted to match this current research. This research investigated the best practice guidelines for career guidance programmes among high school students (16 -18 years). Consulted studies were in English language. All information and interviews pertaining to this research was reported in English language hence to match this research all articles selected were written in English language. Qualitative studies on career guidance were used for the meta-ethnography. The following criterion was applied to assist in determining which case studies to use: The article reported on qualitative research methods.The articles used a case study of high schools or high school students.The study focused on career guidance and counselling or educational/vocational counselling and student services. Articles were accessible through a digital library containing digital articles and journals. Only full-text articles published between 2010 and 2017 were considered.Search strategiesFor this study a qualified research librarian was employed to assist in conducting the search by employing several strategies:Electronic databasesThis search incorporated the use of a combination of free-text terms and thesaurus terms or subject headings relevant for qualitative studies using the EBSCOhost and ProQuest databases which linked to four electronic bibliographic databases (Psyc Articles, Psyc Extra, Psyc Info, and Academic Search Premier). Hand-searchingHand-searching is an important strategy for comprehensively identifying relevant qualitative studies. (Shaw, Booth, Sutton, Miller, Smith ; Young, 2012). The researcher identified specific research articles reporting significant numbers of qualitative career guidance in schools research studies in full. Articles that revealed career guidance practices and were published between 2010 and 2017 were hand-searched.Quality appraisalThe assurance that a study was inductive and grounded in students’ and adults experiences was necessary for the current research. To ensure a quality meta-analysis checklists were used to guide the quality appraisal process. Three methods of appraisal were employed. First, the researcher used the questions developed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) (2013) for appraising qualitative research, which has been used to appraise the quality of studies for meta-ethnography. The CASP tool consists of 10 questions to consider when appraising qualitative research (Toye, Seers & Allock, 2013). At this stage, a co-coder was used to limit the biases and increase the credibility of the selection of the sources.Table 3.1: The CASP tool (2013)The CASP tool: 10 questions for appraising qualitative research Yes No1 Was there a clear statement of the aims of the research? 2 Is a qualitative methodology appropriate? 3 Was the research design appropriate to address the aims of the research? 4 Was the recruitment strategy appropriate to the aims of the research? 5 Were the data collected in a way that addressed the research issue? 6 Has the relationship between researcher and participants been adequately considered? 7 Have ethical issues been taken into consideration? 8 Was the data analysis sufficiently rigorous? 9 Is there a clear statement of findings? 10 How valuable is the research? Finally, the researcher categorised each paper as a key paper (i.e. it is conceptually rich and could potentially make an important contribution to the synthesis), a satisfactory paper, a paper that is irrelevant to the synthesis or a methodologically fatally flawed paper. This method has also been used to determine inclusion of studies into meta-ethnography. 126.96.36.199Phase 3: Reading the studiesReading the studies refers to becoming as familiar as possible with the content and detail of the included studies and beginning the process of extracting ‘metaphors’ or emerging themes (Sandelowski & Barroso, 2012). In this phase the papers careful read to gain a general view of the set of studies. The researcher further identified the key concepts addressed in each individual study through repeated reading and noting of the main concepts. Two important tasks were performed. Firstly, the researcher carefully read all the studies to create an initial understanding of the whole. Secondly, she extracted contextual information from each study that would be important in the interpretations and translations in future phases. The four studies were then read without considering data extraction. Table 2 presents a summary of the major highlights of the articles. Next, the researcher read the studies for a third time looking for the main concepts that were related to the research question and this resulted in table 3.Table 3.2: (Article Summaries)Description Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4Context Lang, C. (2012). Sequential Attrition of Secondary School Student Interest in IT Courses and Careers. West Linn : 25.3 Jahn, J.L.S & Myers, K.K. (2014). V Taylor T. Francis Croi Vocational Anticipatory Socialization of Adolescents: Messages, Sources, And Frameworks That Influence Interest In Stem Careers. Journal of Applied Communication Research Routledge Vol. 42 No 1 Davis, J, Dodge, E. & Welderfael, M. (2014). Intercultural partnering For the Benefit of South Africa Township High School Students. Department of Occupational Therapy. Dominican University of California: San Rafael Basham, C.J. (2011) The Role of Career Education and Guidance for Students in year 13 and its implications for students’ career decision making. Retrieved from unitec.researchbank.ac.nzAim This study aimed to provide a current insight into the declining diversity of the information technology (IT) student group in applying for the programme. This research examines the role of vocational anticipatory socialization (the type of messages adolescents receive, message sources, and adolescents’ frameworks) on youth’s educational and vocational interests. The objective of the study was to collect data on the student’s perceptions of career choice, barriers prohibiting students from engaging in a career choice and their general hopefulness. This research examines current careers education and guidance being delivered in secondary schools and determines whether it is relevant and helpful for students during their decision making process by asking the students directly.Sample Twenty Students Two hundred and twenty nine students Two hundred students Six students and eight career advisorsResearch method Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Qualitative research Qualitative ResearchData Collection Interviews Interviews and Focus Group Discussions Interviews Semi structured interviews and Focus Group DiscussionsKey term High school students, Career choice, career Decision making. career interests, adolescents, career and guidance in the secondary school Career guidance, career guidance and counselling services, career guidance effectiveness, career development, adolescence Career guidance, Career decision making,Setting School School School SchoolCountry Australia America South AfricaNewZealandKey findings -Information Technology rarely entered their schematic repertoire of possible future careers.- Parental influence affected career education for students- Deficit of knowledge pertaining to a career affected both genders- Stereotyping beliefs about IT affect career choice. – Parents, career insiders and media communicate most VAS messages related to Math, Science, and STEM based careers.- Career frameworks have a powerful effect on career pursuits by moderating VAS messages, experiences, and other personal factors. – Parents support their children in career related fields.- Results indicated that students want to learn about careers through observation. Observing other individuals performing the duties.- Students want to learn about careers through the internet and books.- Students wanted experienced workers to come into school and talk with them about their field.- Role models are the key to achieving a career path.- Participants want to hear first-hand information about a certain career path. – Students and parents should be consulted for career related concerns- There is a huge gap between careers education and what students and post students think.- The study highlights variances within the qualifications of Careers Advisors and careers education curriculum delivery across schools.- The importance of work experience for career advisors, deans and school principals.- The professional qualifications of career advisors and consistent delivery of the curriculum should be a concern-Educating parents as part of the careers process.188.8.131.52Phase 4: Determining how the studies are relatedNoblit and Hare (1988) (as cited in Sandelowski & Barroso, 2012), suggested creating a list of themes or metaphors, juxtaposing them and determining how they are related in determining how studies are related. During this stage the findings and conclusions of the articles were analysed with the assistance of a co-coder and similar themes and research methods were identified.Table 3.3: (Themes from the four studies)Lang (2012) Jahn and Myers (2014) Davis, Dodge and Welderfael (2014) Basham (2011)Theme 1 Social Capital of parents and their expectations for their children affects career decisions for students. Parents, Career insiders and media communicate most VAS (Vocational Anticipatory Socialization) messages related to math, science and STEM based careers. Parental support is key to career achievement. Students and parents should be consulted for career related concerns. Educating parents as part of the careers process.Theme 2 Lack of student knowledge on a certain career aspiration Career frameworks have a powerful effect on career pursuits by moderating VAS messages, experiences and other personal factors. Students would like to learn about their careers through the use of resources such as the internet and books. There is a huge gap between careers education and what students and post students think.Theme 3 Educational experiences, peer pressure and stereotyping beliefs about certain careers affected career guidance. Individuals in STEM occupations are in the best position to encourage adolescents by offering career details discussing how their career can be rewarding. Students would like to learn about careers by observing an individual who is currently in that occupation. Students also want experienced workers to come into school and talk with them about different careers. The importance of work experience for career advisors, deans and school principals.The professional qualifications of career advisors and consistent delivery of the curriculum should be a concern Theme 4 Culture and environmental status influenced student course and career choice. Influential others – including teachers, professionals and peers also can affect adolescent’s interest in various academic subjects, which ultimately affect their career pursuits. Role models influence career choices for students. The professional qualifications of career advisors and consistent delivery of the curriculum should be a concern Research Method Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Qualitative Research184.108.40.206Phase 5: Translating studies into one another This phase implies comparing the metaphors and concepts in one account with the metaphors and concepts in others (Sandelowski ; Barroso, 2012).The researcher examined each study in detail for issues relating to a given theme. As the studies were compared, the initial broad grouping of themes was gradually refined by merging and collapsing categories. A brief overview of each case study presented below assisted me in the generation of the metaphors, themes, and elements that can serve as a general structure for the best practice and implementation of career guidance. The coding and definitions were guided by Noblit and Hare’s (1988) criteria. Interpretation of Lang (2012)Sequential Attrition of Secondary school Student Interest in IT Courses and CareersThis case study aimed to provide a current insight into the declining diversity of the information technology (IT) student group in Australian secondary schools. The research findings revealed parental influence on students’ career choices. Parents influenced student’s decisions in selecting IT as a career field. The implications of the findings highlighted a lack of enthusiasm among female students to join the IT discipline. Practical implications of the findings showed that female students did not enrol into the IT discipline due to stereotypical beliefs about the career field. In the light of this study, IT professionals, industry and academics need to collaborate to engender greater interest in this discipline and increase their focus on parents and students.Interpretation of Davis et al (2014)Intercultural partnering for the benefit of South African township high school studentsThe objective of this research was to collect data on students’ perceptions of career choice, barriers prohibiting them from engaging in a career of choice and their general hopefulness. Results indicated several contributing factors that hindered perfect career choice among students. Money hindered effective career choice since most students highlighted that their parents did not have money for them to pursue their careers of choice. Results also revealed that parents supported their children’s career options, despite financial constraints. Findings further indicated that students would like to learn about their prospective careers by observing an individual who current occupies that occupation. Others would like to find more about careers by researching their careers of interest. Some indicated using resource such as the Internet and books. Students also revealed that they wanted an experienced worker to come to school and talk to them about different careers. Findings also revealed that students requested role models or experienced people in their field of interest to come and provide them with first-hand information.Interpretation Jahn and Myers (2014)Vocational Anticipatory Socialization of Adolescents: Messages, Sources, and Frameworks that Influence Interest in STEM Careers.This research examined the role of vocational anticipatory socialisation (VAS) – the types of messages adolescents receive, message sources, and adolescents’ frameworks- on youth’s educational and vocational interests. Adolescents reported that they received two types of VAS messages; personal fulfilment (advising students to prioritize their well-being) and career detail (advising students about specific aspects of an occupation). Practical implication are that parents can affect adolescents’ beliefs about their abilities and potential enjoyment of STEM careers by supplementing personal fulfilment messages with career detail messages. Findings revealed that parents, career insiders and media communicate most VAS messages related to math, science, and STEM based careers. They socialise by providing career detail encouraging personal fulfilment. Reports indicated that career frameworks have a powerful effect on career pursuits by moderating VAS messages, experiences and other personal factors. Interpretation Basham (2011)The Role of Career Education and Guidance for Students in year 13 and its Implications for Students’ Career Decision MakingBasham’s (2011) research examined the career education and guidance delivered at the time in secondary schools and determined whether it was relevant and helpful for students during their decision making process by directly asking students themselves. The role of career advisors was also investigated, the prescribed careers education curriculum was examined and their professional qualifications were also considered. A qualitative research method was used that involved the use of a questionnaire, focus group and semi-structured interview among year 13 students and post-secondary school students. The findings highlighted the very complex nature of careers education and guidance and showed that there are marked differences in terms of what students and post-students thought they needed in order to make informed career decisions and what the careers advisors were willing and able to deliver within the secondary sector. Students and parents should be consulted as part of any careers education programme and their individual circumstances considered. The professional qualifications of careers advisors and consistent delivery of the curriculum should also be of concern.220.127.116.11Phase 6: Synthesising translationsThe interpretations and relationships evident in phase five aided in determining whether relationships existed between metaphors identified in the coding structures. Clear and logical interpretations and conjectures were made when the synthesis revealed relationships between metaphors and coding structures among case studies (Sandelowski ; Barroso, 2012)18.104.22.168Phase 7: Expressing the synthesisThe hypotheses generated by the synthesis on how career guidance programmes may be implemented were important outcomes of this secondary research. In order to make the results easily accessible to a wide audience, I presented the data in a simple table, explained below.Table 3.4: (Key findings of the studies)Key findings Best Career Guidance ImplementationThe importance of parental involvement in Career guidance Parental InvolvementThe importance of role models and peers in career education Role models and peer involvementCareer frameworks influence student career decisions Career guidance and the Social media intersectCulture can influence career choices directly and indirectly Career guidance and Culture intersectStereotyping beliefs can affect career choices for students. De-bunking stereotypical beliefs in career educationParental InvolvementLang’s (2012) research on sequential attrition of secondary school students’ interest in IT courses and careers highlighted that IT rarely entered their schematic repertoire of possible future careers. This schematic repertoire was strongly influenced by parental opinion and habitus at all stages of education. The social capital of parents and their expectations for their children affected students’ career decisions. Jahn and Myers’ (2014) research on the VAS of adolescents (messages, sources and frameworks that influence interest in STEM careers) revealed that parents, career insiders and media communicate most VAS messages related to math, science and STEM-based careers. These messages may affect career decisions among students. Davis et al’s (2014) research on intercultural partnering for the benefit of South African township high school students highlighted that having parental support actually helps in mapping and boosting one’s career. Parental support enhances perfect career choice guidelines for students.Barsham’s (2011) research on the role of career guidance highlights the important role parents play in career guidance. The article highlights that students and parents should be consulted on career-related concerns. Educating parents as part of the careers process is yet another step in promoting career guidance.In the light of the above highlights from previous research it appears that today’s parents are more than just authority figures. They serve as friends, philosophers, and guides. With a more dynamic educational environment wherein, the children are taught to be independent and to take decisions on their own, the parent’s role diminishes. Involved parents know their children the best and along with vital information about new career paths and career choices they can facilitate the process of career selection for them (Bansal, 2015).Children from an early age learn 60% of things by observation. Most parents avoid arguing, converse emotional matters in front of their children. The same concept takes place in the realm of Career Guidance. The child is taught about careers by parents sub-consciously. Thus by observation the child can decide to follow a parents or guardians career path (Nhundu, 2015).A number of parents bring work home, others often take their children to their work places, and some do not even discuss their work with their children while others rarely spend time with their families because of work. These experiences have a substantive impact on how children decide on their careers. Hence, by unique experiences kids can decide to follow a parents/guardians career path or not (Nhundu, 2015).Parents/guardians can help shape their children’s career paths. Parents can thus not take a leading role in career decisions of their children but they walk side by side with their children and assist them to come up with the best career paths.Culture and Career GuidanceLang’s (2012) research revealed culture as the overriding influence on students’ course and career choice and it underpinned all parts of decision making in IT courses. This cultural impact was affected by the social capital of parents and their expectations for their children. The implications of the study revealed that the IT discipline had a lower perceived status than most professional careers which created a poor cultural image of the career.Jahn and Myers (2014) highlighted in their research that environmental pressures and cultural influences from peers, teachers and professionals affect career choices. Influential others such as teachers, peers and other professional’s utter various beliefs and attitude towards certain careers that ultimately affect career choices among adolescents. Davis et al (2014) note that role models influence career decisions. Children can therefore decide to follow certain career paths because of rather indirect family career experiences. Children may, for instance, witness a cruel robbery and experience the loss of a parent or sibling and thus decide to be a policeman/woman. A child may also witness the incarceration of an innocent close relative and decide to be a lawyer or judge. Children can also admire a community friend who puts on a shiny blue air force uniform and decide to follow the career path merely because of the intriguing uniform. Some children may just have a relative who is no-longer addressed by their name but by job title such as Doctor and fall in love with the career related to the title (Bansal, 2015). It therefore appears that the best career guidance implementation would be to cultivate an excellent career guidance culture that establishes role models for students to emulate other career paths. Career Guidance FrameworksCareer frameworks have a powerful effect on career pursuits by moderating VAS messages, experiences and other personal factors (Jahn & Myers, 2014). Davis et al (2014) also note that students like to learn about their careers through the use of resources such as the internet and books. Lang (2012) highlights that students’ lack of knowledge about certain career aspirations may result in dysfunctional career practices. The best career guidance practice may be implemented by providing social media coverage that promotes career guidance initiatives.In recent years, social media gradually gained a firm foothold in the field of career guidance and became part of the daily practice of many career practitioners. Social media simply refers to a collection of online tools that enable communities to share information, communicate and socialise. In a broader sense, social media is defined as a process where individuals and groups build a common understanding and meaning with contents, communities, and technology (Kettunen, 2016).Most young people currently use social media. In 2011, 91% of 16-24 year olds used Twitter and Facebook in Finland (Internet Access, Households and Individuals, 2011, ONS statistical bulletin, 31 August 2011). Social media is an effective means for delivering and disseminating information quickly to students and youths, allowing career practitioners to reach large numbers of people instantaneously (Kettunen, 2016). The purpose of using social media in career services would be to deliver information.Practitioners emphasise that active and safe participation on social media requires honed skills and the ability to seek, choose and evaluate complex online content. In career education this means stronger emphasis on guiding young people in terms of how to use the information and how to evaluate the reliability and validity of career information and its various sources in the light of lifelong career management skills.Social media serves the purpose of one-to-one communication (Kettunen, 2016). The ability to share real-time texts, video and audio created many new opportunities for interaction and cooperatively/collaboratively addressing young people’s needs. Social media provides a functional and readily available alternative to face-to-face career services, also allowing young people to anonymously share their thoughts and questions Kettunen, 2016). Social media further expands career guidance into an interactive workspace. In this case, social media is no longer seen as an alternative tool but, rather, a workspace that is an integral part of career services. Another purpose that social media can be used for in terms of career guidance, is to enhance co-careering, where shared expertise and the meaningful co-construction of career issues take place among community members). The ability to create a reliable and genuine image of oneself within the communities in which questions are discussed communally requires a mindful, properly managed and monitored online presence (Kettunen, 2016).Career Guidance and Stereotyping BeliefsEducational experiences, peer pressure and stereotyping beliefs about certain careers affect career guidance (Lang, 2012). Jahn and Myers (2014) also highlight those individuals in STEM occupations are in the best position to encourage adolescents by offering career details and discussing how their careers are rewarding. Students would like to learn about careers by observing an individual who is currently in that occupation. Students also want experienced workers to come into school and talk to them about different careers as alluded earlier in the research (Davis, 2014). To curb stereotyping beliefs about some careers, exposure to negative stereotypes beliefs and practices may serve as the best career guidance practice in terms of career guidance programmes. Career guidance explores the role that schools, teachers and curricula play in terms of perpetuating gender stereotypical behaviours and expectations among girls and boys (Song, Zuo, Wen & Yan, 2017). Career guidance identifies the attitudes and beliefs of girls and boys on gender stereotypes in relation to their career choices. It develops innovative pedagogical tools and materials for teachers and career guidance counsellors to combat gender stereotypes in the classroom (Song et al, 2017). Career guidance raises awareness on how gender stereotypes inform daily practices in the education setting among all those key actors who are involved. It raises awareness and understanding among boys and girls on the ways in which gender stereotypes shape and influence the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs and personal choices (Song et al, 2017). 3.3Chapter SummaryThis chapter revealed the best career guidance initiatives that can be implemented to promote career guidance. Parents, culture, stereotypical beliefs and the media all affect career choices. In light of the discussions in this chapter it is important to note some of the best career guidance practices as highlighted in the chapter.CHAPTER 4RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS4.1Introduction This chapter will present a detailed research design and methodology of this study. This will include data collection and data analysis procedures. This chapter will describe the findings and analysis of the research. The findings of the research sought to answer the research questions:What are students’, teachers’, principals’ and Ministry of Education personnel’s experiences on career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe? (empirical question)How is career guidance implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe? (empirical question)4.2Research approachThe research followed a qualitative research design. Qualitative research is a way of knowing in which a researcher gathers, organises and interprets information obtained from humans using his/her eyes and ears as filters (Lichtman, 2010). It is a systematic subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning.The research followed an explorative research approach. Exploratory research intends merely to explore the research questions. It is conducted in order to determine the nature of the problem. (Saunders et al, 2012). This type of research is not intended to provide conclusive evidence, but assists in having a better understanding of the problem. Therefore the research sought to answer the question, what are students’, teachers’, principals’ and Ministry of Education personnel’s experiences in terms of career guidance in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe, and how career guidance is implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe?”4.3 Research methodologyThe research followed a phenomenological research methodology. Phenomenology is a philosophical approach to undertaking qualitative research. The goal of phenomenology is to understand how others view the world, and how this view may vary from commonly held views by focusing on a person’s subjective interpretations of what he/she experiences (Trochim, Donnelly ; Arora, 2015). All participants were provided sufficient time to give their views and experiences pertaining to career guidance in Goromonzi District. Participants were interviewed on issues pertaining to how career guidance is practised in Goromonzi Zimbabwe.The interviews began with an overarching question and probes were used where necessary to guide the interview (Appendix D). 4.3.1 Population The research was conducted among Goromonzi District high school students, principals and Ministry of Education Officials in Zimbabwe. Participants were drawn from the list of schools in Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe. 4.3.2 SamplingSchools were selected based on the extent of time they have been implementing career guidance programmes. Three participants from each school, namely one student, one teacher and the principal, were selected for the interviews. The human resources officer from the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education Mashonaland East provincial office was also interviewed. The number of participants is shown in the table below. The professional participants were selected on the basis of having knowledge on how career guidance is practiced in Goromonzi District. Participants should have been part of the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education Mashonaland District office for two years and above. The students were selected based on the number of career guidance sessions they have undergone.Table 4.0 Participants InformationSchool Respondents Gender Age Group Number of Years in the DistrictSchool A (Day School) Student Female 16 -18 years 2 yearsTeacher Male 30 – 35 years 10 yearsPrincipal Male 40 – 50 years 15 yearsSchool B (Boarding School) Student Male 16 – 18 years 5 yearsTeacher Female 30 – 35 years 12 yearsPrincipal Male 40 – 50 years 16 yearsMinistry of Education Mashonaland East Province Human Resources Personnel Male 35 – 40 years 15 yearsThe snowballing sampling strategy was used. Snow balling is a special non-probability method for developing a research sample where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances (Katz, 2009). Using snowball sampling the school teachers and school heads assisted in selecting the appropriate students whilst the school heads assisted in selecting the appropriate teachers for the research. Snowball sampling is designed to identify people with particular knowledge, skills or characteristics that are needed as part of a committee and/or consultative process (Katz, 2009). It uses recommendations to find people with the specific range of skills that has been determined as being useful. Snowball sampling helps to identify the resources within a community and to select those people best suited for the needs of a project or process (Walliman, 2011). In the current research, participants were selected if they had knowledge and skills on parental are involvement in students’ career choices, role models and peers involvement in career guidance, career guidance and the social media intersect and de-bunking stereotypical beliefs in career education. Participants selected could speak in English. 4.2.3Entrée and establishing researcher rolesPermission to carry out the research was obtained from the Mashonaland East Provincial education offices by submitting a formal letter of identification from the University of South Africa (UNISA). Upon approval, I received a letter of permission to contact students from high schools in Goromonzi District and carry out the research.The researcher applied for ethical clearance through UNISA’s department of Industrial and Organisational psychology. The application form highlighted the types of people the researcher will approach, research assistance, and potential sponsors of the research. After ethical clearance to undertake the research, was obtained, the researcher was able to proceed. (Appendix A:Ethical Clearance Certificate)A pilot study was undertaken before the actual study. A pilot study is a preliminary trial of a research for helping to design a further confirmatory study (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). One student was selected to respond to the interviews to determine the validity of the questions asked during the interviews. This allowed for adjustments to be made on the framing of the interview question.Potential research participants were contacted personally because this is the accustomed communication mode among the population of this district. The context and purpose of the study was clearly explained.to the participants and they were presented with the Participant Information Form (Appendix B). the researcher addressed any questions the potential participants had emanating from the information form. The researcher then requested voluntary participation, assuring participants of their rights and confidentiality of participation and information shared. Interviews were set at a convenient place and time for all parties.Participants signed an informed consent form allowing the researcher to take notes during the interview and to audio-record interviews (Terre Blanche, Durrheim, ; Painter, 2014). This ensured that the researcher was able to give students her undivided attention, and to keep a clear record to ensure objectivity (Appendix C:Informed Consent Form).4.2.4Data collection methodsThe research followed a phenomenological research process, incorporating face-to-face interviews. An interview is a formal meeting in person, especially one arranged for the assessment of the qualifications of an application. It is a conversation, such as one conducted by a reporter in which facts or statements are elicited from another (Goodwin ; Goodwin, 2013). Using the interview guide (see Appendix D), the researcher personally undertook the interviews with the students, teachers, principals and the Ministry of Education Mashonaland East official. These interviews were carried out at home, school and outdoors. Interviews were used to obtain a clearer picture of pupils’, teachers’, principals and ministry officials’ experiences of career guidance and counselling in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe. The use of visual signs, such as nods and smiles further assisted in obtaining good responses (Walliman, 2011). The participants had been informed the interviews would be audio-recorded in the information sheet (Appendix B) and the informed consent form (Appendix C).The interviews focused on exploring how career guidance is implemented and practised in Goromonzi District. All participants were interviewed to shed more light on how career guidance is implemented and practiced in Goromonzi Zimbabwe. The best career guidance guidelines and implementations outlined by other authors and previous research studies were also outlined. The findings from the first and second research questions informed the development of a comprehensive strategy for the design, implementation and practice of career guidance strategies in Goromonzi district, Zimbabwe. 4.2.5Strategies employed to ensure quality dataThe researcher kept all information from the interviews confidential and it was only available to the researcher. Trustworthiness refers to the way in which qualitative research workers make sure that transferability, credibility, dependability, and conformability are evident in their study (Goodwin & Goodwin, 2013). Trustworthiness was ensured throughout the research, by the researcher and participants as evident below by adhering to the following procedures.Credibility is the concept of internal consistency, where the core issue is how we make sure accuracy and objectivity is evident in the research process (Guba, 2012). It determines how confident the investigator is with the truth of the findings based on the research design, informants, and context. Credibility can be accomplished by prolonged engagement with people, continual observation in the field, utilisation of peer briefers or peer researchers. Hence for this research the researcher approached individuals who had experience in career guidance activities. Transferability refers to the level to which the audience has the ability to generalise the results of a research to her or his own context (Goodwin & Goodwin, 2013). It takes place when the investigator provides adequate information about the research outline. The researcher gave adequate information pertaining to the research context, process, members, research participants, findings and data recording and analysis.Dependability refers to consistency in the way the research is carried out across time and research analysis techniques (Goodwin & Goodwin, 2013). The procedure by which results are produced must be explicit and repeatable whenever possible. In the current research dependability was achieved by means of meticulously monitoring the emerging research design and through keeping an audit trail, namely, an in depth chronology of research activities and processes; influences on the data collection and analysis and emerging themes.Conformability deals with the main issue that findings should signify, as far as possible, the specific situation being investigated as opposed to the beliefs or biases of the researcher (Goodwin & Goodwin, 2013). To conform to the findings of the research, the researcher properly tied together the data, analytic processes, and findings in a manner that the reader is in a position to confirm the adequacy of the findings.4.2.6Recording of dataData from the interviews was recorded by the use of digital recordings, audio recordings, verbatim transcription and process notes (Potgieter & Barnard, 2010). Existing theory and literature were used, where appropriate, to highlight the importance of career guidance and counselling among high school students.4.3Data analysisThe qualitative data compiled during the interviews was analysed by means of a coding system. Walliman (2011, p.42) defines qualitative data as data that relies on words, especially nouns and adjectives that convey what exists. Coding is a concept of putting labels or tags to allocate units of meanings to the data (Walliman, 2011, p.101) Coding helps to organise piles of data and provides a first step in conceptualisation. It helps to prevent data overload resulting from mountains of unprocessed data (Walliman, 2011). Data was analysed manually using the phenomenological data analysis process.The phenomenological process of analysing data has four stages according to Ballad and Bawalan (2012). The stages and data analysis are described below.4.3.1Textual analysis stageThis involves reading the whole transcript more than once and recording some observations and reflections about the interview experience in a separate reflexive notebook. The researcher transcribed all the recorded interviews from the participants. All notes and observations that were taken note off during the interview were also transcribed. 4.3.2The second stageThis stage involves returning to the transcript to transform the initial notes into emerging themes. I formulated concise phrases that contained enough abstraction to offer conceptual understanding of the research. This stage involves a number of coding. A code in qualitative research is a word or a short phrase that symbolically assigns a comprehensive, relevant, essence-capturing, and/or suggestive characteristic for a portion of language-based or visual data (Saldana, 2015). It is a process of organizing the data into chunks or segments that are alike. 22.214.171.124Coding of ThemesCode Structure: Understanding students’, teachers, and school principals experiences in terms of career guidance and ideas on how career guidance is implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe. The code structure responded to the following research questionsResearch Questions: “What are students’, teachers’, principals’ and Ministry of Education personnel’s experiences in terms of career guidance in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe, and How career guidance is implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe?”Coding ProcessThe coding process for the field notes and transcripts consisted of three steps namely open coding, axial coding and selective coding. Neuman (2011:510-514), Open coding is .the process of breaking down, examining, comparing, conceptualizing and categorizing data (Urquhart, 2013). The researcher identified segments of meaning from the field notes and transcripts in relation to the research question. The goal was on wording, phrasing, context, consistency, frequency, extensiveness and specificity of comments. The researcher clearly marked and labelled in a descriptive manner the segments of meaning from the field notes and transcripts Axial coding is the act of relating categories to subcategories along the lines of their properties and dimensions (Urquhart, 2013). This was done by reviewing and examining the initial codes that were identified on open coding. The researcher identified patterns and categories of the research story and organised them in terms of casualty, context and coherence.Selective coding is the stage when coding is limited to only those categories that relate to the core category (Urquhart, 2013). This was the third and final coding. The researcher selectively scanned all the identified for comparison, contrast and linkage to the research questions.The codes were evaluated for relevance to the research aims. The researcher listed the related codes in categories according to the research synthesis findings of the meta-ethnography (Chapter 3).4.3.3The third stageIn this third stage, the researcher examined emerging themes according to conceptual similarities. The task at this stage was to look for patterns in the emerging themes and produce a structure that will be helpful in highlighting converging ideas.4.3.4The fourth stage This is followed by constructing a table of themes, consisting of the structure of major themes and sub-themes. The next step involves more than one participant. It consists of moving to the next case and repeating the process for each participant. Inevitably the analysis of the first case will influence further analysis. Once all transcripts had been analysed the following table of themes was constructed. Table 4.2 (Table of themes)Themes Sub-themesCareer Guidance and Culture Intersect Students are not well informed on the various career choices they can take. Careers are not restricted to males or females. Females are being encouraged to do mechanical type of careers. Career guidance as a subject is not part of Goromonzi District Culture. Career guidance talk is the teacher’s choice (either to tell the students what his or her subject entails about)De-bunking Stereotypical Beliefs in Career Education. Females are encouraged to take mechanical subjects and some males are even taking Fashion and Fabrics which was mainly reserved for female students. Screening of Students in Form three (Students screened into three groups of learner i.e. art, sciences and commercials).The school Deputy heads and teacher in charge talk to students pertaining their subject choices.Parental Involvement in Career Guidance Some parents are involved in their children’s career education and some are not. Parents should be influential to students’ career choice. However they should not coheres children to careers of their self-interest. Role Models and Peer Involvement Peers have a great influence on career guidance. Choosing the rightful friends can lead to a successful career path. Industry gurus carry a great influence on students career pathCareer guidance and the Social Media Intersect. STEM programme (Science, Technology, Engneering and Mathematics) Internet, library and workshops as career guidance resources in the schools. Research findings and reporting The data were presented in narrative form. The narrative account highlights some extracts from participants’ own words with interpretative comments. In this way it is possible to retain some of the voices of participants and at the same time enabling the reader to assess the pertinence of the interpretations. Using the best practice guidelines identified from the meta-ethnographic study conducted to answer the first research question, the following findings were revealed.Career Guidance and Culture IntersectThe study highlighted that students are not well informed on the various career choices they can take. Careers are not restricted to males or females. Females are encouraged to do mechanical type of careers. Career guidance as a subject is not part of Goromonzi District Culture. Career guidance is not taken as a classroom subject in some schools as highlighted by one student “There are informal career guidance activities. For example during a lecture a teacher can divert what he or she is teaching by telling us the benefits of learning the subject. (Student 1SchoolA)” Some teachers even reiterated that “It is not part of the curriculum” (Teacher 1 School A). Hence career guidance in some Goromonzi district schools is informally practiced. It is the teachers’ choice once he or she is introducing the subject he or she explains some of the advantages and careers pertaining to the field of study. However students regarded this practice as informal as one student highlighted that some of my colleagues do not take this seriously. “I take that as career guidance but am not sure if my fellow classmates really grasp the concepts. I feel they do not take it seriously.”(Student 1 School A)Female students are encouraged to take mechanical and science subjects. “The Ministry of Education encourages us females to be part of the STEM programme. We are still few but I also encourage other ladies to take up the challenge” (Student 2 School B)Career Guidance Culture in the district is not being identified by most students. The study also revealed that some students are not knowledgeable about the career path they should follow. Students are not well informed about the career paths and choice of subjects they should take. Some students shared the following sentiments:”I should have been informed of all careers well before to enable informed choice of subjects to pursue” (Student 1 School B)”If only I could turn back the hands of time, I would have asked a career expert on all possible careers I can venture into. I guess I would have made an informed decision” (Student 1 School B)”I feel every student should have the right to be well informed on all possible career paths before making subject and career choices. This avoids career confusion later” (Student 2 School B)Career Guidance and Social Media IntersectThe STEM is the main career guidance framework done in Goromonzi District. STEM is more than an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. STEM education is an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to learning that provides hands-on and relevant learning experiences for students. Most students who have enrolled into the Science, Engineering, and Mathematics class for the Advanced level are benefiting more from this Career guidance framework. One student had this to say”I am achieving what I really wanted to do because of the STEM programme introduced by the Ministry of Education. I have had the opportunity to travel to many places and experience hands-on experience on my future career as a scientist” (Student 1School B)Most students are benefiting much from this programme. However not all students have the capability to enrol into mathematics, science or even the engineering field. They are left to a disadvantage. Some students were disheartened and had the following to say”If the ministry could revise the STEM programme and also introduce such career programmes for the arts and commercial students as well.”(Student 2 School B)”We also need to advance our careers in the art and commercial industry. It’s not fair, if only that STEM programme could be revised and include us from the Arts and Commercial classes” (Student 2 School B) The study highlighted that the STEM programme is the main career guidance framework done within Goromonzi District. Students and teachers shared sentiments of some of the career frameworks they wish should be done in the district. This indicates that there are a few frameworks being done within the district.”We should have career counsellors who can offer professional career guidance services coming to the school. Psychological assessments are fast appearing in the developed countries. If we could copy that and ensure that we could be assisted in making perfect career choices.”(Teacher 1 School A)’We should have time to meet successful industry gurus who have achieved their career aspirations. Am sure these are the perfect candidates to model us into the perfect career path” (Student 1 School A)”Am sure we have Psychologists, Lawyers, HR personnel’s, Engineers and others in the industry. Those are the people we wish they could be invited to model us in the various careers we can venture into” (Student 2 School B)Students and teachers highlighted what they wish for in terms of career guidance in Goromonzi District indicating that a lot of gaps need to be filled in terms of Career guidance.The study showed that most informal career guidance activities are done by the schools. The school authorities are the ones that initiate career guidance services within the school and district. Most teachers and students uttered the below sentiments:”The school head organised a tour to the Midlands State University open day. It was a really great opportunity however ifwe could get more career guidance activities it could benefit more and more students” (Teacher 1 School A)”It was a great opportunity organised by the school authorities to tour the University of Zimbabwe Campus. We had an exciting experience to get to know about the many courses on offer at the University.”(Teacher 2 School B)Career guidance in the district is not being done as per expectation. Students wish the district could organise more events that could benefit more students. More so due to the high volumes of students enrolled in the schools not all students are capable to attend such seminars. Career guidance in the district schools is initiated mostly by the school rather than the district and the ministry.Parental Involvement in Career Guidance. Parents are influential in career guidance for their children. Parents can influence either positively or even negatively. The study participants’ highlighted that parents should be part of the career guidance decision making of all students. Parents should be well versed with the dynamic trends that career education is advancing to. Most participants had this to say “Our parents should be flexible in educating us on the various trends of career education. They should be in a position to guide us and give us the necessary advantages and disadvantages of some career paths””Yes career guidance activities should be known by our parents. Our parents should be knowledgeable about the dynamic trends that each career paths takes. They should be able to channel us into the right path.”(Teacher 1 School A)”I think parents should be influential in career guidance. However they should not force me into the career paths I do not feel comfortable with.”(Teacher 1 School B) The study participants highlighted that parents should play an influential role in career guidance though they should not force students to careers of the parents’ choice. Parents should have a guidance role in career education. Role Models and Peer InvolvementMost study participants highlighted that peers play a crucial role in career guidance. “Choosing the rightful friends helps map your career aspirations.” One student had to say this. “I developed an interest in my field of study because of my best friend. We would study together and have discussions together” “My friend taught me to develop an interest in mathematics. I did like mathematics but the more my friend cohersed me to do more mathematics problems I developed an interest in mathematics.” (Student 2 School B)Peers in Goromonzi district high schools influence each other to do the same subjects hence playing a career guidance role. De-bunking Stereotypical Beliefs in Career EducationMost study participants highlighted that there are no career guidance initiatives being organised by the district which may indicate lack of stereotyping career guidance beliefs debunking. Most career guidance activities are organised by the school rather than the district. Participants were asked if there are any career guidance activities organised by the district. Most responses indicated that there is no career guidance initiatives that they know of that have been organised by the district. However the school plays a crucial role in alleviating some stereotypical beliefs on certain careers. Students visit Zimbabwean Universities and get a chance to learn about the various careers they can venture into. “They are non-activities I know off that have been organised by the district””Our teachers and school head are the ones that spearhead some of the career guidance initiatives at our school””We had an opportunity to visit the Midlands State University and University of Zimbabwe open day. The event was organised by the school.”(Student 1 School A) Career guidance identifies the attitudes and beliefs of girls and boys on gender stereotypes in relation to their career choices. This can only be done if educational workshops on stereotypical beliefs about career choices are done each term. 4.5Chapter SummaryThe chapter highlighted the research methodology and how career guidance is being practiced in Goromonzi district. The research used the phenomenological research methodology, snowballing sampling technique and interviews were used as the data collection method. Data was recorded by the use of digital recordings, audio recordings, verbatim transcription and process notes. The chapter clearly showed experiences of Goromonzi district staff and students perception on career guidance. The chapter also highlighted some of the career guidance initiatives practised in Goromonzi District.CHAPTER 5DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 IntroductionThis study explored career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. The objective of this chapter was to discuss the research findings, conclusions, and recommendations. This chapter concludes with recommendations for three categories of stakeholders in Higher education: Ministry Officials, teachers, and students.5.2 Research overviewThe research overview gives a brief summary of the whole research. The overview will outline the research aims, and the research objectives of the research. 5.2.1 Research aimsThe aim of this study was to explore career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. The general objective of the research was to explore international best career guidance practices against practices in Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe. The specific literature aim was to explore international best implementation and practice guidelines for high school career guidance. The specific empirical aims were to explore high school students’, teachers’ and principals experiences in career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe and to compare career guidance implementation and practices in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe against international best practice guideline. 5.3 Major findings of the researchThe research yielded crucial initiatives for the practice of career guidance in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. The findings of the research are indicated below. The major findings of the research were, the importance of parental involvement in career guidance, de-bunking stereotypical beliefs in career guidance, role models and peer involvement in career guidance and the importance of the social media in enhancing career guidance practice in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. 5.3.1 Parental Involvement in Career Guidance. This research revealed that parents are influential in career guidance decisions for their children. Parents play a major role in career guidance choices and decision making for their children. Similar patterns are evident in the literature for this research. The specific literature aims of the study revealed that the indirect beneficiaries for career guidance include, family, networks, and informal groups such as peer groups, schools, colleges and other educational training providers, employers, the local community and the nation as a whole (Hooley, 2015). This shows that parental involvement in career guidance is crucial. The specific empirical aim highlighted that parental involvement in career guidance for students is important. In the meta-ethnography, Jahn and Myers’ (2014) research on the VAS of adolescents (messages, sources and frameworks that influence interest in STEM careers) parents, career insiders and media communicate most VAS messages related to math, science and STEM-based careers. These messages may affect career decisions among students. Similar trends are evident in this research. Parents should be involved in assisting students in career guidance.There were no differences between the international career guidance best practice and that of the Goromonzi District Zimbabwe Schools. Parents should be involved in career guidance initiatives for their children.5.3.2 Career Guidance and Culture IntersectDe-bunking Stereotypical Beliefs in Career EducationThe study highlighted that students are not well informed on the various career choices they can take. Careers in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe are not restricted to males or females. Females are encouraged to do mechanical type of careers. Career guidance as a subject is not part of Goromonzi District Culture. Similar patterns on career guidance and culture on the international map were drawn from this research finding. The specific empirical aim highlighted that career guidance culture should be cultivated among high school students. In the meta-ethnography, Lang’s (2012) research revealed culture as the overriding influence on students’ course and career choice and it underpinned all parts of decision making in IT courses. This cultural impact was affected by the social capital of parents and their expectations for their children. The implications of the study revealed that the IT discipline had a lower perceived status than most professional careers which created a poor cultural image of the career.Similarly in Gormonzi District schools though females are encouraged to do mechanical type of careers, students are not well informed on the various career choices they can take. Careers in Goromonzi District are not restricted to males or females, both male and females are encouraged to take all subjects. In terms of differences in the literature aims career guidance as a subject is not part of Goromonzi District culture. Career guidance is not taken as a subject in Goromonzi District as compared to Career guidance in the international map. Career education or vocational orientation is an integral part of the German school curriculum at all school levels and a common guidance activity in most secondary schools. Its aim is to prepare pupils for the world of work, improve career management skills and assist them in seeking and using career information and career decision making (Vogel, 2015). In some schools, preparation for working life is a subject itself. 5.3.3 Role Models and Peer InvolvementThe research revealed that role models and peers help in career guidance decision making. Peers in Goromonzi district high schools influence each other to do the same subjects hence playing a career guidance role. Similar to the international career guidance practice, peers do play a role in career guidance. In the meta-ethnography, Davis et al (2014) note that role models influence career decisions. Children can therefore decide to follow certain career paths because of rather indirect family career experiences. Some children may just have a relative who is no-longer addressed by their name but by job title such as Doctor and fall in love with the career related to the title (Bansal, 2015).There were no noticeable differences in role models and peer involvement in career guidance practice in Goromonzi District High schools as compared to the International best practice guidelines of career guidance. 5.3.4 Career guidance and the Social Media Intersect.Social media is crucial as way of enhancing career guidance. The research revealed that STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as the main career guidance framework done in Goromonzi District. Similarly to the international best practice for career guidance most students who have enrolled into the Science, Engineering, and Mathematics class for the Advanced level in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe are benefiting more from this Career guidance framework. According to the specific literature aims of this research, career frameworks have a powerful effect on career pursuits by moderating VAS messages, experiences and other personal factors (Jahn & Myers, 2014). Davis et al (2014) also note that students like to learn about their careers through the use of resources such as the internet and books. Students in Goromonzi district have access to books and the internet which are part of the career guidance initiatives and the best international career guidance practice. However, some career guidance practice differences were noted in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Career guidance in the district is not being done as per expectation. Students wish the district could organise more events that could benefit more students. 5.4 ConclusionsThis research sought to answer the following questions What are the best practice guidelines for the implementation and practice of career guidance and counselling programmes in schools? (literature question)What are students’, teachers’, principals’ and Ministry of Education personnel’s experiences in terms of career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe? (empirical question)How is career guidance implemented and practiced in Goromonzi, Zimbabwe? (empirical question)The best practice guidelines for implementation and practice of career guidance and counselling programmes in schools were outlined in the literature review and meta-ethnography of this research. The study highlighted that the best practice guidelines for career guidance are to have parents involved in career decisions and choices for their children, having peers that influence fellow students into the suitable career path, the social media and career frameworks playing a crucial role in advertising and raising opportunities for student career guidance and choices, the schools playing a major role in de-bunking stereotypical beliefs about career guidance and also creating a culture of career guidance practice. The research explored students, teachers, and ministry personnel’s career guidance experiences in Goromonzi District. The results of the analysis therefore suggest that career guidance is being practiced in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe however not at expectation. Career guidance is done informally in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Career guidance in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe is being organised by the schools and not by the District. School authorities are taking the necessary initiatives to cultivate the Career Guidance culture. A few career guidance frameworks such as the STEM programme are still active in Goromonzi District schools. Parents are influential in career guidance practice guidelines for their children. More so the Ministry is doing a great job in advertising the STEM programme. The programme is active in most Goromonzi High Schools. 5.5 LimitationsThe research was done in Goromonzi District Schools in Zimbabwe. The research can be further expanded to other high schools, provinces and districts in Zimbabwe.Recommendations 5.6.1 Recommendations based on TheoryTheories of process in Career Guidance are characterised by theories that present a series of stages through which people pass. Theories of process include Gofferdson’s Circumscription and Compromise Theory (2005), as well as the theories of Ginzeberg and Super (1951) and Miller Tiedmann and Tiedmann (1999) who focused on stages of career development.Theories of content propose that career choices may be predicted on the basis of individual characteristics, especially aptitudes, achievements, interests, values, and personality (Sharf, 2016). Parsons’ work is an example of theories of content. Theories of content and process encompass both the characteristics of individuals and their context, and the development and interaction between them. In the same way this research recommends High School authorities, Ministry of Education in Zimbabwe to adopt the career development stages in these theories. According to these theorists career development starts from birth. Career guidance development is a cycle that runs from birth to old age. In the same way the findings suggest career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe and the Mashonaland Provincial Education to adopt such initiative. Further, career guidance should start from Early Childhood Development Level (ECD) to old age. In that way career guidance initiatives are beneficial and are well implemented. Career guidance initiatives should also focus on the person and the environment they live. Career guidance should be environment fit and person fit. Careers should match the personality of the individual and the preferable environment the person is capable to live in. Recommendations based on Findings of the ResearchThe findings revealed that career guidance is still at its practice in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe, though not at its expectation. The findings of the research highlighted that parental involvement is key in career guidance choices, peers have a great influence in mapping career guidance choices, career guidance frameworks assists in advertising career guidance initiatives and the cultivation of career guidance culture is necessary for career guidance development. In light of the above parental involvement in career guidance is effective in promoting effective career guidance initiatives. Parents should be equipped with the necessary information for career guidance initiatives. Parents should be aware of the latest trends on career guidance development and awareness for their children. Peers and students should be well informed with the necessary information to impart career guidance initiatives to others family and friends. Career guidance frameworks exist to widen the practice of career guidance. Since school children are well versed with the use of the internet, books and social media platforms, more career guidance frameworks should be implemented. Further, students, teachers and the ministry officials should make use of these social media platforms and frameworks to advance the practice of career guidance.For the cultivation of career guidance culture, the ministry officials should maintain a constructive and consistence influence by having career guidance workshops that can benefit everyone in the community. Recommendations Based on Informing PolicyIn creating a career guidance environment in Goromonzi District Zimbabwe and in Mashonaland East Province in Zimbabwe the findings of this study imply The STEM programme should be reactivated and extended to the Arts and Commercial subjects. In addition, such career frameworks should be balanced and all students should get a chance to participate. Furthermore, career guidance workshops should form an integral part of the school calendars. The Goromonzi District and Mashonaland East Ministry officials should host career guidance day whereby industry gurus and companies come and showcase their business and assist students on how they rode the career ladder up to where they are now. One further recommendation is that career guidance in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe is taken formally and as a subject. Additionally, the school curriculum should be revised and that the Career guidance subject is implemented and taken seriously in schools. Recommendations based on Practical Implications From the finidings of this research, it is noted parents need to be well informed on career guidance initiatives such that they can impart them to their children. Career guidance frameworks should also be established in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe and the programmes can be extended to other districts in Zimbabwe. In addition, schools should be proactive in advancing career guidance practice in the schools. Students should be well versed with the career path they wish to venture into. The Mashonaland East Provincial Education office needs to promote career guidance awareness in Goromonzi district, Zimbabwe so that career guidance initiatives are well known in the district.Career guidance in Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe to be added in to the curriculum and be taught in the classrooms. If students are aware of what they want to do in life they will most likely not crowd in one career focus area. This will benefit the economy as well as the society. School principals and teachers need to promote classroom based career guidance awareness such that students are confident in making career decisions. Further Research on career guidance initiatives in other districts and provinces in Zimbabwe should be carried out using other research approaches. 5.7 ConclusionThe study revealed that career guidance is being practised in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. However more career guidance initiatives are needed in the District such that career guidance benefits all stakeholders. Career guidance should be classroom based and not school based. The social media, peers, role models, parents, culture among other factors play an important role in enhancing career guidance initiatives. If the research results and recommendations are put into consideration, career guidance practice in Goromonzi District and in Zimbabwe will reach greater heights. References Achungo, E.P. (2004). Students Access to Career Guidance and Counselling in Secondary Schools in Kakamega District, Western Province. Retrieved from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.keAmoah, A.A., Kwofie, I. ; Kwofie, F. (2015). The School Counsellor and Students’ Career Choice in High School: The Assessor’s Perspective in a Ghanaian Case. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol 6, No. 23Arulamini, G., Bakshi, A.J., Leong, F.T.L ; Watts, A.S. (2014). Handbook for Career Development: International Perspectives. Springer Science Business Media: New York.Athansou, A.A ; Esbroeck, R. (2008). International Handbook of career Guidance. Sydney: Springer Science and Business Media.Ballard, C.G. ; Bawalan, R.T. (2012). Methods of Qualitative Research: Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from www.slideshare.netBansal, A. (2015). Role of Parents in Career Selection. Retrieved from www.idreamcareer.comBasham, C.J. (2011). The Role of Career Education and Guidance for Students in Year 13 and Its Implications for Students’ Career Decision making. Retrieved fromwww.unitec.researchbank.ac.nzBentham, S. (2002). Psychology and Education. New York: Routledge Publishers.Bojuwoye, O. & Mbanjwa S. (2006). Factors Impacting on Career Choices of Technikon Students From Previously Disadvantaged High Schools. Virginia: National Career DevelopmentBosto, M. (2016). Modern Social Work Theory 4th Ed.Oxford University Press: New York.Brown, S. D. & Lent, R. W. (Eds.). (2013). Career Development and Counselling: Putting Theory and Research to Work (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.Capuzz, D. & Stauffer, M. D. (2012). Career Counselling: Foundations, Perspectives and Applications (2nd Ed). New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Charamba, C.F. (2016, April 13). Career Guidance Vital in Education.The Herald Retrieved from www.herald.co.zwChikwature, W. & Oyedelele, V. (2016) School Heads and Teachers Perceptions on the Factors Influencing Pass Rate at Ordinary Level in Mutasa District of Manicaland: Greener Journal of Educational Research 6 (1):005-019.Curry, J. & Milsom, A. (2014). Career Counselling in P-12 Schools. New York: Springer Publishing Company.Dabula, P. & Makura, A.H. (2013). High School Students’ Perceptions of Career Guidance and Development Programmes for University Access. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 5(2): 89-97 Davis, J., Emily, D. ; Welderufael, M. (2014). Intercultural Partnering for The Benefit of South Africa Township High School Students. California: John Wiley and Sons.De Villiers, M. (2009). The relationship between employee wellness and career anchors. Retrieved from Unisa Electronic Thesis and Dissertations.Debano, M.,Camilleri, S., Galea, J. ; Gravira, D. (2007). Career Guidance Policy for Schools. Floriana: Ministry of Education Youth and Employment.Douglas, F. (2005). Welfare to work: economic challenges to socially just career guidance practice. In Barrie A. Irving ; Beatriz Malik (Eds) Critical Reflections on Career Education and Guidance: Promoting social justice within a global economy. London: Routledge Falmer.Edwards, K. ; Migunde, Q. (2011). Factors Influencing Student Career Choices among Secondary School Students in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya, Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 2 (2): 81-87.Egan, M. (2014). A Qualitative Exploration on the Role of the Career Guidance Counsellor from a Psychotherapeutic Perspective. Dublin Business School: DublinEuro guidance. (2018). National Guidance Systems: Guidance System in Austria Retrieved from https://www.euroguidance.eu/Giorgi, A. (2012). The Descriptive Phenomenological Psychological Method. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 43(1), 3-12.Goodwin, J.C. ; Goodwin, K.A. (2013). Research in Psychology. Methods and Design (7thEd.). New York: John Wiley and SonsGrites, T. J., Miller, M.A., ; Givans, J. (2016). Beyond Foundations: Developing as a Master Academic Advisor: Jossey-Bass: New Jersey.Guba, E.G. (2012). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries, Educational Communication and Technology Journal 29, 75–91.Hamlin, D. ; Kidder, A. (2015). Guiding Students to Success: Ontario’s School Guidance Programs. Toronto: People for Education.Hill, G. (2001). A Level Psychology through Diagrams. New York: Oxford University Press.Hooley, T. & Dodd, V. (2015). The Economic Benefits of career Guidance: Careers England. Retrieved from http:hdl.handle.net/10545/559030.Hooley, T. & Dodd, V. (2015). The Economic- Benefits of career Guidance: Careers England. Retrieved from http:hdl.handle.net/10545/559030.Hooley, T. (2015). What Role should Teachers Play in Career Guidance? Retrieved from, https://www.theguardian.comHughes, D. (2004). Investing in Career: Prosperity for Citizens, Windfalls for Government. Winchester. The Guidance Council. New JerseyJahn, J.L.S. & Myers, K.K. (2014). Vocational Anticipatory Socialization of Adolescents. Messages, Sources and Frameworks that Influence Interest in STEM Careers. Journal of Applied Communication Research. Routledge Vol 42 (1).Jenschke, B. (2011). Quality and Professionalism of Guidance: A German Approach to Coordinated Development. Retrieved from www.forum-beratung.de/cms/upload/EnglishJex, S. M. & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organisational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Inc.Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2012). Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches (4th Ed.). London: Sage Publications.Joshi, R. D. & Verspoor, A. (2013). International Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Washington: The World Bang.Katz, H. (2006). Thoughts for the Globalization and Social Science Data Workshop. Retrieved from www.global.ucsb.eduKatz, M.J. (2009). From Research to Manuscript. A Guide to Scientific Writing 2nd Edition. Springer: USAKettunen, J. (2016). The Rise of Social Media in Career Guidance School Education Gateway. Finland: Finnish Institute of Educational Research.Krishna, M. (2016). Objectives of Career Oriented Guidance and Counselling Programme in Our Schools, Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from http://www.shareyouressays.com/95492/17-objectives-of-career-oriented-guidance-and-counselling-programme-in-our-schools-colleges-and-universitiesLang, C. (2012). Sequential Attrition of Secondary School Students Interest in IT Courses and Careers. Information technology & People: West Linn 25 (3)Latunji, F., Heaton, J., Hobby, R., Hooley, T. & Morgan, N. (2015). The Important Role of Teachers in Providing Quality Careers Learning. Retrieved from https://www.teachfirst.org.ukLichtman, M. (2010). Qualitative Research in Education: A User’s Guide (2ndEd.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.Majoni, C. ; Chinyanganya, T. (2014), Views of Secondary School Students Towards the Effectiveness of Career Days in Assisting Them to Choose a Career. Greener Journal of Education and Training Studies: Vol. 2 (3), pp. 071-078. Mapfumo, J. ; Nkoma, E. (2013).The State of Career Guidance and Counselling Programmes in Manicaland, Zimbabwe: International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, June 2013, Vol. 6(2), 100-116. Masekesa, C. ; Chibaya, M. (2014). Unemployment Turns Graduates into Vendors. Retrieved from http://www.thestandard.co.zw.Mawire, T.L. (2011). Evaluating the implementation of guidance and counselling in Zimbabwean secondary schools. Pretoria; University of Pretoria.Mayston, D. (2015). Assessing the Benefits of Careers Guidance. Derby: Centre for Guidance Studies. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ McCulloch, G. ; Crook, D. (2008). The Routledge International Encyclopaedia of Education. New York: Routledge.Ministry of Education Canada. (2006). Guidance and Career Education. MED Canada: OntarioMinistry of Education Singapore. (2017, May 11). Education and Career Guidance. Retrieved from https://www.moe.gov.sg/education/programmemes/social-and-emotional-learning/education-and-career-guidance#sthash.BSlFMmtI.dpufMinistry of Education. (2009). Career education and guidance in New Zealand schools. Wellington: New Zealand Career Services. Ministry of Education. (2012). National Administration Guidelines. Retrieved from www.minedu.govt.nzMpofu, E. (2011). Counselling People of African Ancestry. New York: Cambridge University Press. Mudyiwa, M. (2015, May 27). The Importance of Choosing the Right Career. Zimbabwe Schools Guide. Retrieved from http://www.zimbabweschoolsguide.co.zw.Muhamba, P. (2016, April 13). Career Guidance Vital in Education. The Herald. Retrieved from www.herald.co.zwMunro, J. ; Chadzunda, R. (2017). Career Guidance and Counselling Programmes and Practices in Secondary Schools in Malawi. Capital House City Centre: LilongweMurekedzi, T.G. (2013). Professional development through Teacher Roles: Conceptions of Professionally Unqualified Teachers in Rural South Africa and Zimbabwe. Journal of Research in Rural Education.28 (11).Mwenje, T. (2015, October 29). What is Career Guidance and why it is important: Career Guidance, Experts Exchange. Retrieved from http://www.technomag.co.zw.Ndlovu, P. (2013). Government to Consolidate Strategies to Increase Schools’ Pass Rate. Retrieved from www.zimbabweelection.com/2013/09/17/govt-to-consolidate-strategies-to-increaseschools-pass-rate/2015.Negi, A. (2010). Industrial Psychology. Delhi: Word Press.Neuman, W.L. (2011). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Pearson Publications: New YorkNewsday. (2011, August 26). The Death of Career Guidance Culture in Zimbabwe. The Newsday. Retrieved from www.newsday.co.zwNguwi, M. (2015, May 15). Does Career Guidance Matter? The Financial Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.financialgazzette.co.zw.Nhundu, P. (2015). Parental Role in Career Guidance and Counselling. Retrieved from www.linkedin.com/pulse/parental-role-career-guidance-counsellingO’Donoghue, K. (2014, July 30). Careers Guidance in Schools and Colleges: A Guide to Best Practice and Commissioning Careers Guidance Services. Retrieved fromhttp://www.thecdi.net/write/FINAL-Best_Practice_Guide-.pdf OECD. (2011). Reviews of Vocational Education and Training: Learning for jobs. Pointers for policy development. Retrieved from www.oecd.orgOregon Department of Education (2003). Oregon’s Framework for Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programmes. Salem. Retrieved fromOrganisation for Economic Cooperation Development. (2012). Education at a Glance 2012. OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing.Ottley, J. (2016 April 3) Career Guidance: New Zealand Country Report. Retrieved from http://www.asiapacificcda.orgPatton, W., & McMahon, M. (2014). Career Development and Systems Theory: Connecting Theory and Practice 3rd Ed. Sense Publishers: Boston Payne, M. (2016). Modern Social Work Theory 4th Ed.Oxford University Press: New York.Polit, D.F. & Beck, T.C. (2010). Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers.Poremba, G., Strohl, I., & Letoski, E. (2017).Benefits of School Counseling Programmes. Retrieved from www.parklandsd.orgPrideaux, I., Creed, P., Muller, J. and Patton, W. (2000). “A Review of Career Interventions from an Educational Perspective: Have Investigations Shed Any Light?” Swiss Journal of Psychology, No. 59, pp. 227-239Prokopenko, J. (2008). The role of Serbian Employers Association in youth employment promotion through better partnership and impact on training institutions. Retrieved from www.ilo.orgRoy, M. (2011). Guidance and Counselling. Retrieved from www.teachersseducationguidancecounsellin.blogspot.comSahlberg, P. (2015). Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn From Educational Change in Finland (2nd Ed): Teachers College Press. New York.Saldana, J. (2015). Thinking Qualitatively: Methods of Mind. Sage Publications: SingaporeSamanyanga, I. & Ncube, D. (2015), An Evaluation of Guidance and Counselling Services Offered to Students in Gwanda Urban and Peri-Urban Secondary Schools. Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research. Volume 27 (1).Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, J. (2012). Handbook for Synthesising Qualitative Research. New York: Springer.Saunders, M., Lewis. & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students (6th Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Pearson Education Limited.Schrueder, D. & Coetzee, M. (2011). Careers An Organisational Perspectice. Juta Limited: South Africa Schutt, D.A. & Morem, S. (2012). How to Develop a Career Centre. Ferguson Publishing: New York.Sewell, K. (2009). Career Education and Guidance in New Zealand Schools. Crown: Ministry of Education.Sharf, R.S. (2016). Applying Career Development Theory to Counselling 6th Ed. Cengage Learning: Amazon.Shaw, R., Booth, A., Sutton, A., Miller, T., & Young, B. (2014). Finding Qualitative Research: An Evaluation of Research Strategies. BMC Med Research Methodology: Boston.Song, J., Zuo, B., Wen, F. & Yan, L. (2017). Math-Gender Stereotypes and Career Intentions: An Application of Expectancy- Value Theory. British Journal of Guidance a Counselling. Volume 45, 2017(3).Stern, D., Finkelstein, N., Stone, J. R., Latting, J. & Dornsife, G. (1995). School to Work: Research on Programmes in the United States. London: The Farmer Press.Stones, C. R. (2001). Socio-political and Psychological Perspectives in South Africa. South Africa: Nova Publishers.Sultana, R.G. (2017). Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning Across the Mediterranean. Springer International Publishing: New York.Supple, S. (2013). Choosing a Vocation: By Frank Parsons. Sense Publishers: BostonSwanson, J. L. & Fouad, N.A. (2015), Career Theory and Practice: Learning Through Case Studies. Sage Publication: New York.Terre Blanche, M., Durrheim, K. & Painter, D. (Eds.). (2014). Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences .Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.The Irish Time. (2011, September). Knowing where to start is half the battle:The Irish Times. Retrieved fromhttp://www.pressreader.com/ireland/the-irish-timesThe South African Qualifications Authority Career Advice Helpline: Retrieved from http://www.careerhelp.org.za Toye, F. & Seers, K. (2013). A Meta-ethnography of Patients; Experience of Chronic Non-malignant Musculoskeletal pain. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Quality Appraisal Checklist. Retrieved from www.casp-uk.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/11Trewin, D. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Year Book Australia. Canberra: Author.Trochim, W.M.K., Donnelly, J. P & Arora, K. (2015). Research Methods: The Essential Knowledge Base. Cincimnati: Cengage Learning Publishing. Check formattingUrquhart, C. (2013). Grounded Theory for Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide. Sage Publications: London check formattingVan, N.T. & Loan, D.T.B. (2015). Career Guidance in Secondary Schools: A Literature Review and Strategic Solutions for Vietnamese Rural Areas. American International Journal of Social Sciences: Vol 4.No. 23Vogel, P. (2015). Generation Jobless: Turning the Youth Unemployment Crisis into Opportunity. Palgrave MacMillian: IndiaWalliman, N. (2011). Research Methods the Basics.New York: Routledge Publishers.Walsh, W.B. & Osipow, S.H. (2014). Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group: New York.Walsh, W.B., Salvickas, M.L. & Hartung, P.J. (2013). Handbook of Vocational Psychology: Theory Research and Practice. Sage Publications: New York.Watts, A. G. (2010). Career Guidance and Post-Secondary Vocational Education and Training. OECD: Paris.Xiao, J. J., & Newman, B. (2014). Career preparations of high school students in China, Japan, South Korea, and USA. Research Brief. University of Rhode Island: Kingston.Zunker, V. G. (2016). Career Counseling: A Holistic Approach (9th Ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.Zvobgo, R. (2004). Reflections on Zimbabwe’s search for a relevant curriculum. The Dyke Journal, 1:70-79.APPENDICESAPPENDIX A: ETHICAL CLEARANCE APPROVAL LETTERAPPENDIX B: PARTICIPANT INFORMATION SHEETDear ColleagueYou are invited to participate in a Masters research study conducted by Fiona Dandato. The purpose of this research is to explore career guidance initiatives in Goromonzi District Zimbabwe.Participation in this study will require approximately 20 minutes of your time. It involves the completion of demographic details and interview questions that will be recorded. There are no known risks associated with this research. In the event of any discomforts, please feel free to raise any concerns or questions with the researcher. The researcher will make every effort to discuss them with you and inform you of options for resolving your concerns.Your participation in the study is intended to contribute to the understanding of career guidance initiatives, experiences and implementations in Goromonzi District High schools in Zimbabwe.Your name and email address are not required hence the responses you give will remain private, confidential and anonymous. The researcher will do everything possible to protect your privacy. Moreover, your identity or even the identity of your school will not be revealed in any publication resulting from this study.Your participation in this research study is voluntary. You may choose not to participate and you may withdraw your consent to participate and discontinue at any time for any reason without penalty or prejudice. If you have any questions or concerns about this study or if any problems arise, please contact Fiona Dandato at UNISA at +263-4-309203 or mobile +263 773 053 299. I would greatly appreciate your responses at your earliest convenience.Kind RegardsFiona Dandato+263-4-309203 mobile +263 773 053 299APPENDIX C: INFORMED CONSENT FORMSConsent for Participation in Interview ResearchI volunteer to participate in a research study conducted by Fiona Dandato from the University of South Africa. I understand that the study is designed to gather information about career guidance in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. I will be one of approximately 10 people being interviewed for this research. 1. My participation in this project is voluntary and I understand that I will not be paid for my participation. I may withdraw and discontinue participation at any time without penalty. 2. I understand that most interviewees in this research will find the discussion interesting and thought-provoking. If, however, I feel uncomfortable in any way during the interview session, I have the right to decline to answer any question or to end the interview. 3. Participation involves being interviewed by Fiona Dandato from University of South Africa. The interview will last approximately 10-15minutes. Notes will be written during the interview. An audio tape of the interview and subsequent dialogue will be make. 4. I understand that the researcher will not identify me by name in any reports using information obtained from this interview, and that my confidentiality as a participant in this study will remain secure. Subsequent uses of records and data will be subject to standard data use policies which protect the anonymity of individuals and institutions. 5. I understand that this research study has been reviewed and approved by the University of South Africa College of economic and management sciences research ethics review committee and the Ministry of Education Mashonaland East Provincial Offices. 6. I have read and understood the explanation provided to me.7. I have had all my questions answered to my satisfaction, and I voluntarily agree to participate in this study.8. I have been given a copy of this consent form. Signature ____________________________ Date ____________________________ ________________________ For further information, please contact: Fiona Dandato +263-4-309203 or +263 773 053 299PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT FORMConsent for Participation in Interview ResearchI agree to let my child participate in a research study conducted by Fiona Dandato from the University of South Africa. I understand that the study is designed to gather information about career guidance in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. 1. My child’s participation in this project is voluntary and I understand that I will not be paid for my child’s participation. I may let my child withdraw and discontinue participation at any time without penalty. 2. I understand that most interviewees in will find the discussion interesting and thought-provoking. If, however, I feel uncomfortable for my child to be part of the interview in any way during the interview session, I have the right to decline to withdraw my child from the interview.3. Participation involves being interviewed by Fiona Dandato from University of South Africa. The interview will last approximately 10-15minutes. Notes will be written during the interview. An audio tape of the interview and subsequent dialogue will be make. 4. I understand that the researcher will not identify my child by name in any reports using information obtained from this interview, and that my child’s confidentiality as a participant in this study will remain secure. Subsequent uses of records and data will be subject to standard data use policies which protect the anonymity of individuals and institutions. 5. I understand that this research study has been reviewed and approved by the University of South Africa College of economic and management sciences research ethics review committee and the Ministry of Education Mashonaland East Provincial Offices. 6. I have read and understand the explanation provided to me. 7. I have had all my questions answered to my satisfaction, and I voluntarily agree to participate in this study.8. I have been given a copy of this consent form. Signature ____________________________ Date ____________________________ ________________________ For further information, please contact: Fiona Dandato +263-4-309203 or +263 773 053 299APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW GUIDEINTERVIEW GUIDE FOR STUDENTSOverarching question: What are your experiences of career guidance in Goromonzi?Probes:For how long have you been to this school?What do you understand by the term “career” and “Career Guidance”?Who influenced your subjects and career decisions? (Parents, teachers, culture)Did your peers and role models play a crucial role in your career choice?Is the social media well versed with career guidance initiatives for students in Goromonzi District?What else do you think should be key in promoting career guidance through the social media? Does culture influence your career guidance choices in Goromonzi District schools? What stereotypical beliefs do you think are involved in career education in your school area?How can these stereotypical beliefs be de-bunked?Are there any career guidance practices in your school area? What are they? ExplainWhat do you suggest should be done to exercise career education in your school area?What would you deem as the best career guidance initiative in your school area?INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR TEACHERS, HEADMASTERS AND HUMAN RESOURCES PERSONNELOverarching question: What is your experience of career guidance in Goromonzi DistrictProbes:For how long have you been to this school? (District)What do you understand by the term “career” “Career Guidance”?Are parents involved in students’ career guidance decision making?In your assessment of students do peers and role models play a crucial role in career choice?Is the social media well versed with career guidance initiatives for students?What else do you think should be key in promoting career guidance through the social media? Does culture influence career guidance choices in Goromonzi District schools? What stereotypical beliefs do you think are involved in career education in Goromonzi District?How can these stereotypical beliefs be de-bunked in Goromonzi District?Are there any career guidance practices in your school area? What are they? ExplainWhat do you suggest should be done to exercise career education in your school area?What would you deem as the best career guidance initiative in your school area?What would you say are the best career guidance initiatives that should be practiced in your school area and Goromonzi district)?