Every employee is different than other having personal goals, desires and preferences. Different individuals weigh job satisfaction factors differently, which may satisfy one employee but not the other. Herzberg (1968) present his theory related to job satisfaction and motivation as “Two Factor Theory”.
The theory encompasses the factors that cause satisfaction and factors that cause dissatisfaction among employees. The theory states that extrinsic factors termed as “Hygiene factors” which include Job security, remuneration, working conditions, supervision, workplace relationship are the factors that are associated with job dissatisfaction of employees. Herzberg identified the few factors which are achievement, recognition, responsibility and growth & advancement and termed them “Motivators”. Herzberg argues that when hygiene factors are fulfilled employees will feel “no dissatisfaction” and become neutral. The employees will feel satisfied when they are provided with “Motivators”.
Friedlander and Margulies (1969) based on their research and survey argued that proper and effective management or supervision and good employee relationships contribute in enhancing the level of job satisfaction. However, their findings contradict with the theory of Herzberg who states that supervision is one of the factors that are not associated with job satisfaction.Spector (1997) defined job satisfaction as how much an employee feels happy and relaxed in his job and different aspects of his daily/primary job. Schermerhorn (1993) defined “job satisfaction as an affective and emotional response towards various conditions of an employees work”.
Reilly (1991) states that “job satisfaction is the feeling that a worker has about his job or a general attitude towards work”. Maslow (1954) suggested that human needs from a five-level hierarchy ranging from physiological needs, safety, belongingness and love, esteem to self-actualization. Following the findings of Maslow and his theory, job satisfaction has been followed by some researchers with the view of need fulfilment (Kuhlen, 1963; Worf, 1970; Conrad et al., 1985).Hussami (2008) argues that Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction depends on two things the nature of the job and the expectation what the job gives to an employee. According to Zobal (1998) Different people interpret compensation differently.
According to survey conducted by Moore and Elmuti (1990) compensation was discovered as first and major component of motivation and job satisfaction of salaried employees in manufacturing industry. In the survey they analyse various job characteristics and how the participants tank them and they found compensation is the leading factor that bring job satisfaction and motivation, they further found compensation as a primary tool to retain employees in the organization. Their findings contradict with the findings of Herzberg (1968) who argued that salary cannot bring sense of satisfaction.Robbins (2001) found that “working conditions influence job satisfaction, as employees are concerned with a comfortable physical work environment as a consequence this will bring more positive level of job satisfaction”. Arnold and Feldman (1996) “showed that factors such as temperature, lighting, ventilation, hygiene, noise, working hours, and resources are all part of working conditions. Employees may feel that poor working conditions will only provoke negative performance, since their jobs are mentally and physically demanding”.
James Brown (2007) identified the fairness as a major factor that bring employee satisfaction and defined fairness as equal treatment, receiving the same services and benefits as other people. Fairness means different things to different people, and our view of whether or not something is fair often depending on the circumstances (Klesh, J. 1979).
Vroom (1964) maintained in his expectation theory that everyone works in expectation of some rewards in both spiritual and material. In the other words, the level of reward influences the quality and the quantity of work, and will response on their commitment to doing the job in the workplace.Locke (1969, 1976) states that “job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one ‘s job or job experience”. This implies that, satisfied employees have positive attitude toward job which leads to high performance level whereas dissatisfied employees have negative attitude toward work which yields low performance result. Job performance on the other hand, comprises apparent behaviors that people observe in their job that are important in achieving organizational goals and these behaviors must be pertinent to the goals of the organization (Rotundo and Sackett, 2002).
There are many studies that have analyzed the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction and its relationship between and among other related variables (George & Jones, 1996; Newstrom & David, 1993; Mullins, 1989).Hoppock (1935) defined, job satisfaction as “any combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, I am satisfied with my job”. According to Newstrom and Davis (1984) “job satisfaction is a set of favorable and unfavorable attitudes with which, employees view their work”. Studies conducted by Schneider et al. (2003) and Zohir (2007) confirm that there is a positive correlation between overall employee satisfaction with the organization’s financial and market performance. Conversely, employee dissatisfaction resulting from poor workplace environments can also lead to a decrease in productivity leading to poor organizational performance (Chandrasekar, 2011).
When employees are dissatisfied, their physical and mental health is negatively affected (Faragher, Cass & Cooper, 2005). Consequently, organizational performance will also deteriorate as more production time will be lost because dissatisfied employees are likely to take more leave (Judge, Piccolo, Podsakoff, Shaw & Rich, 2010; Shields, 2006). Lim (2008) posits that job satisfaction plays significant role in both personal interests and organization success and therefore valuable to study for multiple reasons. In recognizing the role of job satisfaction phenomena, experts are of the view that it can interrupt labor behavior and influence work productivity and therefore worth to be studied (George and Jones, 2008).
Adams (1963) argued that workers consider their input (what they put into a job) in relation to their outcome (what they get from a job) and try to evaluate this ratio with the input-outcome ratio of their colleagues in other organizations. State of equity is said to exist if they realize that their ratio is equivalent to that of their colleagues in other organizations (Robbins, 2005).The job design theory represents five features of a job which are skill variety, task identity, task significant and autonomy as factors that affect employee’s perception of how important the work is, and eventually affects satisfaction level. Autonomy represents the level of exercising self-control, the more independent a worker feels, the more responsibilities he accepts.Vroom (1964) suggests that the motivations of people to work to realize their dreams depends on assumptions that the objective is worthy, and are certain that what they do will aid them accomplish their goals. Robbins (2005) seconds this theory and identified three variables valance, expectancy and instrumentality.
Valance refers to the strength of individuals ‘preference for a particular output. Expectancy considers the likelihood that a specific effort will produce a particular first-level outcome. Instrumentality on the other hand, is the extent to which first-level outcome will cause desire for second-level outcome.
People usually tend to consider their appraisal of work experiences in terms of liking or disliking and develop feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with respect to their job and the organization as a whole. Many factors account for how favorable an individual appraises his or her job, more especially the attitude of an individual toward his or her work. Research has identified a number of variables that seem to contribute to either job satisfaction or organizational commitment. According to Jex (2002), researchers have considered three approaches to explain the development of job satisfaction namely job characteristics, social information processing (organizational characteristics) and dispositional (worker characteristics).