ESSENTIAL blocks of English language. An easy

Parts of speech
Conditional sentences
Question forms and tags
Modal verbs and their uses
Error correction &concord
What is vocabulary
British and American words
Word formation
Compound words
Connectives and coherence
Process description
Paragraph Writing
Abstract writing
Article writing
Report writing
Journal writing
Project writing
Proposal writing
The art of speaking
Presentation and Public speaking skill
Interview skills
Telephone skills
Giving and asking for direction


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Measurement Doer
Grammar is the measurement of language It is the only scale for a correct language. It is a part of language about which learners have different thoughts and opinions. Some learners show interest in finding out or learning grammar rules and doing lots of grammar exercises. Grammar is simply the word for the rules that people follow when they use a language. We need those rules in the same way as we need the rules in a game. 

These parts of speech are essential building blocks of English language. An easy way to remember the eight main parts of speech in English.Noun
Part of speech Function Words Example
Verbaction or state (to) be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, must Chaucer Club is a web site. I like Chaucer Club.

Nounthing or person pen, dog, work, music, town, London, teacher, John This is my dog. He lives in my house. We live in Delhi.

Adjectivedescribes a noun a/an, the, 2, some, good, big, red, well, interesting I have four dogs. My dogs are big. I like big dogs.

Adverbdescribes a verb, adjective or adverb quickly, silently, well, badly, very, really My friend eats quickly. When he is very hungry, he eats really quickly.

Pronounreplaces a noun I, you, he, she, some Varsha is an Indian. She is beautiful.

Prepositionlinks a noun to another word to, at, after, on, but We went to Church on Sunday.

Conjunctionjoins clauses or sentences or words and, but, when I like birds and I like animals. I like birds and animals.

I like dogs but I don’t like cats.

Interjectionshort exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence oh!, ouch!, hi!, well, hurrah! Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are you? Hurrah!, I won the game.


A noun is the word that refers to a person, thing or abstract idea.
A noun can tell you who or what. There are several types of nouns,

There are Common Nouns such as dog, car, chair etc.

Nouns that refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural) are countable nouns.

Nouns that refer to some groups of countable nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity (can only be singular) are uncountable nouns.

Nouns that refer to a group of people or things are collective nouns.

Nouns that refer to people, organizations or places are proper nouns, only proper nouns are capitalized.

Nouns that are made up of two or more words are called compound nouns.
Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding –ing are called gerunds
The parcels was heavy.

The boys is happy.

The boxes was empty.

The answers is accurate.

The cakes was being baked.

51377856350000The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence.
A verb or compound verb asserts something about
the subject of the sentence and express actions,
events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb
is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.

VERB (MAIN) VERBS can be broken into two types: transitive and intransitive.

Transitive Verbs: In Latin, trans means across. Therefore, the subject transfers the action to the object. Most verbs in English are transitive.
Examples: I took my bike to the shop.

We played volley ball yesterday.
In the above examples, the verbs took and played are followed by the direct objects bike and volleyball, respectively.
If a verb is transitive, question can be asked beginning with what or whom. For example, “To what shop did you take your bike?” or “With whom did you play volleyball?” or “Who or what receives the action?”
Intransitive Verbs: In Latin, intrans means not across. Therefore, intransitive verbs do not take direct objects because there is no action to transfer.
Examples: Ram’s writing improved.

They walked carefully.
Neither of the above sentences has a direct object.
Recognize a sentence with an intransitive verb because it cannot be rewritten into passive voice.
For example, the sentence “Raju departed late last night” cannot be rewritten to say “Late last night was departed Raju.”
Examples:Jerry Kishore called yesterday afternoon.

Not “Yesterday afternoon was Jerry kishore called.”Special Cases:
Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive because they have multiple meanings. When used in the context of physical movement, run is intransitive.
Examples: She ran every day when she was a player.

I run every day to stay in shape.
In the context of guiding or overseeing a company or other group of individuals, run is transitive.
Examples: Surya runs his own restaurant.

Partha ran her business efficiently.
Verbs can also be either transitive or intransitive depending on context. The verb sing is normally intransitive.
Examples:She sing rather poorly.

They sings quite beautifully.
Sing is only transitive if the sentence answers the question, “What did the subject sing?”
Examples:I sang “don’t stop believing'” rather poorly last night.

She sang “I will always love you” quite beautifully last week.
Determine if the italicized verb in each sentence is transitive or intransitive.

Rakesh has been gossiping since early this morning.
Jack White founded The White Stripes.
I lived in London for a very brief period.
I make an excellent shrimp stir-fry.
Michelle Raj gave an outrageous speech yesterday.
Stella slipped on his way to the basket.
The interrogation proved the defendant’s guilt.
I worked for twelve hours yesterday.
The opposition party nominated a questionable candidate.
Adjectives describe a noun/pronoun or give information
by telling which, how many, and what kind.
The good news is that the form of adjectives does not change;
it does not matter if the noun being modified is male or female,
Singular or plural, subject or object. Some adjectives give us factual information about the noun – age, size colour etc (fact adjectives – can’t be argued with). Some adjectives show what somebody thinks about something or somebody – nice, horrid, beautiful etc (opinion adjectives – not everyone may agree).

Yesterday they heard________________ news. (surprise)
The ______________ tools must be returned by nine o’clock. (rent)
The ______________ rat stayed perfectly still. (frighten)
49978805470100 We had a ________________ experience. (frighten)
The play is ________________. (entertain)

Pre means before or beginning, position means
Positioning or placing. Preposition is a word placed
before a noun or pronoun to show, in what relation
the noun or pronoun stand to another noun does or
pronoun. It indicates time, place, movement, etc.

284607016383000191198516383000Eg: The note book is kept on the desk.

Subject Preposition
What is the position of the notebook? -On the desk
A Preposition can be placed at the beginning of a sentence.

Eg: In which showroom did you buy this car?
Preposition is often placed at the end when the object in an Interrogative pronoun.

Eg: What are you looking at?
Sometimes the preposition is placed last for the sake of emphasis.

Eg: Our Prime Minister is known all the world over.

at Used for fixed time at 3.30,at sunrise, at noon, at dawn
(I go to school at 8.10 am)
Used for festivals, coming at a fixed time every year at Diwali, at Pongal, at Christmas, at RamzanThere is a lot of joy at Christmas
on Used for a day or date
on Sunday, on Monday, On his birthday
Let’s meet on Tuesday
used for the part of certain day/date on Sunday morning, on the morning of 25th August
Let’s have the party on Sunday evening
in used for a period of time
(day, season, year, month) in the morning, in march, in winter, in the afternoon
I met you in the afternoon, didn’t I?
by Used for a certain time or before it, or upto that time By 4 pm, by evening
He will probably arrive by 07.00am
during Used for a known period of time During the summer holidays, during 2009, during his young age
I usually visit my relatives during the summer holidays.

for used with a period of time
1 hour, 1 week, 1 year, 1 month For twelve days , for six months, for two years, forever
I have been preparing the notes for the ten hours.

since Used with a point of time Since morning, since 5’0’clock
I have been residing here since 1986.

in used with a country, a large city, a street, a corner, a room In America, in Delhi, in a room, in a corner, in a forest
He lives in Africa.

at used with a small village , an address, a certain point at KK Nagar, at 24/9,annanagar,at my new address, at bus stop, at home
He lives in Tamilnadu at Thambaram.

by we travel By bus, by car, by train, by plane
I usually come to my native by Bus.

on we walk on foot
He goes to temple on foot
we ride on cycle, on bike
She is riding on a motorcycle.

From….. to We travel from starting point to destination
He is travelling from Chennai to Trichy.

to Movement She goes to school everyday
into Inside with movement The player enters into the stadium
onto Anything or anyone with movement comes and stays The cat jumped onto the table
(from one table to another)
Up to Movement from down to up and then stay back at a place The chimpanzee climbed up to the tree
under down – without touching (upper)part The towel is kept under the tray
over up-without touching(lower) part The bridge is over the river
Below Lower than (anywhere) Her leg is wounded below the knees
to Destination The student goes to tuition
towards Direction He goes towards the shrine and met his friend on the way.

(he does not reach the shrine)
of No separation The bracelet is made of gold
(cannot be able to separate gold from bracelet)
off Separation He jumped off the rooftop
You put off the light.

in At the end I shall complete this work in a week(end of the week)
within Before end point I shall finish this work within a week.(before the end of the week)
for Support (or) in favour of He has prepared sweets for you.

against Oppose He is always against his neighbours.

Above higher than (anywhere) There is a restaurant at the hilltop above the valley.

over vertically higher If you stand under this tree you will find a flock of birds over your head.

Beside By the side of, near to, next to, at the side of My farm is located beside the temple.

besides In addition
She wants to buy chartsbesides graphs.

Among More than two persons, things, etc.(groups) He is a topper among the class.

between Middle of two persons, things, etc..Hold the needle between your fingers.

Eg: The stadium is located between the temple and the school.

By Passive voice for person The poem is written by Ravi.

With Instrument He played with a toy car
Behind Place He always sits behind Kishore in the class.

After Time My Master will come after 4p.m
Opposite Facing each other Radha is standing opposite to Siddhu.

In front of Same direction James is standing in front of Robin.

From Source I have received your gift from your friend.

by measurement My sister is taller than her brother by 2 inch.

Fill in the gaps with suitable prepositions
The boy is afraid ——————— the dog.

My flat is —————- the second floor.

I have been working —————– 20 years.

I prefer Ice cream ——————- soft drink.

He is senior ————- me
The ore is then transported —————– factory.

The place was destroyed —————— flood.

He is fond —————— of ice-cream.

This is a quotation —————— Keats.

She lives —————– 49, Anna Street.

The boy got ———— the running train .I always go to college —————bus.

Will you wait for me —————– the railway station?
I have been studying Japanese ——————-I was 5 years old.

The dog jumped ————– the river.

Insert appropriate prepositions
We must have involvement ———– our profession.

This Computer has a guarantee —————- 3 years.

I saw my friend ———– the temple.

They went ————– bus.

Raja came home exactly ———–6.30 pm.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition
The secrets ———- sleep were a mystery ————– centuries because there were neither the means ————— explore them, nor the need. Only when candles gave way ——- gas light and double his output—————– working shift ——— the clock, did people seriously start wondering if sleep could be a waste ———- time.

The conjunction is used as a “joiner”, linking for
words, phrases, or clauses in a particular sentence.

It links these words or groups of words together,
in such a way that certain relationships among
these different parts of the sentence will be established,
and the thoughts that all of these convey will be
connected as in the following example:
Eg: I ate the dosa and the idly.

Call the players when you are ready.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONSConjunction like (and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet) to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that one can also use the conjunctions but and for as prepositions.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a coordinating conjunction:
Eg: Lily and Jasmine are usually white.

In this example, the coordinating conjunction and links two nouns.Eg:This movie is particularly interesting to Romantic film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Atlee.

In this example, the coordinating conjunction for is used to link two independent clauses.

Eg: Raju’s uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.

Here the coordinating conjunction “and” links two participle phrases (“dancing on rooftops” and “swallowing goldfish”) which act as adverbs describing the verb “spends.”
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONSA subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).The most common subordinating conjunctions are “after,” “although,” “as,” “because,” “before,” “how,” “if,” “once,” “since,” “than,” “that,” “though,” “till,” “until,” “when,” “where,” “whether,” and “while.”
Each of the Underlined words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction:
Eg: After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.

The subordinating conjunction “after” introduces the dependent clause “After she had learned to drive.”
Eg: If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.

Similarly, the subordinating conjunction “if” introduces the dependent clause “If the paperwork arrives on time.”
Eg: Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed.

The subordinating conjunction “when” introduces the dependent clause “when his computer crashed.”
Eg: Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.

In this sentence, the dependent clause “because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs” is introduced by the subordinating conjunction “because.”
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONSCorrelative conjunctions always appear in pairs — you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are “both…and,” “either…or,” “neither…nor,”, “not only…but also,” “so…as,” and “whether…or.” (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a coordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.)
The Underlined words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions:
Eg: Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.

In this sentence, the correlative conjunction “both…and” is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: “my grandfather” and “my father”.

Eg: Bring either a Jello salad ora potato scallop.

Here the correlative conjunction “either…or” links two noun phrases: “a Jello salad” and “a potato scallop.”
Eg: Corinne is trying to decide whetherto go to medical school orto go to law school.

Similarly, the correlative conjunction “whether … or” links the two infinitive phrases “to go to medical school” and “to go to law school.”
The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.

In this example the correlative conjunction “not only … but also” links the two noun phrases (“the school” and “neighbouring pub”) which act as direct objects.

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun. There are different kinds of pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
The words I, you, he, she, it, we and they are called personal pronouns. They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject of the verb in a sentence.

This is my father. He is a teacher.

This is my mother. She is a lawyer.

I have a brother and two sisters. They are Peter, Sharon and Jenny. I have a dog. It is called Lucky.

The subject of a sentence is the person, animal, place or thing that does the action shown by the verb. The words me, you, him ,her, it, us and them are also personal pronouns. They also take the place of nouns. These pronouns are used as the object of the verb in a sentence.

Eg: I am standing on my head. Look at me. My mother is kind.

803910389890Every body likes her. Lisa ,I told you to tidy your bed!
Raju has riding my bicycle. I sometimes lend it to him
The object of a sentence is the person, animal, place or thing that receives the action show by the verb.

There are three groups of pronouns:
First person
second person
third person.

The person speaking is called the first person.

The first-person pronouns are I or me (in the singular) and we or us (in the plural).

The person spoken to is called the second person. The second – person pronoun is you (in both singular and plural).

The person (or animal, or thing ) spoken about is called the third person. The third person pronouns are he or him, she or her, and it( in the singular),and they or them (in the plural).

The word I is always spelled with a capital letter. The pronoun he is used for men and boys, she for women and girls ,and it for things and animals. Here is a table to help you.

Subject Object
First person singular I me
Second person singular you you
Third person singular he she it him her it
First person plural we us
Second person plural you you
Third person plural they them
Reflexive Pronoun
The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves are called reflexive pronouns. They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb.

I made this cake myself.

Be careful with the knife. You’ll cut yourself.

Michael is looking at himself in the mirror.
Susan has hurt herself.

Our cat washes itself after each meal.

We organized the party all by ourselves.
Come in, children, and find yourselves as eat.

Interrogative pronouns
The words who, whom, whose, what and which are called interrogative pronouns. These pronouns are used to ask questions.

Who Who is he talking to?
Who are those people?
Whom Whom are you playing with?
Whom is he talking to?
Which Which of these bags is yours?
Which do you prefer?
Whose Whose is this umbrella?
Whose are these gloves?
What What are you talking about? What is the time?
Demonstrative pronouns
The words this, these, that and those are called demonstrative pronouns. They are showing words.

Those are goats
These are sheep
In English Language, the Verbs are either Active or Passive in Voice. A verb is in active voice shows that the Subject does something i.e the doer of an action.

155562223486223145752351163131311257722The teacher encourages the students.

When the verb is in Passive Voice, it shows that something is done to the subject.

27035760300990000The students are encouraged by the teacher

Subject’be’ verb+ PPObject
Transformation of Sentences:
It is to be noted that the subject (Teacher) in the active voice sentence is the object of the preposition ‘by’ in the passive voice sentence. The word that is a direct object in the active voice sentence (Students) is the subject in the passive sentences. In the passive voice sentence some of the ‘be’ verbs (am, is, are, was, were) is added with the past participle of main verb. The verb part in the above passive sentence is ‘are encouraged’. While transforming the sentences from one form to another the meaning and tense of the given sentences should not be changed.

Intransitive Verb forms (verbs without object) do not have passive forms.

He plays.

Form of Active Voice:
Subject + Verb + Object
Form of Passive Voice:
Subject + finite form of to be + Object
Personal and Impersonal Passive Voice:
Personal passive voice denotes that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.

25590492146300017017992146300089979421463000The Students completed their Class work. (Active sentence)
29114742286000018732492286000089979422860000The Class work was completed by the students. (Passive sentence)
Impersonal Passive Voice:
Impersonal passive voice are the complete passive voice sentences without ‘by’ phrase. It implies that the importance is given only to the action done and not to the doer of the action.

89979422923500131317922923500204469922923500She lubricated the ball-bearing. (Active sentence)
Subject VerbObject
216852420891500121602420891500The ball-bearing was lubricated (Passive Sentence)
Subject Verb
The concept of using active and passive sentences in their writings is often misunderstood by the students. It leads to the confusion in opting which form suits their writings. The students should learn clearly the vigor of the active verbs and the occasional rhetorical purpose of using passive voice.

Use of Passive Forms:
Doer of an action is unknown
Ex: The tube light is fixed on the stand.

In general truth or rules.

Ex: Trespassers’ are prohibited.

In scientific writings, describing process etc.,
Ex: The sodium hydroxide was dissolved.

Not important to know the doer of the action.

Ex: The Engine speed was decreased.

NOTE: Passive Voice should be avoided when the clarity in writing is needed.

Study the following table carefully to transform the Active sentences to Passive forms.

Simple Present Tense First form of verb
Ex: She speaks English Verb: am/is/are + PP of Verb Ex: English is spoken by her.

Present Continuous Am/is/are + V + ingEx: She is speaking English Verb: am/is/are + being + PP of Verb
Ex: English is being spoken by her.

Present Perfect Has/have + PP form of Verb Ex: She has spoken English Has/have + been+ PP form of Verb Ex: English has been spoken by her.

Simple Past Past form of the Verb Ex: She spoke English Was/were + PP form of the verb Ex: English was spoken by her.

Past Continuous Was/were + V + ingEx: She was speaking English Was/were + being +PP form of Verb Ex: English was being spoken by her.

Past Perfect Had + PP form of verb
Ex: She had spoken English had + been + PP form of the Verb Ex: English had been spoken by her.

Simple Future will/shall + first form of verb Ex: She will speak English Will/shall + be +pp form of verb Ex: English will be spoken by her.

Future Perfect Will/shall + have+ PP form of the verb
Ex: she will have spoken English Will/shall + have + been + PP form of the verb
Ex: English will have been spoken byher.

Change the following into Active Voice:
Alternative sources of energy have to be used by us to tide over the energy crisis.

The prices of essential commodities must be brought down by the students.

They are often taken to interesting places by their places.

Precautions should be taken by everyone while entering the chemistry lab.

These supports are called bearings by us..Change the followings into Passive form.

All sections of people discuss climate change today.

The Government of India gives awards to outstanding scientists.

The Panel is reviewing the performance of the employees.

The Company marketed several new products every year.

We can generate heat for welding in several ways.

Change the following sentences into Impersonal Passive form.

The Workers are repairing the bridge.

We pass an electric current across the electrodes.

The Egyptians knew the art of jewellery making as early as 3000B.C
The Mechanics may use thin grease as a lubricant in ball bearings.

The Students must take care not to damage the spanner.

In the following questions, the sentences have been given in Active/ Passive voice. If the question in sentence is given in Active, you are required to convert it into Passive and vice versa. Choose the alternative which best depicts this conversion.1. Do you know the health minister?a.) Are you known to the health minister?b.) Is the health minister known by you?c.) Is the health minister known to you?d.) Has the health minister known by you?2. My presence was objected to by them. a.) They objected to my presenceb.) My presence was objected by them. c.) They had an objection on my presence. d.) They said, they objected my presence. 3. The teacher was reading out the questions aloud. a.) The questions were read aloud by the teacher. b.) The questions were being read out aloud by the teacher. c.) The questions had been read out aloud by the teacher. d.) The questions had been read aloud by the teacher. 
4. You need to arrange your book shelf properly.a.) Your book shelf needs proper arrangement by you. b.) You are needed to arrange your book shelf properly. c.) Your book shelf needs to be arranged properly. d.) Your book shelf needs you to for proper arrangement. 
5. People believe him to be the culprit. a.) Him is believed to be culprit by the people. b.) He is believed to be culprit. c.) He is believed to be culprit by the people. d.) He to be culprit is believed by the people. 6. Could you get some books for me?a.) You should get me some books. b.) You are requested to get some books for me. c.) You are required to get some books for me. d.) Books must be got for me. 7. The children plucked all the flowers. a.) All the flowers were plucked by the children. b.) All the flowers have been plucked by the children. c.) All the flowers were pluck by the children. d.) All the flowers had been plucked by the children.

 8. She designs many dresses daily. a.) Daily dresses are designed by her. b.) Several dresses have been daily designed by her. c.) Many dresses are to be designed by her daily. d.) Many dresses are daily designed by her.9. They help their relatives in difficult times.a.) Their relatives have been helped by them in difficult times. b.) Their relatives are helped by them in difficult times. c.) By them their relatives were helped in difficult times. d.) Their relatives will be helped by them in difficult times. 
10. Do you eat fruits every morning? a.) Are fruits eaten by you every morning? b.) Had fruits been eaten by you every morning? c.) Have fruits been eaten by you every morning? d.) Were fruits eaten by you every morning?
A sentence which has a condition within itself is called a conditional sentence. A conditional sentence comprises of two clauses: 1. a main clause which stands independent for its meaning and 2. If clause or subordinate clause or a dependent clause which falls on the main clause to express its meaning. When if clause precedes the main clause, it is separated by comma. On the other hand, when the main clause precedes the if clause, comma is not required.

Ex: If you exercise regularly, you will be healthy.

You will be healthy if you exercise regularly.

Conjunctions like if, unless(if not), as long as, so long as, suppose, supposing that, on condition that, provided that are used to introduce the conditional clauses.
Ex: In case you come late, you may miss the chance.

Unless he calls him, he will not come.

There are three types of conditional sentences available in English Language which are distinguished with the help of the tenses used.

1. Probable Condition
2. Improbable Condition
3. Impossible Condition
Type 1: Probable Condition:
It is a real condition in which the action gets fulfilled.

If + Subject + Simple present, Subject + Simple future + ……..

Ex: If you work hard, you will succeed.

Type 2: Improbable condition:
If + Subject + Simple past, Subject + modal verb + base form……
This is an imaginary or hypothetical condition in which the action may or may not get fulfilled.

Ex:If I were a Chief Minister, I would abolish Child Labour.
Type 3: Impossible Condition:
This condition denotes past action in which the action is not fulfilled in the past and it may not be fulfilled in future too.

If + Subject + Past Perfect, Subject + Perfect Conditional + base form….

Ex: If I had written the competitive examinations, I would have succeeded.

By inversing the subject and the verb in the if clause, the conjunction ‘if’ can be removed from the sentence
Ex: Should you come tomorrow, I shall wait for you.

Had he studied well, he would have scored more.
In the type 1 conditional sentence the present progressive or the present perfect replaces the present tense at times.

Ex: If you are playing in the morning, you will not go to college on time.

If you have finished your work, you have to work for your colleagues.

I. Put in the correct verb forms.

If Sukesh———– (repair) his camera, he ————- (capture) nice scenes.
If you ——- (listen) class carefully, you would have known about topic.
If Regan liked cycling, he ——— ride well.
If you——————–, I will ask permission from my parents
If he has a fever, he ————— (meet) the doctor.
II. Complete the sentences.

1. They would have moved to Japan if ———————–.
2. ————————–, we would go cycling.
3. If the sun had shone, ——————————–
4. I will pursue my higher studies ———————-.

5. If you were the Principal of the College, ———————.

III. Which answers are correct?
If it rains, I’ll apply leave.

a. Probable Condition
b. Improbable Condition
c. Impossible Condition
If we had taken enough food, we wouldn’t have been hungry.
a. Probable Condition
b. Improbable Condition
c. Impossible Condition
3. If they were older, they would go to the excursion.
a. Probable Condition
b. Improbable Condition
c. Impossible Condition
4. Praveen could fly to U.K for higher education if he had enough money.
a. Probable Condition
b. Improbable Condition
c. Impossible Condition
5. If the cook does the cooking, his mother will have spent more time for his work.
a. Probable Condition
b. Improbable Condition
c. Impossible Condition
A verb in a sentence takes different forms to indicate the time of action. These different forms of verbs are also called different tenses. The tense forms of a verb are broadly called: The Present, The Past and The Future. There are four subcategories in each of the three categories: the simple form, the continuous form, the perfect form, and the perfect continuous form. A better understanding and register of the structure of each tense will go a long way in effective communication in English.

Subject + Verb 1 (s)
Note: Add ‘s’ with verb, when the subject is third person singular.

To make a statement
Example:She walks fast.

You stay put.

They are my friends.
He is my neighbour. I feel happy.

It is too narrow to enter.
To indicate something repeatedly/habitually/regularly done
Example:He wakes up at 7 o’clock every day.

Muthu usually walks slowly.

Dharma often talks about his schooldays. He falls down again.

To introduce a Quotation
Example:The teacher says, “Work hard to score centum”.

To indicate a planned future action (Especially immediate future)
Example:Prime Minister visits the flooded village tomorrow.

We spend three days in Chennai next month, then, we move to Delhi for two days, and return to Bangaluru.

To give a dramatic narrative of any incident
Example:Rahul strikes the ball hard. It runs in the off side. A fielder tries to stop it but it
Eludes him. He runs after it, but the ball touches the boundary line very fast.

To express a general or scientific truth
Example:The moon shines by night
Water boils at 100C
Sound travels at 330 meters per second
Subject + present auxiliary (is, am, are) +verb + ingTo indicate an action that is taking place at the present moment.

Example:It is raining now.

She is talking with her friends over phone right now.

To indicate an action that is to take place in the near future.

Example:They are opening a new branch in the north street next week.

She is going to join in the company tomorrow. I am going to write the exam next week.

Subject + has/have + verb3

To indicate an action that was completed in the recent past.

Example:He has just left home.

Our boys have won the tournament. I have already talked with them
To indicate a past action with vague suggestion of time.

Example:I have met him once or twice before.

She has written to her father many times.

Present Perfect Continuous:
Subject +has/have +been +verb +ingTo indicate an action that began in the past and is still continuing in the present and may continue in to the future.

Example:They have been working under him for five years.

He has been attending interviews since 2012.

We have been working out in gym two hours every day for the last two years.

Subject + verb2
To indicate an action or event completed at a definite time in the past.

Example:I met him yesterday.

He was married to her last June.

To indicate a past action that occupied a period of time now terminated.

Example:He worked in the company for four years.

She lived in Chennai for ten years.

To indicate a habit in the past
Example:He always carried an umbrella to office before his retirement.

They gathered in their grandmother’s home in the village to celebrate Diwali during his childhood.

Subject + Past auxiliary +verb +ingTo indicate an action that began at a particular time in the past and continued for sometime.

Example: He was playing Tennis from six to eight in the morning during last summer vacation.

To indicate an action that began before the action in the simple past and was continuously taking place.

Example:When I arrived, Robert was talking on the phone.

I saw the bus while it was turning the corner.

While he was preparing for the exam, his friend visited his house.

Subject +had +verb3
While talking about two actions, to indicate the action that occurred first, we use past perfect tense.

Example:The servant cleaned the table after the guests had left.

He had reached home before his father returned home from office.

Subject +had +been +verb +ingTo indicate the continuity of an action in the past up to a particular point of time when another action occurred.

Example:He had been working since dawn and he was tired by 2o’clock.

She had been working hard herself to pass the oral exam till she heard about the training course.

To indicate a repeated action in the past without mentioning the number of times and frequency.

Example:He had been trying to contact you several timeFUTURE TENSE
Subject +shall/will+verb1
To indicate the assumptions and opinions of the speaker about something that will occur in the future.

Example:She will write to you
He will find him at the station
With clauses of condition, time, and purpose.

Example:If he meets her, he will say sorry to her.

When the temperature reaches below 0°, water will freeze.

I have shouted at him, so that he will not do it again
Subject +shall/will +be +verb +ingTo indicate an action that will continuously take place at a time in the future.

Example:They will be writing the exam between 10 am and1.00 pm
She will be travelling to her hometown by this time tomorrow.

Subject +shall/will +have +verb3
To indicate an action that will be completed at a given time in future.

Example:He will have finished his BE course by2018.

They will have returned to hostel by this time tomorrow morning.

Subject +shall/will +have +been +verb +ingTo indicate an action that will have been going on at (or) before some point of time in future
Example:By the time you return, we shall have been working for four hours.

We shall have been solving the sums since morning.

1. Cryptography ——————– ( be) the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties .Modern cryptography (intersect) the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography______ (are) used in ATM cards computer passwords, and electronic commerce. Encryption (be) the process of encoding messages in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers (do) not read it, but that authorized parties could.

2. Nonverbal communication(describe) the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Research(show) that the majority of our communication (be) nonverbal, also known as body language. In fact, 63-93% of our communication (be) nonverbal.

3. Engineering, much like other sciences (be) a broad discipline which (have/has) several sub-disciplines. These disciplines(concern) themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Throughout an engineer’s career, the engineer(become) multi-disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Engineering _ (be) often characterized as having four main branches.

My father always_ (carry) an umbrella.

A healthy dog(play)and(eat)well.

The police man who(talk) to my father(be) our neighbour.

She-(borrow) five rupees from her friend last evening.

They(wait) here for three hours.

You ever(read)Hamlet?
When he(arrive),I_(read) an newspaper.

Auxiliaries or helping verbs that helps to form tenses, voices and moods of the main verbs. It is used for various grammatical functions and to express varied meanings. These are the only verbs that can make question forms combined with n’t in the negatives like can’t, haven’t, wasn’t,etc.

446595515938500188594915938500 Primary Secondary (Modal)
2489197188200081724514668500369633519685Shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to, used to, need to
00Shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to, used to, need to

81724511112500Be verbs (am, is, are, was, were)
8172458445400Do forms (do, does, did)
81724512064900Have forms (have, has, had)
Primary Auxiliaries
These Auxiliaries also termed as Be Verbs and they change their form according to the tense, number and the person of the subject.

I am studying.

You are studying.

He is studying.

Modal Auxiliaries
Modal Auxiliaries or Modal verbs are never used alone as the main verb of the sentence. It is used with the main verb to express the mode or manner of the action denoted by the main verb. It does not change its form according to the person and the number of the subject. It denotes certain mood and expresses ability, possibility, permission, wish, etcThe following table illustrates the uses of Modal verbs with example
Modal verbs Uses Example
Shall Make a prediction (used in 1stPerson) I shall visit Agra by next week
Make a suggestion (used in 1stPerson) Shall we go for a walk?
To act according to the will of the listener (used in 1stPerson) Shall I get you some tea?
To express a command ( used in 2nd; 3rd person) You shall not speak lies.

To express a promise or threat ( used in 2nd; 3rd person) You shall be rewarded.

To express determination(used in 2nd; 3rd person) You shall pay your fees today.

Should To express duty or moral obligation We should respect our teachers.

To express probable condition Should you need help, you may ask for it
To express a supposition (in conditional clauses) If he should come, give him a warm greeting.

To express a probability or assumption Ravi should be in his office by now.

To express a polite command You should write legibly.

To express an unfulfilled past obligation You should have visited your great grandmother.

Will To express simple future We will finish our work by tonight.

To express a request or an invitation Will you have a glass of milk?
To express habitual truth She will talk and grumble for hours.

To express willingness (in 1st person) I will lend you my materials.

To express determination We will succeed, even if we fail in the beginning.

To express assumption It will rain today.

To enquire someone’s intension Will they agree to our proposal?
To express an order in the form of Exclamation Will you behave yourself!
would Used as past tense of will and shall He said he would visit us soon.

To express a past habit He would sit and read all day.

To express a polite request Would you lend me your calculator?
To express a wish I would like to go to Japan.

To express a wish that is not likely to be fulfilled. If only it would stop raining….

To express a strong desire I wish they would reach home soon.

can To express ability He can walk fast
To ask or grant permission Can I leave now?
To make a request Can you share your study material?
To express a possibility Miracles can happen at any time.

To express same meaning as sometimes Delhi can be really hot.

could Used as past tense of can She said I could sing well.

To make a polite request Could I use your mobile?
To indicate the past Characteristic Masters could be strict at times.

To express possibility (in conditional clause) He could do well if he chose.

To express ability that was not made use of They could have saved the boy if they had taken him to the hospital
May To seek or grant permission May I come in?
To express possibility It may rain today.

To express a wish May God bless you!
To express purpose (in subordinate clause) Hurry up so that you may reach on time.

To offer something May I help you.Might Used as the past equivalent of may He told me that I might use his pen drive.

To express remote possibility It might be the right answer.

To seek permission Might I spare some time with you.

To express a possible result (in a conditional clause) If you do not hurry you might not be permitted inside the exam hall
To express dissatisfaction You might have told me about the nature of your work.

To express purpose He worked hard so that he mightachieved his goals.

must To express duty or compulsion, moral obligation We must be on time to class.

To express determination We must teach them a lesson.

To express strong likelihood He must be very wealthy.

To give emphatic advice You must study well to get good results.

Ought to To express moral obligation You oughtto help the poor.

To express duty You oughtto look after your parents.

To express necessity You oughtto reach school on time.

To express fitness You oughtto be strong enough to do this work.

Need To express requirement They need help
Used with do Do you needto tell her about it?
To express Necessity You need the support.

To express obligation The parents need support
To express compulsion They need tickets to travel by train.

Dare to Used in the sense of challenging She dareto speak before her teacher.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals.

She ——— help you regarding exams.

Sam —— come in the evening.

You ——- go now.

I ——- might become Director next year.

He ——– do it if you ask him.

————— you please let us go?
You —— complete the work by Wednesday.

You —— —- see doctor.

We ——– go in there.

You ———- come to college tomorroARTICLES
The demonstrative adjectives a, an, the are called articles. It is a monosyllabic determiner that precedes nouns. The articles are classified into two types. They are
Definite Article
Indefinite Article
Indefinite articles a, an, are singular and cannot be used with a plural noun. It is used before a person, place or things without indicating definite and comes before only singular countable nouns.

a- used before words beginning with consonant sounds.

Eg: a boy, a pen, a European, a young girl, etc.

an- used before the words beginning with vowel sounds.

Eg: an apple, an umbrella, an honest, etc.

Definite article The can be singular or plural. It is used to refer to a particular person, place or thing and comes before a singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Article Countable/
Uncountable Noun Singular/plural Example
The Countable Singular I bought the book.

plural He bought the books.

Uncountable **** She bought the maize.

a Countable Singular She has a pen.

an Countable Singular He is an M.L.A
The Indefinite article a and an are used:
In the sense of one a pen, an apple
In the sense of one of a I met a girl,(one of the girls)
Ravi is an intelligent boy in the class.(one of the intelligent boys)
To represent of a whole class A student should be obedient.

An horse is a domestic animal.

To convert a proper noun to a common noun He is a Mahatma. (a great person)
He is an optimist. (a positive thinker)
With certain expressions like A thousand, a great number of
An hundred meter
with exclamatory sentences What a beautiful picture!
What an excellent movie!
a is used with words – little and few a little food, a few pens
a is used with sense of every Ten rupee a dozen, four times a year
Example of words starting with vowel sounds
an enemy, an orphan, an aeroplane, an employee, an honest man, an animal, an English man, an ink-bottle, an hour, etc..

Example of words starting with consonant sounds
a book, a train, a union, a one -rupee coin, a chair, a table, a bus, a useful thing, a university, a unicorn, etc.

To denote unique things The Sun, The Moon
To denote a particular person or thing The girl you met today is my best friend
T denote persons of things mentioned earlier I met a boy. The boy is intelligent
To denote singular nouns representing the whole group/ class The rose is beautiful
To denote names of seas, oceans, rivers, mountains etc. The Himalayas, The Nile, The Arabian sea
To denote Superlative adjectives The best, the wiser
To denote directions, names of newspapers The South, The East, The Indian Express, The Times of India.

To denote historical events or buildings The United Kingdom, The Red Fort,
The Second World War.

To denote great books, epics The Bible, The Quran, The Bhagavad Gita.

To denote nationalities, sects, communities The Sikhs, The Indians
Before ordinals The seventh chapter, The second prize
Articles are not used before the names of languages
Eg: English is a global language
No article is used before proper nouns
Eg: Raman lives in Mumbai
No article is used before Abstract and Material Nouns
Eg; Health is better than wealth.

The omission of the definite and the Indefinite articles are listed below:
S.NoOmission of the Indefinite article(a, an) Omission of the Definite article (The)
1 Before plural nouns (men, women, tables, dogs, children) Before plural nouns when they are used in a general sense.
(Teachers shape the young minds)
2 Before uncountable nouns
(paper, glass, iron, cloth, coffee, news, milk, advice, furniture) Before titles if the title is followed by a name
(Col. Ganesan was treated by Dr. Gupta)
3 Before names of meals except when proceeded by an adjective.

(I eat breakfast at 8 am) Before parts of the body.

(Show me your hand)
4 Before words like home, church, prison, market, bed, court, school etc.

(I am going home early) After a noun in the possessive case.

(This is Stella’s book)
Use a, an or the wherever necessary
She is ________European lady.

Tipu Sultan is ________ great man.

There is _________ milk in _______kettle.

She took __________ umbrella to __________ school.

Gandhi is __________ honest leader.

Insert articles wherever it is necessary
I read Times of India every day.

Simple words act like oath.

Pen is useful tool for students.

Shakespeare is famous Dramatist.

His choice is best one.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate articles:
1. When our group planned _____trip we did not have any idea about _____ process of organizing it. We had only ________ few days left for preparation. This was________ unique opportunity forus. _______ whole group was excited about ______ trip and expected it to be ________ memorable one.

2. _________ horse is ________grass feeder. When the horse is put to hard work, it needs corn, hay and barn. On such ______ diet______ horse is capable of great endurance, either for long travelling, with ________man on its back, or for ______highest speed efforts as in racing.

Concord, the grammatical term refers to the agreement between the Subject and Verb in a sentence. A sentence becomes meaningful when the elements in a sentence are in agreement with one another. Users of the English Language often get confused in the subject verb agreement. The rule states that when the subject is singular, the verb is singular, and when the subject is plural, the verb is plural. In simple words, the subject and verb should agree in number.

Robin gives a speech
Everyone is happy
Neither student has failed
They sing in unison
Robert and his fiancée dance well
Both the Candidates have been selected
Nothing disturbs them.

A sentence with a clear single subject does not pose any problem to place the verb in agreement .But there are certain subjects which have combination of nouns, phrases and look plural in form. To find the correct verb form for these, a list of grammatical rules to be followed.

Two subjects joined by and take a plural verb
Maxwell and Richard attend the meeting with the customers.

Both Rachel and Venkat have got through the interview.

The Parents and the Teachers discuss the students’ excursion.

Two singular subjects joined by or, either…or, neither…or, take singular verb
His father or his uncle comes to the Annual day function.

Either she or her brother gets the job.

Neither David nor Gokul takes the responsibility.

Two plural subjects joined by or, either…or, neither…nor, take plural verb
Pedestrians or the hawkers have helped the old lady.

Either the participants or the organizers honour the Chief Guest.

Neither the Politicians nor the Administrators understand the villagers’ problem.

One singular and one plural subject in any part of the sentence joined by or, either…or, neither…or, the verb takes the number of the subject nearer to it.

Alice or her brothers give company for their grand ma.

Either Susan or her colleagues have arranged the party.

Neither Raju’s recruiters nor his HOD accepts his explanation for being late for the interview.

When two subjects joined by as well as, rather than, more than, as much as ,the verb takes the number of the subject that comes first in the sentence.

The King as well as his ministers joins the country men in their harvest celebrations.

Ramu rather than/more than/as much as his competitors deserves to win the prize.

When two subjects joined by with, along with, together with, in the company of, in addition to, besides, accompanied by, the verb takes the number of the first subject.

Carl with/ along with/ together with/ in the company of/in addition to his family members has gone on a vacation.

Joe, bedsides/ together with/ accompanied by his neighbours joins in the protest.

The phrase One of/each of/every one of/ either of/neither of and a plural noun combination as a subject takes a singular verb.

One of the Soldiers succumbs to his injuries.

Each of them reads the document.

Every one of their parents protests against the fee rise.

Either of them has joined Engineering.

Neither of them is my colleagues.

Each, Every, Either, Neither, when used as an adjective joins with singular noun only and takes a singular verb.

Each plant blossoms.

Every complainant has agreed to the Manager’s demand.

Either job is ready.

Neither applicant turns up
Every and Each joining with two singular subjects connected with ‘and’ takes a singular verb.

Every soldier and his wife participates in the Martyrs Day ceremony.

Each Winner and runner stands for a photo shoot.

The phrase any one of or none of joining with a plural noun to form a subject takes singular or plural verbs.

Have any of the puppies escaped?
Has any of you been to America?
None of the players was/were playing well.

None of them accepts/accept the mistake.

Singular verb is used with the noun phrase, none of the, if the meaning is ‘no amount’ or ‘no quantity’
None of the materials has been read
None of the knowledge was shared
‘None’ meaning ‘ not a single one’ takes a singular verb.

I got several CDs from my friends, but none of them is working.

The expressions (a good/large/great/small) number of/ followed by plural noun take plural verb. A group of is followed by singular or plural based on the context.

A good number of students have participated in the seminar.

A group of Scientists is protesting the Government’s decision.

A group of journalists were shooting questions at the corrupt Minister.

A great number of workers go off work.

A small number of writers welcome the government move.

A subject which is a clause takes a singular verb.

What he said is not accepted by everyone.

When things will change is not known to every one
Words like eight pounds, five rupees, three weeks, six miles take a singular verb when they indicate a single amount, period, or distance.

Eight rupees is a too low wages for an hour lab our.

Seven miles is difficult to walk by an octogenarian.

Two weeks is a long time to take a decision.

The words All, Some, Half , A lot (of)take singular verbs when they refer to amount or quantity, and take plural verbs while referring to number.

All the cream is decayed.

All the mangoes are delicious.

Some of the sand was wasted
Some of the babies are very active.

Half of the coffee was poured down.

Half of the candidates are promising ones.
A lot of energy is spent on the assignment.

A lot of applications were sold out.

Group Collective noun like, administration, government, parliament, jury, group, team, gang, crew, club ,committee, audience ,crowd, herd, flock take either singular or plural verbs according to context of the sentence.
The Administration is getting prepared for the admission.

The Administration have diverse views on this matter.

The committee agrees for the pay revision.

The committee differ in their opinion on this matter.

The audience is spell bound.

The audience keep entering the hall after the play has started.

Class Collectives nouns like machinery, furniture, equipment, luggage, traffic, cutlery, and clothing are singular in form though plural in meaning, hence take a singular verb.

The machinery is cost effective.

The clothing clings to her body.

The traffic leads to chaos in the bridge.

Collectives like People, Police, Cattle always take plural
Cattle ran helter skelter on seeing the Wolf.

The Police have nabbed the culprits.

People grab the opportunity to buy garments in lowest price.

The word ‘People’ meaning a race, a tribe, a nation is not a collective noun. Hence it has plural form ‘Peoples’
The Indians are proud of their rich heritage.

Some peoples of this tribe follow strange customs.

The peoples of the clan wear heavy ornaments.

The nouns that look plural but are singular in number are: News, Billiards, Measles, The United States of America, The United nations,etc.,
The News reaches everyone.

The United States is one of the super powers.

Subject names that end in ‘ics’ take singular verbs.

Ethics is an invaluable Subject.

Phonetics is the science of Sounds
Is Mathematics a difficult subject?
Things made up of two equal parts take plural verb.

His scissors need sharpening.

Her spectacles are found in the dustbin.

The trousers are too tight to wear.

The compasses are quite useful during the Maths exam.

Slippers, Shoes, Socks, Gloves that are found in the plural have in singular forms .Her school shoes are dirty.

She found her right shoe damaged by her dog.

The pair of shoes fits him well.

The gloves are found near the murder site.

A pair of gloves was bought by him.

The word Cloths is always plural and it tales plural form. Clothing is always singular and takes a singular verb.

The clothes are bought at Chennai.

Her clothes have gorgeous embroidery work.

All his clothing is attractive.

Two singular nouns that refer to the same idea or same person, take a singular verb.

His conduct and character is good.

The bread and butter is what he is after now.

The Musician and Lyricist has got two National awards.

The Playwright and The actor have a long discussion.

To indicate the two nouns are different persons use “the” before each noun.

The determiners this and that that with singular nouns take singular verb and these, and that with plural nouns take plural nouns.

This book is quite interesting.

That bus leaves early.

These people are his followers.

Those plants need watering.

Adjectives used as a plural noun take plural verb
The English dominate the Olympiad.

The blessed are the Govt Servants
Fill in the blanks, choosing the correct verb from the brackets.

One of my friends………….(is/ are) in London.

Each of the watches………..(show/ shows) correct time.

Neither Rani nor her parents…………(has/ have) seen the bridegroom’s photo.

The Principal shouts at each of the teacher who—— (come/ comes) late to class.

There………( is/ are) many advantages in joining the course.

The police………. (file /files) charge sheet on the accused Minister.

Both of them…….(look/looks) sad.

Either ice cream or a sweet ………(are/ is ) being distributed now.

Four plus Four …….. (is/are) eight.

None of the clothing……….. (is/ are) picked by me.

The news — (is/ are) hard to digest.

The main accused with his accomplices……… (surrenders/ surrender) at the High Court.

Some of the wealth ……….. (is / are) shared among the Coolies.

I thank everyone who………(has/have) worked tirelessly for the project.

Ten rupees ………..(is/are) a not a reasonable price for the toy.

Linguistics……… (is/ are ) the scientific study of language.

The scenery……..(is/ are) mesmerising.

A lot of customers……. (is/are) satisfied with the service.

The greater part of the speech …….. (focus/focuses) on the theme of the progamme.

A group of Politicians ……… (has/ have) met the Prime Minister.

In any language, obtaining information can be complicated. To get information from another person requires the ability to ask questions. There are two primary forms of questions:
Yes / No questions (also called closed questions)
Wh- questions (also called open questions).

In English, the word order of a sentence usually follows this pattern:
subject verb object
He eats Mangoes.

They drink Tea.

However, word order changes in both types of question. Note that in the question the subject follows the verb but in the response the verb follows the subject. Here are examples with closed questions.

Yes / No question   Response
verb subject     subject verb  
Is Ram Here? Yes, he is here
Are they Students? Yes, they are Students.

Here are examples with open questions.

Wh- question   Response
  verb subject subject verb  
Where are Ram and Ravi ?Ram and Ravi are there.

When was the party? The party was yesterday.

In the following examples, the questions are formed with auxiliary verbs. Note that in the question the subject is placed between the verbs. In the response, both verbs follow the subject.

Yes / No question   Response
aux.verb subject mainverb   subject aux.verb mainverb
Has the rain stopped? Yes, the rain has stopped.

Have they eaten? Yes, they have eaten
Should they go? Yes, they should go.

Can he stay? Yes, he can stay.

Questions formed with the auxiliary verb DO are different. The auxiliary verb is absent in the response. Here are examples with closed questions.

Yes / No question   Response
aux.verb subject mainverb     subject mainverb  
Do they eat meat? Yes, they eat meat.

Does the bank open at 9:00? Yes, the bank opens at 9:00.

Here are examples with open questions.

Wh- question   Response
  aux.verb subject mainverb   subject mainverb
Where does Mario work? He works at home.

When did Helena leave? She left yesterday.

Remember: the verb DO is essential for asking questions with all verbs except the verb BE and modal verbs. Learn more about forming questions with the verb DO.

Auxiliary verbs, also called helping verbs, are used with a main verb to create compound verb forms. Auxiliary verbs may be followed by one, two, or even three other verbs. Auxiliary verbs are used in affirmative statements, negative statements, and questions. Here are the English auxiliary verbs:
BE (am, is, was, are, were, be, been, being)
DO (do, did, does)
HAVE (have, has, had)
Modal verbsThe verbs BE, DO and HAVE are special because they can be used as auxiliary verbs or as main verbs. Here are examples as main verbs.

subject verb  
I am a student.

She does her homework at night.

Tom has two dogs.

Auxiliary verbs are always placed in front of the main verb. The verbs BE, DO, and HAVE are conjugated for tense and person when they are used as auxiliary verbs. When the auxiliary verb is BE, the main verb takes the form of a present participle or an infinitive.
subject aux.verb mainverb      
I am studying English. present participleTom and Sue were eating.   The party is to begin at noon.   infinitive They were to call me. When the auxiliary verb is DO, it is followed by a verb in its base form.

subject aux.verb mainverb  
Tom does* drink coffee.

We did take the train.

*Normally, the verb DO is not used in an affirmative sentence. Sometimes, however, it is used to contradict.
When the auxiliary verb is HAVE, it can be followed by a past participle or an infinitive
subject Aux .verb main verb    
He has seen the movie. past participle
We had left early I have to leave now. infinitive
They had to buy a new TV. Modal verbs are never conjugated and they are always followed by a base form of the main verb.

subject auxiliarymodals mainverb  
Ideas can change.  
You must wait here.

Some statements use more than one auxiliary verb. Note that the first auxiliary verb is conjugated for tense and person. The following auxiliary verbs take the form of a present participle or a past participle. The main verb takes the form of a present participle or a past participle. Here are examples of sentences constructed with two auxiliary verbs.

subject aux.verb aux.verb mainverb  
I am beginning to feel tired.

The wind has been blowing all day.

Here are example sentences constructed with three auxiliary verbs.

subject aux.verb aux.verb aux.verb mainverb We have been waiting to go home.

Tom had been trying to call for hours.

Note that auxiliary verbs are always placed between the subject and the main verb.

In questions, the auxiliary verb is separated from the main verb by the subject.

Yes / No questionsaux.verb sub. mainverb Is she studying English?
Does Tom drink coffee?
Has he seen this film?
Will you call me later?
Wh- questions  Aux verb sub. Main verb
When are you leaving?
Where does Tom work?
What has he done?
Who can you call?
Auxiliary verbs are used with the negative adverb not to form statements. Note that the adverb not is placed between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.

subject Aux verb adv. Main verb
I am not playing.

They did not come.

The plants have not grown.

The oven will not work.

Verb BE
BE is the most important verb in the English language. It is used as a main verb and as an auxiliary verb, and it is also used in the passive voice. BE is the only English verb that has three conjugations in the simple present (am | are | is). All other verbs have just two conjugations. BE is also the only verb that has two conjugations in the simple past (was | were). All other verbs have only one past tense conjugation.

Here are the conjugations for BE in the simple present.

  singular   plural
1st person I am we are
2nd person you are you are
3rd person he, she, it is they are
Here are conjugations for the verb BE in the simple past.

  singular   plural
1st person I was we were
2nd person you were you were
3rd person he, she, it was they were
The verb BE, when followed by an adjective, is used to describe a person, place, or thing.

person   place   thing
I am tired. Costa Rica is warm. The building is tall.

She is kind. The rooms are large. My ideas are bad.

We were late. Paris was beautiful. The tea was cold.

The verb BE can be followed by a noun to identify a person or a relationship.

I am a teacher.

He is a student.

We are friends.

BE can be followed by a preposition to identify the location of a person or thing.

person I am at work.

The man is in the car.

thing The keys are by the door.

My book was on the table.

BE can be used with other verbs to create different verb forms.

BE + present participle  I am working.   present progressiveHe was running. past progressiveBE + past participle  Films are shown here.   passive voice
The cake was eaten. BE + infinitive  I am to leave Friday.    
She was to call for help. The past participle of the verb BE is been. This form is used in perfect aspects.

I have been here two hours.   present perfectThe dog has been barking all night They had been to Paris six times.   past perfectI had been thinking you would win. BE is used to talk about the time and the weather.

What time is it?   It is 8:30.

When was the party? It was at noon.

How is the weather?   It is sunny.

How was Finland? It was cold.

The verb BE is often contracted with pronouns or the negative adverb not. Read contractions with BE to learn more.

Verb DO
The verb DO plays an enormous role in the English language. It is the most important verb after BE. The primary function of DO is as an auxiliary verb. In this role it is used to form questions and negative statements.

The verb DO can also be used as a main verb, as explained briefly. Like all English verbs, except BE and modal verbs, the verb DO has two conjugations in the present: do | does.
  singular   plural
first person I do we do
second person you do you do
third person he, she, it does they do
Note that the third person singular form of the verb has -es added. All the other conjugations are do.

In fact, use of the verb DO as a main verb in the simple present is very limited. Its only purpose is to indicate who or what performs a habitual action or task. For example:
He does his homework at night.

We do it all the time.

The car does this when it is cold.

Machines do the difficult work.

Occasionally the verb DO is used as an auxiliary verb in affirmative statements in order to make a contradiction. For example:
Assertion   Contradiction
Tom drinks tea. He doesn’t drink coffee. Yes, Tom does drink coffee.

I’m sorry, I don’t have a pen. Oh, I do have a pen! Here.

Susan doesn’t smoke. You’re wrong. Susan does smoke.

In the above examples, DO is stressed.

The verb DO has a single conjugation for all persons in the simple past:did.
  singular   plural
1st per I did we did
2nd per you did you did
3rd per he, she, it did they did
Here are examples with DO used as a main verb in the simple past.

I did the dishes last night.

Tom did the cleaning of the house.

We did a tour of the city.

Your idea did help, a little.

Note that in the simple past, didrefers to a single action. It does not indicate a habitual action. Again, the use of DO, when used in the simple past, is very limited. There is always another verb that is more precise.DO functions primarily as an auxiliary verb.

less precise    more precise
I did the dishes last night. I washed the dishes last night.

Tom did the cleaning of the house. Tom cleaned the house.

We did a tour of the city. We went on a tour of the city.

Your idea did help, a little. Your idea helped, a little.

Questions and the verb DO
The auxiliary verb DO is required to form questions with all verbs except BE and verbs. Here are some examples with questions. Remember, it is impossible to ask these questions without the auxiliary verb DO
Correct   Incorrect
DO subject mainverb    
Do they eat meat? They eat meat?
Does she drink wine? She drinks wine?
Did you dream last night You dream last night?
Did Tom return yesterday? Tom returned yesterday?
The same rule applies to Wh- questions.

Correct   Incorrect
Wh-word DO subject mainverb    
Where do they live now? Where they live now?
When does the train arrive?   When the train arrives?
Why did you call me? Why you call me?
How did Tom know?   How Tom know?
Note: It is possible to form questions with the verb HAVE without using DO, but this form is increasingly rare. American English speakers prefer using DO.

Common   Uncommon
DO sub. mainverb    
Do you have a pen? Have you a pen?
Does he have a new idea? Has he a new idea?
Here are examples of correct questions on the left and incorrect questions asked by students who do not know the grammar rules.
Correct   Incorrect   Reason for error
Do you speak English? Are you speak English? use of BE instead of DO
Does this train go to Chicago? Is this train go to Chicago? Do you have change for a euro?   Have you change for a euro?   use of HAVE instead of DO
Does the room have a bathroom? Has the room a bathroom? What time does the bank open?   When the bank opens?   absence of DO when main verb is not BE
Where do you live? Where you live? Verb HAVE
HAVE is one of the most important English verbs. It is used as a main verb and as an auxiliary. This lesson will focus on HAVE when used as the main verb in a sentence or question.

Like all verbs, except BE and modal verbs, HAVE has two conjugations in the simple present.

  singular   plural
1st person I have we have
2nd person you have you have
3rd person he, she, it has they have
Note that in the third person singular conjugation, -ve is replaced by -s.

HAVE followed by a noun means to possess or own.

Ram has a new car.

The boys have a good idea.

I have a fear of flying.

When HAVE is followed by an infinitive, it indicates that something is required.

I have to study.

We have to leave.

He has to take a shower.

Like all verbs, except BE, HAVE has only one simple past conjugation for all persons: had.

  singular   plural
1st person I had we had
2nd person you had you had
3rd person he, she, it had they had
Here are example sentences.

I had a horrible dream last night.

Sugan had twins.

The story had no intrigue.

HAVE can be used to make a request or give a command.

Please sir, have a seat.

Alex, have* patience.

Hey guys, have a look at this.

*Normally when the subject is the third person singular, it would take the conjugation has. But, because this is an imperative, the verb HAVE remains in the base form.

HAVE is used to wish another person good fortune. Again, this is the imperative.

Have a happy New Year.

Have a good trip.

Have a nice day.

The verb HAVE is sometimes used to form questions, but this is very rare. American English speakers prefer to use the auxiliary verb DO to form questions. For example:
less common   more common
Have you a pen? Do you have a pen?
Has he a car? Does he have a car?
Have they time? Do they have time?
Similarly, HAVE can be used to form negative statements, but this is also very rare. American English speakers prefer to use the auxiliary verb DO to form negative statements. Here are examples.

less common   more common
I haven’t any money. I don’t have any money.

He hasn’t a clue. He doesn’t have a clue.

They haven’t time. They don’t have time.

As an auxiliary verb, HAVE is used with past participles to create perfect verb forms.

Present Perfect   We have already eaten.

Have they tried to help you?
She has gone there three times.

Past Perfect   Tom had gone home by the time I returned.

We had already eaten.

They had never seen an elephant.

Modal verbs are also called modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries, or simply modals. These verbs are a subcategory of auxiliary verbs, which means they cannot be used without a main verb. English has ten modal verbs.

can   could
may might
shall should
will would
must ought
While the meaning and usage of modal verbs is complicated, the grammar is simple. Modal verbs are not conjugated: they have no tense and no person, so they never change. All modal verbs must be followed by a main verb in the base form except for ought which is followed by an infinitive.
subject modalverb main verb(base form)  
They can come  
Mike should walk.  
You must go  
We will wait.  
She ought study. incorrect
Attention: many English learners make the mistake of placing an infinitive after every modal verb. This is incorrect.

subject modalverb main verb(infinitive)  
They can to come. incorrect
Mike should to walk. incorrect
You must to go. incorrect
We will to wait. incorrect
She ought to study.  
In statements, the word order is subject + modal + main verb.
subject modalverb mainverb  
Tom and Sue might arrive later.

Everyone can swim.  
In questions, the word order changes to modal + subject + main verb. Here are some examples with Yes / No questions.

modalverb subject mainverb
Can they come?
Should Mike drive?
Here are some examples with Wh- questions.

Wh- word modalverb subject mainverb
When can they eat?
How could he walk?
When forming negative statements, thenegative adverb not isplaced between the modal verb and the main verb.subject modalverb   mainverb  
You must not disturb the baby.

They should not drive at night.

When asking questions in the negative, the modal verb and a negative adverb not are always contractions.

modal + not(contracted) subject mainverb  
Couldn’t Tom come to the party?
Shouldn’t you rest?  
Wh- questions (open questions)
Essentially, there are two types of questions: Yes / No questions and Wh- questions. Wh- questions are so called because with the exception of the question word how, all the question words begin with the letters Wh. They are also called open questions because the number of possible responses is limitless. This means they must be answered with more information than just a simple “yes” or “no.”
Here are the Wh- English question words.

who person Who’s that? That’s Nancy.
where place Where do you live? In Boston
why reason Why do you sleep early? Because I’ve got to get up early
when time When do you go to work? At 7:00
how manner How do you go? By car
what object, idea or action What do you do? I am an engineer
which choice Which one do you prefer? The red one.

whose possession Whose is this book? It’s Alan’s.

whom object of the verb Whom did you meet? I met the manager.

what kind description What kind of music do you like? I like quiet songs
what time time What time did you come home?
how many quantity (countable) How many students are there? There are twenty.

how much amount, price (uncountable) How much time have we got? Ten minutes
how long duration, length How long did you stay in that hotel? For two weeks.

how often frequency How often do you go to the gym? Twice a week.
how far distance How far is your school? It’s one mile far.
how old age How old are you? I’m 16.
how come reason How come I didn’t see you at the party?
Question Tags or Tag Questions are essential components in everyday conversations which help the readers to feel the essence of politeness, emphasis, enquiry and irony in the dialogues. It is also known as the tail questions as it is added at the end of a statement or an imperative sentence. By adding tag at the end of a statement, it is transformed to a question form. These tags are framed with the help of the auxiliary or modal verbs in the given sentence. The subject of the tags should necessarily be a pronoun and not a noun.
The following are the rules to be observed to form Question Tags:
1. An affirmative sentence carries a negative question tag.

Ex: The Principal has awarded the best students, hasn’t he?
Taj Mahal is a wonderful monument, isn,’t it?
2. A Negative sentence follows with a positive question tag.

Ex: The players did not play well, did they?
She does not attend the function, does she?
3. In the absence of auxiliary or modal verbs in the sentence, question tags are formed with the help of the main verb i.e’do’ forms + main verb.

Ex: They swim well, don’t they?
He swims well, doesn’t he?
She swam well, didn’t she?
4. Sentences which possess negative words like no, not, neither…nor, never and words that have negative meaning like hardly, scarcely, rarely etc., carry positive question tag.

Ex: They hardly speak English, do they?
He never asks questions, does he ?NOTE:
If a sentence begins with let’sthe tag is normally shall we? However, if the sentence begins with let us or let me and it clearly means ‘allow’ then it should not be contracted and the tag is will you? Or won’t you?
Ex: Let’s go for a movie, shall we?
Kindly let us have your response soon, won’t you?
Let me count once more, will you?
1. She doesn’t like coffee, ———?
2. It rained heavily, —————–?
3. They completed their assignment, —————?
4. I will not come late, ————?
6. He likes to eat Ice cream, ————-?
7. You shall come early to the programme, —————?
8. You remembered to feed the Child, ——————-?
9. Let’s all go together, ——————–?
10. There’s a painting mounted on the wall, ——————-?
11. He never finishes his homework, ——————-?
12. Nobody came to class on time, —————?
13. Don’t disturb the class, —————–?
14. You believe in yourself, ————?
15. You can win the match, ————?


Analogy is used to refer to the relationship between the target and the source of information. It is used as a process of transferring information from a particular target to another target which is similar to the other one. To be precise, analogy is treated as the identification of relationship between two terms/conditions, things or ideas to highlight some point of similarity. It is a way to clarify an idea or an unfamiliar concept by comparing it to something familiar. It plays a notorious role in problem solving, creativity, decision making, perception, memory, and communication.
Appalling: pleasing::interesting:______________

The example given above is to identify the relationship between pairs of words.

To answer this question, first decode the symbols. The colon (:) stands for “is related to,” and the double colon (::) can be read as “in the same way that.” In the above example “Appalling is to pleasing in the same way that interesting is to…”
To figure out the missing word, one need to identify the relationship between the first two elements precisely as possible, and choose a word that will make the final pair have a parallel relationship.

Most accurately, one might describe the relationship between appalling and pleasing as “appalling is an opposite of pleasing.”
Now read the first word of the second pair, supplying the same relationship: “interesting is an opposite of…”
The only word that fits this blank adequately is “boring,” the opposite of ‘interesting’. The other three options do not fit the blank as they are the meaning of interesting.

In the example above, the relationship between the words in the first pair is compared to the relationship of words in the second pair. This is what we call an analogy
Significance of Analogy
Analogy is very important and it can be found in its many forms in literature from every culture and era. Analogy helps readers and listeners explore relationships between like and unlike things, thereby expanding connective tissue between concepts. Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle gave a wider vision to analogy, calling it a shared abstraction. The objects being compared shared a pattern, idea, philosophy, or effect, and the analogy helped clarify this mutual attribute. We can use analogies for many reasons, such as to provide comparisons between like and unlike things, to create deeper significance in their works, and to help readers visualize characters and places. Analogies play a significant role in human problem-solving, communication, and creativity. An analogy’s potential to make explanations of new material intelligible and makes it a powerful tool for educational purposes.

Types of Analogies
Type Relationship Example
 Synonym   is similar in meaning to   lucky : fortunate 
 Antonym  is similar in opposite to  lament : rejoice
 Part to Whole   is a part of  stanza : poem
 Category/Type  is a type/kind of  college : art
 Object to Function   is used to  ruler : measure
 Performer to Related Action  does/performs  chef : cook  
 Cause and Effect  is a cause or indication of   tornado : destruction 
 Degree of Intensity  is a small or large  irritate : enrage
 Symbol and Representation   is a symbol of  dove : peace
1. Synonyms:
Synonyms are words that have the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. In this type of analogy, you will need to find words that are parallel in meaning. Here is an example for you.

despaired b) blissful c) unhappy d) miserable
The first pair of words “smart and intelligent” means the same thing. So this relationship is a synonym. Hence from the given options, we need to find the word with the similar meaning as ecstatic. When you read carefully, you could find out all the choices except B “blissful” are antonyms of ecstatic. Hence ‘B’ is the right answer.

2. Antonyms:
Some analogies are based on antonyms-words that have opposite meanings. In this type of analogy, one word in each pair means the opposite of another. Here is an example for you.

a) Mourn full nesss b) gloom c) elation d) distress
To complete this analogy, let’s first determine the relationship in the first pair of words. Humble is the opposite of arrogance. Now, we need to choose the word that means the opposite of miserable.  An antonym for miserable is elation. Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

3. Part to Whole
This type of analogy expresses a part to whole or part of relationship. The first word will be a part of the second word or vice versa. For example, galaxy: universe. In this pair, galaxy is a part of the whole universe. Let’s look at another example.

PARAGRAPH : ESSAY :: ACT : _____________
A. play B. novel C. book D. poem
The first pair of words in the analogy above shows the part to whole relationship. The paragraph is the part of an essay. Similarly, act is the one of the main divisions of a play. Option A is the right answer. The pattern can also be reversed “Essay : Paragraph :: Play : Act”
4. Category/Type
In this type of analogy relationship, one word is the element/member of a group that the other word describes.

FOLK : MUSIC :: BOLERO : _______________
A. instrument B. song C. dance D. painting
Folk is a type of music. Similarly, Bolero is a type of dance that originated in Spain. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

5. Object to Function
This type of analogy tests whether you can determine the function of a specific thing or tool. The first word will be a part of the second word or vice versa. For example, the function of a shovel is to dig. Make sure the function word (certainly a verb) is the primary function of the object (noun) that makes up the other word of the pair. 
NEEDLE : SEW :: SHIELD : ______________
A. carry B. Protect C. Hold D. point
To establish the relationship between the given words, we would say that a needle (object/noun) is a slender piece of metal used for sewing (function/verb). Now, figure out why one uses shield for. It is a large piece of metal carried by soldiers for protection. Therefore, option B is the correct answer as the function of a shield is to protect.

6. Performer to Related Action:
This kind of analogy usually links a person or object with the action they commonly perform. For example, consider the pair doctor: diagnose. Here the doctor’s job/profession is to diagnose a patient and give treatment. 
BURGLAR : STEAL :: ARBITRATOR : ________________
A. direct B. Orient C. Paint D. judge
We all know that burglar is one who steals. Always remember that when solving analogies of such types, we must look for the word pair in which the action given must describe the explicit action of the person/professional. We are then looking for a word that describes an Arbitrator. An arbitrator is a person who is chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue. Therefore, the correct answer is option D.

7. Cause and Effect
In this type of analogy, one word in the pair describes a condition or action, while the other word describes an outcome or effect to that action or condition. For example,
VIRUS : ILLNESS : : FLOOD : ______________
A. rain B. Destruction C. Hurricane D. drought
The relationship between the given words can be stated that virus causes illness. So, to solve this analogy, we need to identify the direct result of the flood. Option A and C can be eliminated as rain and hurricane are not the results of flood, it is the other way round. Similarly, option D can be eliminated as drought is a long period of time when there is little or no rain. Option B is the correct answer because destruction is the result that follows flood.

8. Degree of Intensity
Another type of analogy relationship is ‘Degree of intensity.’ That is, the words in each pair have similar meanings, but one word is stronger, more intense, than the other. For example, being fanatic is an extreme range of being enthusiastic. Though both words are similar in meaning, one word is more intense than the other one. The relationship between these two words depends on the degree of intensity of their meaning.

WELL : ROBUST : : THRIFTY : ___________
A. frugall B. Careful C. Miserly D. prudent
In the given pair, the second word describes a feeling that is more intense than the first word suggest. Someone who is extremely well is robust. Do you understand? Now, choose a pair of words that have similar relationship. On analyzing the options, it is option C “miserly” that is more intense than thrifty. ‘Miserly’ describes a person who is extremely ‘thrifty or frugal’ in nature.

9. Symbol and Representation
This type of relationship represents or symbolizes the other word. 
OLIVE BRANCH : PEACE :: LAMB : ______________
A. meekness B. Evil C. Love D. royalty
Olive branch usually stands for peace; while lamb represents meekness.

The wide use of English has made it an international language and international trade. Now a days, English is more and more becoming the key to technology, science and communication.British and American English often spell the same word differently, for example: labour/ labor, enthral /enthral, or centre/ center.
There are also many cases in which the two varieties of English use different terms to describe the same thing. Here’s a list of various British words and expressions together with their American equivalents.

British English American English
accommodation accommodations
action replay instant replay
aerofoil Air foil
aeroplane Airplane
agony aunt advice columnist
Allen key Allen wrench
aluminium aluminumaniseed Anise
anticlockwise Counter clockwise
articulated lorry tractor-trailer
asymmetric bars uneven bars
aubergine eggplant
baking tray cookie sheet
bank holiday legal holiday
beetroot beet(s)
bill Check
biscuit cookie; cracker
black economy underground economy
blanket bath sponge bath
blind (window) shade
block of flats apartment building
boiler suit coveralls
bonnet (of a car) Hood
boob tube tube top
boot (of a car) Trunk
bottom drawer hope chest
bowls lawn bowling
braces suspenders
brawn (the food) headcheese
breakdown van tow truck
breeze block cinder block
bridging loan bridge loan
bumbagfanny pack
candyfloss cotton candy
car park parking lot
casualty emergency room
catapult slingshot
central reservation median strip
chemist drugstore
chips French fries
cinema movie theater; the movies
cling film plastic wrap
common seal Harbor seal
consumer durables durable goods
cornflour Corn starch
cos (lettuce) Romaine
cot Crib
cot death crib death
cotton bud cotton swab
cotton wool absorbent cotton
council estate (housing) project
courgette zucchini
court card face card
crash barrier guardrail
crisps chips; potato chips
crocodile clip alligator clip
cross-ply bias-ply
crotchet (music) quarter note
current account checking account
danger money hazard pay
demister (in a car) defroster
dialling tone dial tone
diamante rhinestone
double cream heavy cream
draughts (game) checkers
drawing pin thumbtack
dressing gown robe; bathrobe
drink-driving drunk driving
drinks cupboard liquor cabinet
drinks party cocktail party
driving licence driver’s license
dual carriageway divided highway
dummy (for a baby) pacifier
dust sheet drop cloth
dustbin garbage can
earth (electrical) Ground
engaged (of a phone) Busy
estate agent real estate agent, realtor (trademark)
estate car station wagon
ex-directory unlisted
faith school parochial school
financial year fiscal year
fire brigade/service fire company/department
first floor second floor
fish finger fish stick
fitted carpet wall-to-wall carpeting
flannel washcloth
flat apartment
flexitime flextimeflick knife switchblade
flyover overpass
football Soccer
footway sidewalk
fringe (hair) Bangs
full board (in hotels) American plan
full stop (punctuation) Period
garden yard; lawn
gearing (finance) leverage
gear lever gearshift
goods train freight train
greaseproof paper wax paper/waxed paper
green fingers green thumb
grill (noun) Broiler
grill (verb) Broil
ground floor first floor
groundsman groundskeeper
hatstandHatrackhen night bachelorette party
hire purchase installment plan
hoarding billboard
hob stovetop
holdall carryall
holiday vacation
holidaymaker vacationer
homely Homey
hosepipe (garden) hose
in hospital in the hospital
hot flush hot flash
housing estate housing development
hundreds and thousands sprinkles (for ice cream)
ice lolly Popsicle (trademark)
icing sugar confectioners’ sugar
indicator (on a car) turn signal
inside leg Inseam
jelly babies jelly beans
Joe BloggsJoe Blow
Joe Public John Q. Public
jumble sale rummage sale
jump lead jumper cable
jumper Sweater
junior school elementary school
kennel doghouse
ladybird ladybug
a lettuce a head of lettuce
level crossing grade crossing
lift elevator
lolly Popsicle (trademark)
lollipop lady (or man) crossing guard
loo (toilet) John
loose cover slipcover
lorry Truck
loudhailer bullhorn
low loader flatbed truck
lucky dip grab bag
luggage van baggage car
maize Corn
mangetout snow pea
market garden truck farm
marshalling yard railroad yard
maths Math
metalled road paved road
milometer odometer
minim  (music) half note
mobile phone cell phone
monkey tricks monkeyshines
motorway expressway; highway
mum/mummy mom/mommy
nappy Diaper
newsreader newscaster
noughts and crosses tic-tac-toe
number plate license plate
off-licence liquor store; package store
opencast mining open-pit mining
ordinary share common stock
oven glove oven mitt
paddling pool wading pool
paracetamol acetaminophen
parting (in hair) Part
patience solitaire
pavement sidewalk
pay packet pay envelope
pedestrian crossing crosswalk
peg clothespin
pelmet Valance
petrol gas; gasoline
physiotherapy physical therapy
pinafore dress Jumper
plain chocolate dark chocolate
plain flour all-purpose flour
polo neck turtleneck
positive discrimination reverse discrimination
postal vote absentee ballot
Post box mailbox
postcode zip code
potato crisp potato chip
power point electrical outlet
pram baby carriage; stroller
press stud Snap
press-up Push up
private soldier GI
public school private school
public transport public transportation
Punch bag punching bag
pushchair Stroller
pylon utility pole
quantity surveyor estimator
quaver (music) eighth note
queue Line
racing car race car
railway railroad
real tennis court tennis
recorded delivery certified mail
registration plate license plate
remould (tyre) Re tread
reverse the charges call collect
reversing lights back-up lights
right-angled triangle right triangle
ring road beltway
room only European plan
roundabout (at a fair) carousel
roundabout (in road) traffic circle
rowing boat rowboat
sailing boat sailboat
saloon (car) Sedan
sandpit sandbox
sandwich cake layer cake
sanitary towel sanitary napkin
self-raising flour self-rising flour
semibreve (music) whole note
semitone (music) half step
share option stock option
shopping trolley shopping cart
show house/home model home
silencer (on a car) muffler
silverside rump roast
skeleton in the cupboard skeleton in the closet
skimmed milk skim milk
skipping rope jump rope
skirting board baseboard
sledge Sled
sleeper railroad tie
sleeping partner silent partner
slowcoach slowpoke
snakes and ladders chutes and ladders
solicitor Lawyer
soya/soya bean soy/soybean
splashback backsplash
spring onion green onion
stag night bachelor party
Stanley knife utility knife
starter appetizer
state school public school
storm in a teacup tempest in a teapot
surtitle supertitle
swede rutabaga
sweet(s) Candy
takeaway (food) takeout; to go
taxi rank taxi stand
tea towel dish towel
terrace house row house
tick check mark
ticket tout Scalper
tights pantyhose
timber Lumber
titbit tidbittoffee apple candy apple
touch wood knock on wood
trade union labor union
trading estate industrial park
trainers sneakers
tram streetcar; cable car
transport cafe truck stop
trolley shopping cart
twelve-bore twelve-gauge
unalike Unlike
underground Subway
vacuum flask thermos bottle
verge (of a road) shoulder
vest undershirt
veterinary surgeon veterinarian
wagon (on a train) Car
waistcoat Vest
walking frame Walker
wardrobe Closet
water ice Italian ice
weatherboard Clapboard
white coffee coffee with cream
white spirit mineral spirits
wholemeal bread Whole wheat bread
windcheater Windbreaker
windscreen Windshield
wing (of a car) Fender
worktop Countertop
Yale lock cylinder lock
zebra crossing Crosswalk
zed (letter Z) Zee
zip Zipper
Word Formation is forming of new words either by coining or by borrowing words from various other languages. Every language has its own unique patterns of combining morphemes to get larger words.

Nouns can be made from verbs, Adjectives can be derived from nouns and verbs, Verbs can be formed from nouns and adjectives. This kind of word formations are done only with the help of Affixes.

Base or Root word is the key to building new words.

Eg: Measure, able, maintains are the root words in immeasurable, disability and

Base word Meaning Example
act To move or do Activity, Transaction
cede Go Exceed , recede
counter Against or Opposite Counteract, Counterpart
jectThrow Reject, Inject, Eject
mal Bad Malpractice, Malfunction
An affix is a morpheme that is added before, after or within a base word to form a new word. Affixes are of different kinds.

321500518859500244665518859500193137718859500Eg: mismanagement – mis manage ment Prefix Base word Suffix
A Prefix is a part of a word placed at the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning and form a new word.

Eg: Dislike , Encourage
Here dis and en are Prefixes
Prefix are used
to form Opposite meaning
contro — , contra—-, de—-, dis—-,in—-,il—-,im—-,ir—–,mis—-
to denote numbers
to indicate period of time
ante —-
to write/talk about size
mega —-,micro—-
A suffix is also a part of word which is placed at the end of a word to qualify its meaning and form a new word.

Eg: Friendship, Appointment
Here ship and ment are suffixes
-ible,-able Can be done Comfortable
-enMade of Golden, Wooden
-erComparative Thicker, Softer
-estSuperlative Highest, Hardest
-mentAction of process Entertainment
Certain Suffixes are there which are used
To make Nouns from Verbs: -ance, -ence, -ment ,-tionEg: Clearance, Preference, Development, Creation, CompetitionTo make Adjectives : – able , -less, -ent, -ar,-ous,-ar,-or,-an,-ive,-ful,-ic,-ical,-al
Eg: Dutyful, Marvelous, Beautiful, Prevention, Critical
To Frame Noun: -tion,-ant,-or, -er,-al,-ity,-ism,-ing,-sion,-ment Eg: Beautification
To make Opposite: -less Eg: Hopeless, Helpless, Careless
The table below shows the correct forms of the words
Noun Adjective Verb Adverb
Beauty Beautiful Beautify Beautifully
Communication Communicative Communicate Communicatively
Meaning Meaningful Mean Meaningfully
Information Informative Inform Informatively
Conclusion Conclusive Conclude Conclusively
Encouragement Encouraging Encourage Encouragingly
Completion Complete complete Completely
An infix is also a part of word which is placed within a base word to form a new word.

Eg: Brother in law, Friend cum well-wisher
Here in the example Brother, friend are base words, in, cum are infix word and law, well wisher are base words.

PRACTICE:1Form five new words with the help of the prefixes and suffixes given below
Note: 1) The root word should be used only once.

2) The same Prefix or the suffix may be used for a number of base words.

EnMotion ishIilLoyal erDis Fool less
Fore Joy al
Over courage ty

Add suitable Prefix and Suffix for the following:
——— certain : that which is not definite.

Mourn ——— : Expressing grief.

———- qualified : Without the required qualification.

——— long : Lengthen.

PRACTICE:3Use appropriate prefix to get the opposite
————– aware.

————– afraid.

————– balance.

————– treat.

————– reliable
The Grammatical category of a word can be changed by adding suitable suffix. The same word may take different forms to suit the parts of speech where it appears.

Noun Verb Adjective
action Act Acting
upgradation upgrade upgradable
analysis analyse Analysed
compressor compress Compressible
abandonment abandon Abandoned
description describe describable
application Apply applicable
apology apologise apologetic
attraction Attract attractive
agreement Agree agreeable
vacancy Vacate vacant
belief believe Believable
addition Add addtitivevariety Vary variable

Complete the table to provide the correct form of the words.

pollute Acceptance Employable
Conserve prevention various
tolerate competition dispose Pure
justice PRACTICE: 2
Give the verb form of the following words
Give the noun form of the following words
Give the adjective form of the following words
History Historical Historian
Environment Nature Technology Chemistry Botany Psychology Give the adjective and the person concerned
Redundancy is generally defined as the use of two or more words that conveys the same thing, but we also use the term to refer to any expression in which a modifier’s meaning is contained in the word it modifies (e.g., early beginnings, merge together…)
If all of us cooperate together, we will succeed. 
In this sentence, the words cooperate and together have been used. But both these words convey the same meaning. One of the two words should be dropped in order to make the sentence a correct one. • If all of us cooperate, we will succeed. • If all of us work together, we will succeed. Both these sentences are correct ones. 
The accused was guilty of false misstatement. 
This sentence uses false and misstatement whereas both these words convey the same meaning. The correct sentence is: The accused was guilty of misstatement. 
3) It was the general consensus of opinion that we must go to the movie. 
The two words which convey the same meaning are consensus and opinion. One word should be removed to make this sentence correct one. The correct sentence is: • It was the general opinion that we must go to the movie.

4) The three brothers had nothing in common with each other. 
Here also two phrases in common and with each other have been used to convey the same meaning. The correct sentence is: • The three brothers had nothing in common. These examples might have made it clear for you how to avoid Redundancy in your sentences. 
5) I am enclosing herewith my bio-data. 
Enclosing and herewith are the two words which convey the same meaning. The correct sentence is: • I am enclosing my bio-data. 
6) There was an ovation when the minister rose up to speak.

The two words (rose and up) convey the same meaning. The correct sentence is: • There was an ovation when the minister rose to speak. 7) Do not return back home without completing the work. 
In this sentence also, two words, conveying the same meaning have been used. The correct sentence is: • Do not return without completing the work. These examples might have made it clear for you how to avoid Redundancy in your sentences. 
You must first do this before you go. You must do this before you go.

The flight will arrive at 7 p.m. in the afternoon. The flight will arrive at 7 p.m.

He carefully examined each and every letter. He carefully examined each letter.

In my opinion, I think it is going to rain. I think it is going to rain.

Frank was elected as Chairman unanimously by all members. Frank was elected as Chairman unanimously.

I have a client of mine who insists on paying his fee in advance. I have a client who insists on paying his fee in advance.

Have you read the latest biography of Indira Gandhi’s life? Have you read the latest biography of Indira Gandhi?
The police restored the stolen purse back to the rightful owner. The police restored the stolen purse to the rightful owner.

All other boys except Peter came for picnic. All boys except Peter came for picnic.

I am looking for a job with a salary of at least US $2000 or more. I am looking for a job with a salary of at least US $2000.

You must come promptly at 10 a.m. or else we will leave without you. You must come promptly at 10 a.m. or we will leave without you.

The prices of Car companies have fallen down by 30% in the last one week. The prices of Car companies have fallen by 30% in the last one week.

These happen when the last character is said twice; once as part of the abbreviation, and then the word itself. This type of redundancy is also known as the RAS Syndrome: “Redundant Acronym Syndrome Syndrome”.
For example:
“We need to find an ATM machine to take money out”
“I think the LCD display broke”
ATM means “Automated Teller Machine” so saying “machine” means we are repeating it unnecessarily. The same goes for LCD, which means “Liquid Crystal Display”.

Exercise 1: In the following sentences underline the redundant expression, and then revise the sentences to eliminate redundancy. (Hint: look at the table above for guidance.)
Her handbag was square in shape.

Detectives search for the true facts in an investigation.
The consensus of opinion on the basic fundamentals created the shortest meeting of the year.
If you refer back to the day of March 18 at eight o’clock in the morning, you will recall seeing a woman wearing a dress that was red in color gather together her belongings before crossing the street.
Even though she had performed the operation a numerous number of times, she still reviewed the basic essentials each and every day.
The first priority appears to be to group together the children that live in close proximity to one another.
The local residents filled to capacity the new auditorium as they waited to hear the developer recount the past history of the archaeological site.
Advance planning can avoid total destruction of a historical site.

Eliminate redundant words. Cross them out.

We need to cooperate together.

This absolutely phenomenal piece of equipment…
A liaison officer who is responsible for…
A total number of 14 APCs…
With the close proximity of…
Exactly the same number of soldiers…
New innovations will move our industry forward.

Let me summarize briefly…
There is no doubt that the recent actions…
We also have ATM machines inside the base.

There are twenty-five companies which have already expressed a desire to join the program.

As far as I’m concerned, there is no need for further enhancement of the base.

The Ministry is already in the process of reviewing the Memorandum.

I suggest that the Coy Cdr should arrive 5 minutes earlier.

Nominal Compounds (or) Compound Nouns are the combination of two or more words function as a noun. These combinations may be usually (noun + noun) or (adjective + noun) and other combinations are also possible in different contexts.

There are three types of Compound Nouns:
Open or Spaced – Bus stop.

Hyphenated- Fire-fly.

Closed or Solid -Breakfast.

Formation of Compound Nouns:
Here are some examples:
Noun + noun = Bus stop Adjective + noun = Full moon Gerund + noun = Swimming pool Noun + gerund = Letter writing Noun + adjective = Blood red Preposition + noun = Underworld Adverb + noun =Overconfidence.

Expansion of Compound Nouns:
The Compound Nouns can be expanded in the following manner.

Dam construction – Construction of Dam Control Centre– Centre to Control Space Travel– Travel in Space Silver Extraction – Extraction of Silver
Recruitment Procedure – Procedure for recruitment
Expand the Nominal Compounds:
Steel Boxk. Control Tower
Temperature Dropl. Roller Mill
Resource Utilizationm. Video Screen
Information Centren. Heat Content
Power Sourceo. Research Laboratory
Money Transferp. Ferrous Oxide
Diesel Engineq. Calculation Speed
Turret Lather. Mains Electricity
Butt Welds. Word Power
Computer Designh. Internet Culture.

Fill in the blanks with suitable Compound Nouns from the expanded forms given in brackets:
Traffic on Karur Trichy road was affected for more than 30 minutes on Monday due to the ——————- (blockade of road) protest by the ————— (women of Puliyur), demanding regular——————-Supply of drinking water).

The passengers were asked to desist from————- (travel on footboard) of train, eatables given by strangers while travelling, remain careful of their belongings and the precautions to be taken by —————— (users of road) before passing through an————— (level crossing for unmanned).

A Connective is a word which joins one part of a sentence with another. Connectives can be conjunctions or Adverbs. These connectives are classified into coordinating connectives and subordinating connectives. Coordinating Connectives such as but, and, so, connect words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. Subordinating connectives like if, when, however, because, while connect a main clause with the subordinating clause. The main functions of these connectives are to link, develop and explain one’s idea in a coherent way. Here are some useful connectives.

 Coherence and cohesion
Coherence: It is a logical formation of ideas in a written text which helps to connect the ideas underlying the text in order to build it in to a meaningful paragraph.

Cohesion: It is a list of language expressions that give a natural flow and connection among the sentences. Example: ‘as’, ‘because’, ‘whereas’, ‘in order that’, ‘since’, ‘although’
Adding information
AddAlsoAs well as
Sequencing ideas or events
As withLikeIn the same way
WhereasInstead ofAlternatively
On the other handIn contrast
Cause and effect
Explain an idea
ExceptApart fromYet
IfAs long as
Above allIn particularEspecially
For exampleSuch asFor instance
In the case ofAs revealed by
Combine the following sentences with the appropriate connectives given in the box.

The new machine saves fuel consumption it is easy to operate.

Increase in wages, the workers got other emoluments.

The Manager, the Accountant verified the accounts.

He looks thin, he is powerful.

Its raining, I am going out for a walk.

The temperature increases the volume of gas increases.

The machinery was damaged, it was being installed.

He practices hard, he might win the race.

The engine was tested, it was filled.

The college remains closed. The teachers are expected to be present
1945640269875Beforein order tofurtherin spite of
However as a result ofin addition towhile
As well as
00Beforein order tofurtherin spite of
However as a result ofin addition towhile
As well as

Use the following cause and effect expressions in separate of your own.

Lead to
Because of
Due to
Consequence of
Frame the sentence (cause and effect relation) by using the following information.

Stray dogs on campus
Death of deer
Cutting of trees
Lack of rainfall
Usage of Mobile phone.

Instructions are written or spoken directions to perform a task or to carry out a procedure. In Technical writing, writing instructions hold an important place, for it engages learners in the total communication process: creating, planning, writing, editing, presenting, sharing and evaluating.

Giving Instructions is common in all the fields and it follows a consistent step-by-step pattern, whether the description is how to make a drink or how to assemble an automobile engine. While writing instructions the following points should be kept in mind to attain clarity.

Give specific and precise title.

Identify the intended readers and give additional information if needed.

Use short sentences.

Arrange the points in logical order.

Use action verbs.

Use the imperative form.

Convey one idea in each point.

Don’t omit steps or take shortcuts.

Avoid jargon and technical terms if possible.

Let the concluding point signal the completion of task.

Remove the footwear before entering the library.

Enter your name in the register.

Select the book needed.

Avoid reading aloud.

Maintain silence in the library.

Don’t drag the chairs instead lift it.

Replace the book in its place after reading.

Sign in the out register while leaving the library.

Write a set of eight instruction to maintain the two wheeler in good condition.

Write a set of eight instruction to withdraw money from the ATM.

A circular or circular letter is usually written by any institution, company or organization in order to convey messages, notices, new rules and new plans etc. So that the students or the employees are aware of the information delivered. At times, it can also be written to an external parties may be person or an organization.

Here is a sample of college circular
To: All students From: The Principal Date: 04.09.17
In order to have a safe and secured environment in our college campus, we herewith announce that all the students of ABC College should abide by the following rules and regulations.

Girls hostel inmates are not allowed to enter hostel after 6.00pm.

Leave should be properly intimated to the staff in charge by the students.

No one is allowed to enter the campus without ID card.

Official staff members are assigned to check the discipline of all students’ .Severe action will be taken on those who fail to obey or violate the aforementioned rules.

To: All students From: The Principal Date: 04.09.17
In order to have a safe and secured environment in our college campus, we herewith announce that all the students of ABC College should abide by the following rules and regulations.

Girls hostel inmates are not allowed to enter hostel after 6.00pm.

Leave should be properly intimated to the staff in charge by the students.

No one is allowed to enter the campus without ID card.

Official staff members are assigned to check the discipline of all students’ .Severe action will be taken on those who fail to obey or violate the aforementioned rules.


Write a circular letter for an inter college competition scheduled to be held in the month of January 2014 in your college.

A New company plan is designed to increase the productivity, sales and marketing of S.S ; company Pvt Ltd. Write a circular to inform the same for all the employees of the company.

A Memorandum is a written communication generally used by the higher officials of any organisation for communicating among them so it is also named as ‘interoffice memorandum’. The Purpose of a memorandum is to record or convey information and decisions. It helps for quick and smooth flow of information within the organization. It avoids the personal contact of the colleagues in passing any information. The language and the style used in the memo should be easy to understand, plain and direct of the facts. It should not create a psychological in fact on the readers. A memo must have the following items:
1. The designation of the receiver
2. The designation of the sender
3. Reference
4. Date and
509905608330PSLM COLLEGE
InterofficeMemorandumTo: Department Heads
From: The Principal
Subject: E-News letter
Reference:M156Date: 30.9.2017
The cost of stationery has gone up considerably and so to keep expenditure within the budget, it has been decided to discontinue the issue of the monthly newsletter. However, to ensure dissemination of the information among the faculty, E-Newsletter will be brought out monthly and available in the college website.

InterofficeMemorandumTo: Department Heads
From: The Principal
Subject: E-News letter
Reference:M156Date: 30.9.2017
The cost of stationery has gone up considerably and so to keep expenditure within the budget, it has been decided to discontinue the issue of the monthly newsletter. However, to ensure dissemination of the information among the faculty, E-Newsletter will be brought out monthly and available in the college website.

5. Subject.

Prepare a memo for circulation to all employees and students of your institution announcing a change in the working hours and explaining the reasons for thechange.

Assume that you have just returned from a seminar to which you were deputed by the class advisor. Write a memo to your advisor, reporting to him/her the important matter discussed at the seminar.

-1320801872615LMSP College of Engineering
Anna Nagar
Karur – 639113
04 Sep, 2017
Notice is hereby given that the Third Meeting of the Board of Studies will be held at the Controller of Examination office of the college on Friday, 8 August 2014 at 10am.

The agenda is enclosed
Members of the Board of Studies
00LMSP College of Engineering
Anna Nagar
Karur – 639113
04 Sep, 2017
Notice is hereby given that the Third Meeting of the Board of Studies will be held at the Controller of Examination office of the college on Friday, 8 August 2014 at 10am.

The agenda is enclosed
Members of the Board of Studies
A Notice is a form of written communication must be sent to all the members who have the right to attend the official meetings arranged in a particular organizations or company. It should reach the members of the meetings within a reasonable time before the meeting. It should contain: day, date, time and place of the meeting and subject to be discussed, if decided, should mention in the notice. If the topics have to be discussed in the meeting, is minimal then it can be listed in the notice itself. Otherwise, a separate sheet has to be attached to the notice as Annexure.

Agenda or programme schedule is an official list of items to be done or dealt with at a particular meeting or a function. It is drawn up by the higher official after consultation with the Chairman or the Secretary of an organization. It is to be noted that all the discussions to be made in the meeting or the programme to be conducted in any function should follow the order listed in the agenda. Usually, the first item on every agenda of a meeting should be the confirmation of the minutes of the previous meeting and the last item has to be any other matter raised with the
permission of the Chairman or the Head. All the items for discussion are arranged in the order of importance and numbered one by one.

1182370262890LMSP College of Engineering
Anna Nagar
Karur – 639113
04 Sep, 2017
Agenda for the Third Meeting of the Board of Studies to be held on 3rd September 2017 at 10 am in CoE office.Confirmation of the minutes of the last meeting.

Confirmation of the appointment of Board Members.

Confirmation of the University Nominee.

Circulation of syllabus copies.

Discussion on the syllabus.

Corrections in the new syllabus format.

Finalization of syllabus with the new regulation.

Finalization of credits.

Date for the next meeting.

Any other matter with the permission of the Chairman.

00LMSP College of Engineering
Anna Nagar
Karur – 639113
04 Sep, 2017
Agenda for the Third Meeting of the Board of Studies to be held on 3rd September 2017 at 10 am in CoE office.Confirmation of the minutes of the last meeting.

Confirmation of the appointment of Board Members.

Confirmation of the University Nominee.

Circulation of syllabus copies.

Discussion on the syllabus.

Corrections in the new syllabus format.

Finalization of syllabus with the new regulation.

Finalization of credits.

Date for the next meeting.

Any other matter with the permission of the Chairman.


Imagine that you are the Secretary of the First year association of your college. Write a notice giving the Agenda of the first meeting of the association members, convened to elect the office bearers. The notice should contain the date, time and place of election.

You are the sports secretary of your college, write a notice for the college notice board, asking the students interested in cricket to give their names for selection for your college cricket team.

It becomes mandatory to ensure that required actions have been taken, and effective planning has been done for the successful completion of any personal or professional task. Writing a checklist helps us to embark on a project or task with the required back up. The process of writing a checklist involves questioning oneself as to whether important preparatory works have been done. It prevents us from facing difficulties and committing mistakes during the course of a particular task. While preparing a checklist ,we form a list of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ questions starting with auxiliaries such as ‘Is’ , ‘ Are’ , ‘Do’ , ‘Does’, ‘ Has’ and ‘Have’.’Do’ and ‘Does’ are used while checking somebody possesses something. Other auxiliaries are used when ensuring some actions have been done or not.

A checklist for arranging conference.YesNo
600456015240000644652012954000Have I confirmed the date and timing of the conference?
59969401092200064617608064500Have the invitations been sent to all the clients?
59969401143000064617609906000Have I assigned responsibilities to the various committees?
6004560869950064770007175500Is the agenda finalized?
600456012192000646176012192000Have I made arrangements to receive the chief guests?
599694013970000646176010922000Have I booked the vehicles for transportation?
599694014414500649922512890500Have I prepared the welcome address?
600456012446000649922510922000Do I have the phone numbers of the committee members?
Write a checklist for job recruitment.

Write a checklist for presenting a paper in a seminar or conference.

Write a checklist for the inauguration of Shakespeare club
Dialogue Writing is a written composition in which the conversations between two or more persons are recorded efficiently. It can be either formal or informal in its tone and gesture. It is to be noted that the stately exchange of words between two very dignified persons alone is not considered to be a dialogue. The conversation between two porters or two laymen who participate in a discussion is also a dialogue. In one’s everyday life, one must participate either in a short or long conversation to express their wants, likes, dislikes and enquiries etc. For the above reasons, it is not essential that the dialogues have to be too formal. Instead, it is expected to be interesting and natural.

Due to the lack of confidence and exposure to English language, shyness and hesitation, the dialogue of non-native speakers are often stilted and bookish. They should try to express themselves naturally, without the least self-consciousness and it can be achieved exactly only if they get a chance to interact with the native speakers of English. But it is highly impossible for everyone to get such an opportunity so it is better to have regular practice to acquire easiness, naturalness and spontaneity to converse in English. To achieve the same activeness and spontaneity in writing dialogues, the writer of a dialogue must become a character-reader. Before the start, the writer should study the types of language to be employed in the conversation (dialogues) and imagine himself as the character in order to bring out the naturalness and colourfulness.

Naturalness, spontaneity, avoidance of stilted language and empathy towards the speakers are the most essential factors which influence the dialogue writings to emerge as a real conversation which in turn make the readers to see the exact situation in their mind’s eye.
Pay attention to tone and gesture.

Give equal space to all the characters.

Use gap fillers like yeah, well etc., to fill gaps in the dialogue.

Handle punctuation intelligibly to avoid confusion.

Avoid slang and profane words.

Be concise, brief and focus towards the central idea.

Be natural, brisk and realistic.

Make the audience in line from the beginning to the end of the dialogue.

1.At the Railway Junction:
Kannan: Excuse me, sir.

Enquiry clerk: Good Morning. What can I do for you, sir?
Kannan: May I know the arrival time of Palani Express?
Enquiry clerk: It is expected to reach Palani at 8.10 p.m.

Kannan: Why is there half an hour delay from its actual time?
Enquiry clerk: There was an engine problem. So it started twenty minutes late.

Kannan: But I haven’t heard any announcement, I am waiting for the train for last fifteen minutes.

Enquiry clerk: It might be made before your arrival sir. Anyway I sincerely regret for not announcing once again.

Kannan: It’s okay. Now make sure you give one more announcement because a lot of passengers are waiting in a confused state.

Enquiry clerk: Sure sir. At once, I form the person concerned to make the announcement frequently at five minute intervals.
Kannan: Can you tell me whom can I meet to register my complaint in person.

Enquiry clerk: You can meet the station Manager at the office room upstairs, and register your complaint with him.

Kannan: Thanks for your good response sir.

2. In the Lab:
Lab in charge: Why have you come in a non-uniform?
Student: Madam! It was torn during last lab.

Lab in charge: When did you have last lab?
Student: It was a week before, Madam.

Lab in charge: Then, could not you find time to stitch your uniform?
Student: madam, I tried my level best to stitch it on the day itself. But since it is a Diwali season, all the tailors turned me out.

Lab in charge: Is it torn extensively to go to the tailors?
Student: Yes Madam it was torn for a 10cm in right hand sleeve Madam.

Lab in charge: What about another set?
Student: I have given it to my mother to wash at home. She will bring it tomorrow when she comes on visitor’s day Madam.

Lab in charge: lazy guy! Can’t you even wash your clothes yourself?
Student: I am not good at washing madam. When I tried one time, all the dirt and blots were there as it was before washing.

Lab in charge: Anyway, you can’t attend the Lab today. You can make up today Lab by doing it on Monday evening after class hours.

Complete the following dialogues by using in the blanks with appropriate Language Expressions:
At the bus stand:
Passenger: Excuse me Sir, where can I find a bus to Trichy?
Conductor: 40 to platform no.4. There you ——————- —————– buses going to Trichy.

Passenger: Is there any rush in buses since it is a holiday season.

Conductor: Yes, of course. All the buses have been packed full for the last two days.

Passenger: What about today? ————- there —————– difference today?
Conductor: I —————— (not) —————- (see) any changes today. From the morning itself, are the buses have been full. I hope, in the evening there —————– be any rush.

Passenger: Is booking open during these holiday season?
Conductor: Yes, but I heard all the buses to Trichy —————— booked even two days before for the whole week.

Passenger: Oh! My god. I have to reach Trichy by today evening since I have an appointment with an important client at 7 o’clock.

Conductor: Then, you better try Omni buses you ———– get a seat even though the fair is high.

Passenger: Thank you sir for your valuable information
2.Write dialogues for the following situations.

1. Write a dialogue between two students on the importance of Communication for career growth.

2. A dialogue between a father and his son about her performance in the exam.

3. Write an imaginary dialogue between
a. Villager and city guy
b. Bank Manager and a Customer
4. A dialogue between a cricketer and a football player about championing their games.

5. A dialogue between two graduates about higher studies and business.

Process Description defines the procedures and methods, how to do the tasks and relationships between the task. It is useful when writing on history, business, sciences, psychology, and many other areas. The process description offers an outline of how something works in a sequence of interdependent and linked procedures. It specifies the order of events that need to be performed throughout the process to reach the objective. It is written objectively. Linking words like – and, then, first, then, following, next etc. are commonly used to describe the step by step process clearly to the readers. Usually the present passive form of the verb is used in describing the process.

A process will have a number of stages that are in time order so, one should start at the beginning, and describe each stage through to the last one. To avoid being subjective and achieve impersonal style and be objective, passive voice is encouraged. It is a series of events, one taking place after the other so to have sequence, time connectors or linkers can be used. Commonly used linkers are ‘and’ and ‘then’ but there are some more connectors: to begin, following this, next, then, after, after that, subsequently, finally etc. adding diagrams to illustrate the process would be helpful for the readers to understand easily.

A process description includes
a topic
Introduction or definition of when and why the process is performed.

a framework of an introduction (a broad overview of the topic),
a series of sections describing the steps involved in the process,
Points in coherence.

a conclusion
Visual aids may be used to facilitate understanding.

To begin ,Following this, Next, Then, After, After that, Before, Subsequently, Finally
(Adopted from Writing With Precision by Jefferson D. Bates. Penguin, 2000)
To begin, the clay which is used to make the bricks is dug up from the ground by a large digger. This clay is then placed into a metal grid, which is used to break up the clay into smaller pieces. A roller assists in this process.

Following this, sand and water are added to the clay, and this mixture is turned into bricks by either placing it into a mould or using a wire cutter. Next, these bricks are placed in an oven to fry for 24 – 45hours.

In the subsequent stage, the bricks go through a heating and cooling process. They are heated in a kiln at a moderate heat and then a high temperature (ranging from 200°C to 1300°C), followed by a cooling process in a chamber for 2-3 days. Finally, the bricks are packed and delivered to their destinations.

Read the above description again and highlight the passive form of verbs and the connectors.

Write the process of making a cup of coffee.

Write the process of washing clothes in the washing machine.

Describe the process of obtaining a Demand Draft from a bank.

Writing recommendations is an important part in scientific and technical writing. It helps the end user of a product to make effective use of the product and do the maintenance in a proper manner. Since through recommendations, we give strong advice and suggestions, a specific set of model verbs can be used to achieve the purpose. The modal verbs are should, must, need to, have to, and necessary.

Write eight recommendations to keep your college campus clean and green.

NSS volunteers should plant sapling in around the campus.

Students have to put the wastes only in the dustbin.

Walls should not be spoiled by scribbling.

It is necessary to inculcate a sense of neatness among students by organizing programmes.

Vehicles must be parked in an orderly manner in the parking lot.

Students should not bring plastic bags to carry eatables.

Notices should not be pasted on the walls of the college buildings.

Poster, emphasizing cleanliness should be displayed in populous places.

Write a list of eight recommendations for using Washing Machine at home.

Write a list of eight recommendations for avoiding traffic congestion.

Write a list of eight recommendations for leading a peaceful life in a multi-cultural society.

An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that defines a larger work. The abstract is the only part of the paper that is published online and in most conference proceedings. Hence abstract constitutes a very important section of any paper.  
An abstract is a brief summary of a body of information in the form of a report, dissertation, thesis or article. It is simply a short, standalone summary of the work or paper that others can use as an overview of a scientific or academic paper. An abstract describes the main content of an essay, whether it’s a scientific experiment or a literary analysis paper. It should help the reader understand the paper and help people searching for the paper and decide whether it suits their purposes prior to reading. To write an abstract the paper should be completed first, then the summary that identifies the purpose, problem, methods, results, and conclusion of the work. After getting all the details down, all that’s left is to format the abstract correctly with all the primary ideas.The actual process of writing an abstract will force one to justify and clearly state the aims, to show how your methodology fits the aims, to highlight the major findings and to determine the significance of what the researcher has done. When all of these things are done in separate chapters the researcher can easily lose the thread or not make it explicit enough. If you have trouble writing an abstract at these different stages, then this could show that the parts with which you are having a problem are not well conceptualised yet. We often hear that writing an abstract can’t be done until the results are known and analysed. But the point we are stressing is that it is a working tool that will help to get you there.

There are in fact two different kinds of abstract: the descriptive abstract and the informative abstract.
Descriptive abstracts
Descriptive abstracts afford a description of the report’s main topic and purpose, together with an overview of the contents. They are usually very short – just a sentence or two – and may even appear on the title page. All this type of abstract does is give a very general idea of what the writing is about; it likes a little extended title, or a topic sentence in an introduction. Consequently, it is not necessary to summarise any details or conclusions found in the text.

Informative abstracts
Informative abstracts should inform the reader: they should make clear what the research is about and give the key information from each section of the report; indicate how it was carried out; and summarise what the main findings and conclusions are. You should not, however, indicate the structure of the writing – this would be included in your introduction. Basically an abstract should contain
• Background: A simple opening sentence or two placing the work in context. • Aims: One or two sentences giving the purpose of the work. • Method(s): One or two sentences explaining what was done. • Results: One or two sentences indicating the main findings. • Conclusions: One sentence giving the most important consequence of the work.
Check the abstract length: Abstracts should not exceed 350 words. Abstracts that are too long lose their function as summaries of the full article, and excess words may be omitted by some indexing services.

Include synonyms for words and concepts that are in the title: e.g. if referring to ‘stillbirths’ in the title mention ‘prenatal deaths’ in the abstract (if appropriate).

As in the title, use simple word order and common word combinations.

Make sure the salient points of the manuscript are included, but be consistent; the abstract should only reflect those points covered in the manuscript.

Minimize the use of abbreviations.

Avoid citing references.

Identify your purpose. You’re writing about a correlation between lack of lunches in schools and poor grades. …
Explain the problem at hand. Abstracts state the “problem” behind your work. …
Explain your methods. …
Describe your results (informative abstract only). …
Give your conclusion.

Ask yourself important questions
Pick something you love and Stay original.Get adviceDon’t be afraid to change your topic
The abstract has to be short-no more than about 700 words and it should answer the following questions clearly:
What was done?
Why was it done?
How was it done?
What was found?
What is the significance of the findings?
Keywords and Key Phrases
Although not part of the Abstract as such, most journals and conferences now expect authors to provide key words at the same time as the Abstract. Key words or phrases are used by Internet search engines to locate the paper. Somewhere between 5 and 10 Key Words are normally required and they should be the words which most closely reflect the content of the paper.

Useful phrases when writing a dissertation abstract
Some useful phrases that one can use and build on when writing their undergraduate or master’s level dissertation abstract. It has a number of components, typically including:
study background and significance;
components of your research strategy; 
findings; and 
The phrases below build on these four components.

Build the background to the study
Introductory sentences
Leading with research questions
Leading with research hypotheses
Leading with a dissertation aim or goals
Literature component
Significance of the study
Introductory sentences
This study (dissertation, research)?aims to illuminate?
examines the role of…

explores why…

investigates the effects of…

assesses the impact of…on…

developed and tested the idea that…

investigated the role of…

outline how…

introduce the concept of…

extend prior work on…

examine the relationship between…and…


evaluate these…by…

In this study (dissertation, research) I…propose a model of…

In this study I…

Leading with research questions
This study (dissertation, research)…is motivated by two research questions:
(1) Insert research question one?
(2) Insert research question two? To examine these questions, the study?
“Insert a research question?” is a fundamental question in the name of your area of interest. We suggest argue that a new generation of research in this area needs to address the extended question: Insert your research question?
Leading with research hypotheses
This study (dissertation, research)…offers two hypotheses:
(1) insert research hypothesis one;
(2) insert research hypothesis two.

tested hypotheses regarding the relationship between…and…

It was
hypothesized that insert variable is negatively positively related to…

hypothesized that insert variable is more negatively positively related to insert variable than insert variable.

Leading with a dissertation aim or goals
This study (dissertation, research)…

has three goals:
(1) insert goal one,
(2) insert goal two, and
(3) insert goal three.

Literature component
Previous research (extent research, previous studies, or prior studies)…

indicates that…offers a descriptive account of…has shown that…

Literature on insert area of the literature has focused almost exclusively on…

Synthesizing e.g., name of theories, this research built and tested a theoretical model linking…

This model addresses X (e.g., 2) major gaps in the literature.

Drawing on insert name research, we argue that…

In bridging the two literature gaps, a model of insert text is proposed.

Significance of the study
We develop theory to explain how…

Our most important contribution is…

This study advances our understanding of…

To date, no systematic investigation has considered…

We examine how organisations use insert text to overcome…

Components of Research strategy
We conducted…

in-depth case studies of X number of private/public enterprises in country.

a laboratory experiment and a field study to test our hypotheses.

an inductive study of…

We employed…

multiple methods to test…


a sample of X number of people, firms, data, objects, e.g., doctors, banks, songs, we collected data from three sources e.g., X, Y and Z.

comparative case analysis, this research explored the role of…

To illustrate these ideas, insert company name or type was used as a case study to show how…

We tested these hypotheses using e.g., student test score data to measure e.g., teacher performance.

We developed a 9-item scale to measure…

Using data from…

Major findings
The findings from the research…

illustrate how…

show that the impact of insert text on insert text is more complex than previously thought/assumed.

address a controversial belief among practitioners that…

illustrate the antecedents and consequences of insert text and insert text in…

suggest that the effect of variable X on variable Y was moderated over time when…

A predicted, the…

Contrary to our expectations…

`An article is a part of writing usually intended for publication in a newspaper, magazine or journal .It is written for a wide audience, so it is essential to attract and retain the readers’ attention. An Article may include amusing stories, reported speech and descriptions and it can be formal or informal, depending on the target audience. Articles should be written in an interesting or entertaining manner and it should give opinions and thoughts, as well as facts in a less formal style than a report.

An article can
describe an experience, event, person or place
present an opinion or balanced argument
compare and contrast
provide information
offer suggestions
Article should contain
an eye-catching title which attracts the readers’ attention and suggests the theme of the article. (Think about why you read a magazine or newspaper article recently – what made you read it?) Articles can also have subheadings before each paragraph.
An introduction which clearly defines the topic to be covered and keeps the reader’s attention.
The main body of two to five paragraphs in which the topic is further developed in detail.
The conclusion – summarising the topic or a final opinion, recommendation or comment.

Before beginning to write an abstract it is important to consider
Where the article is going to appear – in a newspaper or magazine?
Who are the intended readers – a specific group such as students or teenagers, or adults in general?
What is the aim of the article – to advise, suggest, inform, compare and contrast, describe, etc.?
These three points are the deciding factors in the layout of an article, its style, language and level of formality. Determine the use of information and organize the ideas carefully into paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a clear topic sentence.
The article could be formal, semi-formal or informal, depending on your intended audience.
Use vocabulary and descriptive language appropriate for the article. Linking words and expressions, and a variety of vocabulary will only improve your work and make it more interesting.
DO NOT use over-personal or over-emotional language or simplistic vocabulary.
DO NOT talk about yourself. You are writing for the general public, not a close circle of friends.

Your opinions are only interesting to other people if you can make them amusing, justify them or explain them.

It can now be seen that in order to write a good article one need to first find the theme or topic sentence which summarises what you are going to write about, and then make a plan. This strategy will enable one to write quickly and clearly, help to think of a title more easily and the work will have cohesion.
Using this method gives the topic sentence of each paragraph and connects it to the other paragraphs. These topic sentences can be made into one paragraph and then developed to form a whole article. Conversely, these topic sentences, when taken together, can be used to cut down the entire article into a one-paragraph summary of the whole piece.
Imagine you have been asked to write the following article:
Have you studied abroad?
Have you spent time studying in another country? We invite you, our readers, to submit an article on your experiences in that country, to be included in our forthcoming series on living and studying abroad. Share your experiences with us. Tell us what you studied and about any difficulties you faced while you were there. Have you changed as a result of this?
Write your article. (250 words)
First think about:
Where is the article going to appear? (In a magazine.)
Who are the intended readers? (Probably a fairly wide age group.)
What is the aim of the article? (To talk about your experiences, good and bad, while studying abroad.)
Then you need to decide:
Which country have you studied in?
How long were you there for?
What did you study?
What problems did you have while you were there?
How have you changed?
Brainstorm the ideas and make notes of what can be included.
Then, after some thought, one should be able to think of a topic sentence which can be expanded into a paragraph. For example, a topic sentence which could start an introduction is:
‘Studying abroad is an exciting experience, giving the opportunity to learn more about the traditions and culture of the host country and its people.’
This could then be expanded into the following paragraph:
‘Studying abroad is an exciting experience, giving you the opportunity to learn more about the traditions and culture of the host country and its people. Apart from the excellent education I received during three years in England, I also made a wide circle of friends and improved my language skills. I learned how to face and deal with various problems, and as a result, have become more independent and self-confident.’
If we extract the ideas out of this one paragraph, it is possible to form a plan for the article, based on the following topic sentences:
INTRODUCTION – Paragraph 1 – Exciting experience, learn about the host country and the people.
MAIN BODY- Paragraph 2 – Education, friends and language skills.

-Paragraph 3 – Various problems.

CONCLUSION – Paragraph 4 – Result – independent and self-confident.

With the above plan, it is now possible to proceed to write the article, simply by enlarging on each topic sentence so that you can produce a paragraph about that idea. It is also easier to think of a title.
Read the following article based on the above plan.

Studying abroad is an energizing experience, giving you the chance to take in more about the conventions and culture of the host nation and its kin. Aside from the amazing instruction I got amid three years in England, I likewise made a wide friend network and enhanced my dialect aptitudes. I figured out how to face and manage different issues, and subsequently, have turned out to be more autonomous and fearless.

I studied English Literature and this, alongside making numerous companions both at college and through the low maintenance work I had, enhanced my English. In spite of the fact that I as of now talked the dialect great, when I initially arrived I experienced difficulty seeing a few accents and the slang or idioms that are in ordinary utilize. Presently I am a substantially more familiar and normal speaker, and my written work has enhanced, as well.

The most serious issues I confronted were discovering some place to live when I didn’t know the territory well, getting the power and telephone associated and for the most part figuring out how to care for myself. I needed to get used to shopping, cooking and doing the housework, and in addition considering and working, so I immediately aced the craft of arranging my opportunity sensibly. Despite the fact that adjusting to living in another nation isn’t simple, once the underlying yearning to go home and missing the family has been beaten, figuring out how to fight for yourself unquestionably makes you a more free individual, and certainly more self-assured. My chance abroad helped me develop as a man and I believe I could handle any issue now in a quiet and sure way, without having to instantly approach somebody for their assistance.

A Proposal is a formal way of putting forth an idea such that idea is accepted. The main objective of a proposal is to persuade. It aims to promote services and products, to ask permission to make a purchase, do a project, or to write a research paper.
All written proposals should contain some essential elements within them in order to ensure that serious consideration is given to the idea.

The proposal must capture the reviewer’s attention
Should aim for clarity
Establish the context through the knowledge and expertise of the individual who would work on the proposal
Should use a fresh approach and focus on persuading
Describe your methodology through the proper use of facts and information relevant to the problem.

Must contain a final note expressing that the proposed idea is workable and a worthy solution to the problem.

Proposals may be both internal and external in an organization. An external proposal may be a response to the request for the solution to a problem from the government department, another firm or business and it is usually advertised. These proposals describe their area of expertise and the testimonials of the past work done.

Internal proposals are usually written to persuade someone else within the organization for the purchase of something or for conducting research or for an approval. Writing a proposal requires skill and creativity.

The following factors must be considered while writing a proposal:
Visual aids.

A Proposal covers the following sections;
Cover page
Contents/Executive summary
Body of the proposal
The cover page includes the title of the proposal and the names of the persons sending and receiving the proposal. The contents page is included only in the case of long proposals exceeding ten pages. Else it is merged with the executive summary which is designed to persuade. The introduction orients the reader to the main proposal explaining the scope of it. The main body of the proposal focuses on the key points, including the facts and information. It also includes the technical information like the approach towards the project or the problem and the methodologies adopted the financial expenditure such as the cost of machinery, administrative and consultative charges etc.
The conclusion summarises the benefits and merits of the approach. The appendices includes additional and supporting information like tables, charts maps etc.

A Sample
A Proposal for modernizing the Communication Lab
Submitted by
Prof P Mithra
Professor of English
SHRI College of Engineering
KarurSubmitted to
Dr P ShriLayaPrincipal
SHRI College of Engineering
KarurDate: 30.06.2017
Submitted by
Prof P Mithra
Professor of English
SHRI College of Engineering
KarurSubmitted to
Dr P ShriLayaPrincipal
SHRI College of Engineering
KarurDate: 30.06.2017

Project Title : Modernizing the Communication Lab
Name and designation of the Proposer: Prof P Mithra, Professor of English
Duration of the Project: 5 months
Proposed Budget: (a) Non-Recurring amount
Hardware -18 lakhs
Software- 7 lakhs
(b)Recurring amount – 3 lakhs
Brief Description:
With the importance given to the communication skills of the technical students, it is found mandatory that a language laboratory be set up in the first year block. This would be helpful for the students to enhance their aural and oral skills in English. Suitable software can be bought for the situation specific needs to meet the requirement.

Statement of the Problem:
The Department is conducting programs like TOEFL Preparatory Course, British English Course, and Communication Development course as the software and systems available with us are not up to date and sufficient for the students. New updated version of software can be purchased.

Installing the system of this kind will be helpful to strengthen the communicative skill of the students. This would also assist the faculty members in their research works.

Technical Plan:
It is proposed to go for a purchase of 32 systems. The estimated cost for of hardware and software is
S. No Equipment &Material Estimation cost
(in lakhs) Justification
1 40 systems each having a headset with control unit 12 A reliable and easily approachable system is required to serve the need
2 Spares & accessories 0.80 Essential for maintenance
3 Empty CD’s 0.40 Recording students voice and new material
4 Audio video instructional material 0.90 To facilitate the faculty
5 Books 0.90 Knowledge updationTOTAL 15.00
Cost Estimate:
A total sum of 18 lakhs required for non-recurring expenditure like stationery, electricity, etc. the requiring expenditure is stated for 2 years.
An aim of technical education is to help the students survive in the highly competitive world. It will undoubtedly accelerate the name of our institution.

Writings are available around us in as many forms and in different degrees of excellence. Since writing being a productive skill it is not the favourite of many .A good writing demands patience, creativity, imagination and a profound knowledge of the subject. A sincere practice will unearth the latent writing skill, one possesses .Reading a good writer has many advantages; understanding a subject in full and providing different dimensions and perspectives. With his unique skill of writing, a writer guides the reader to get a better understanding of a subject, thus empowering him with real knowledge.
Journal writing is commonly defined as the process of penning down one’s reflections on the experiences and incidents in one’s life. It differs from diary writing. In diary writing one records one’s actions and incidents of the day, whereas journal writing takes account of the in depth personal views about the records. There are different types of journal writing covering the spectrum of knowledge outside one’s personal life. For Professional students, writing on a specific topic is required as part of their academic studies. The research oriented, scholarly articles equips and enhances the students’ with the empirical, lateral skills to find, explore, and study the chosen topic.

In an academic circle, journal is written with the purpose to inform, report, and do original research and new findings that may give scope for further research on the chosen topic. Journal writing is a scholarly activity that demands a wide and in depth reading of related resources, analysing, and comparing available data and resources, then going for a field trip if required. A research scholar chooses to disseminate his in depth knowledge of a particular area in a discipline, which is an outcome of his devoted and long-time research, by publishing in a journal. A research article is published in a journal following the research methodology and adhering to the guidelines specified by the Journal Editor. The sent articles are reviewed by an eminent group of Editors or Peer groups. Aftermath suggestions for improvement the confirmation of acceptance is informed to the writer. Nowadays publication in a journal has become mandatory for getting degrees and promotion. There are many printed and online journals available that are monthly, quarterly, half yearly and annual. These are available in open access or pay mode. The reputed journals find a prominent place in academic institutions and research centres. The habit of reading journals regularly equips a writer with the nuances of journal writing.

There are also trade journals that report on industry trends, new products or techniques to boost the business and people in a specific trade, business or profession. Moreover it covers practical information related to a field or industry. The articles written in this type of journals do not go for peer review process. Based on their merit and potential, they are published in the trade journals. They are written by professionals in the field. They are usually published by professional associations and trade bodies or eminent business schools. Data collection, analyzing and comparing the data, field and industry visit and case studies are the main features of the trade journals.

The everyday happenings of importance and the response from intellectuals are published in the journals of current affairs and opinion magazines. They offer in-depth reporting and feature articles without any scholarly conventions. A wide range of topics of interest is covered keeping in tune with the readers’ interest. The journals reflect the predominant philosophical or political stance adopted by the editorial board. They are published with the perusal of the editor without any other peer review process.

Other than the aforementioned journals, there are many popular magazines and newspapers. These journals entertain and inform without providing in depth analysis on the topic covered. Each edition focuseson a particular subject or any entertaining features along with other topics. They are reviewed by an editor or editorial board before publication. They are sold in large numbers and are available in supermarkets and through subscription. In addition to that there are Newspapers that are also considered a journal. It disseminates news on a daily or weekly basis encompassing current events in politics, sport, leisure, religion and business.

A sample list of journals for your reference:
Academic and Scholarly Journals: IEEE academic journals, International Journal of Robotics research, Journal of Mining Science
Trade Journals: Design World, Nursing Times, Asian banker Journal
Current Affairs/Opinion Magazines: IEEE Spectrum, Bulletin (Sydney), Current Affairs Bulletin
Popular Magazines: Readers Digest, National Geographic Time
Newspapers: The Hindu, China Daily, the Guardian
Project is the set of planned actions which can be executed with in a period of allotted time, cost and limits. Nowadays, most of the technical institutions, universities have made it mandatory for the students who pursue technical education. It can be done within the duration of the course either as a group or individual project. During the period of the project, the candidates will get an opportunity to acquire practical experience in their areas of interest, under the guidance of a subject expert. At the beginners’ level of the course, it is important for the candidates to identify their interest, select a project and execute the same. After selecting a topic with the help of the project advisors, the candidates have to adopt the following suggestions for the scholarly execution of the project. Before the start of the project, it should be realized that a project is not only being done for knowledge acquisition but also for acquiring the skill of problem solving and discovering or inventing something.

Here are a few suggestions to consider before starting a Project:
Choose the area of your interest for doing a Project
Learn how to work in a group.

Search for literature related to the chosen field
Find the necessary material and resources
Be clear where to get the expert guidance
Each project should comprise the following phases for its proper execution
Introducing the Topic:
The identified topic should be relevant to their academic program and within the framework of the curriculum. The books, journals and other relevant material can be collected and compiled in this phase.

Choosing a Problem:
With the help of the collected materials, an analysis can be made by the group members in the presence of the supervisor. From the in depth analysis of the journals a problem can be identified in this phase.

Formulation of the problem:
In this phase the chosen problem can be formulated within the context of the project. It is essential that the group members have to be clear in their investigation of the problem and it has to be limited and precise.

The Planning Phase:
Deciding the methodology and theoretical frame work, finding more specific material pertaining to the problem and drawing out the outline of the project have to be done in this phase.

The Completion Phase:
In the completion phase, the project group can analyze the relevancy of the materials to the problem and summarize the arguments and documentation found in the material. If they encounter any irrelevancy, the process can again be started from the formulation or planning phases whichever is necessary.

The Presentation Phase:
In the presentation phase, the project group can present their findings in the form of a written document to their project supervisor. If needed, they can also present the same in front of the supervisor. Here, the supervisor may modify the arguments and correct the errors.

The Evaluation Phase:
It is the final phase in the project work, and a crucial one. All the subject experts are invited in this phase to evaluate the project.

The following points should be noted as the possible suggestions to the structure and the content of the project. It is also possible; the students can alter the structure which they feel appropriate for their project under the approval of the supervisor.

Format for writing a Project:
Front page with title. Remember, the title should relate the content of the report.

Title sheet includes the Name of the Student(s), the Supervisor’s name, Semester, Program and Name of the Institution.

Table of contents. It should carry all the subheadings and their corresponding page numbers.

Ex: Introduction
Summary of responsibility, i.e. who has written which section(s).

Introduction includes discussion of the problem and the different theoretical and methodological approaches to be applied.

Background material and analysis can be classified into head and subsections.

Conclusion. It is necessary that there should be coherence between the introduction and the conclusion. And also these two sections should be in sense with the background material and analysis.

Bibliography includes all sources that are noted and referred throughout report.

Enclosed material. Only materials related to the report can be enclosed.

Writing has been part of both personal and professional communication throughout the ages. But Writing in personal communication has become obsolete with the advancement in communication technology. The days of writing letters spending one’s time and energy to communicate one’s heart and mind and the eager waiting for receiving a letter from our dear ones from faraway places have become a past memory, on the other hand the professional writing has gained momentum .There are different forms of writing from writing literature to writing for professional purpose. The length of the piece of writing varies with the demands to be meted out by the write ups. There are novels and non -fictions that cross even 500 pages, are written in literature when there are reports, proposals, and letters written at length in professional communication to serve the purpose. Paragraph stands as a basic unit of each of these forms.

A paragraph remains a single unit of meaning in a longer piece of writing that comprises a list of paragraph in it. It usually contains 2 to five sentences that are related to one another and deals with one central idea. The central idea is called the topic or the theme of the paragraph. The purpose of the paragraph is to develop, support, and exemplify the central idea. Thus the series of paragraphs in a lengthy writing supports the development of the central idea of the writing meaningfully.

There are different types of sentences that form part of a paragraph. They are main or topic sentence, major supporting sentences and minor supporting sentences. The topic sentence informs the readers of the main idea of the paragraph, whereas the major supporting sentences illustrates, explain, expand and strength the main idea. The minor sentences exemplify and support the main idea with minor details. By arranging these three groups of sentences, one can get a meaningful, informative, and qualitative paragraph.

Unity and Coherence are lifelines for a good paragraph. Since a paragraph, on the whole, centres on a single idea, all the sentences should be in unison to delineate the idea. Diversity of thoughts and ideas lead to confusion and boredom. So a logical division of the central idea in to different sentences; major, minor, topical will make the paragraph effective and purposeful. The topical sentence may be placed either in the beginning or at the end of the paragraph depending on the logical construction of the paragraph .The use of appropriate discourse markers will link the sentences in a natural manner, and gives sequential order to the paragraph. The cohesive devices like pronoun, sentence linkers and sequence words helps in writing an effective paragraph.

A paragraph can be organized in different ways depending on the genre in which we write the paragraph. For a story, the technique of narration can be used as the matter is presented chronologically. To describe the specific details about an animate or inanimate being, its origin, what it is made up of, how it looks smells, tastes, sounds or feel like can be written. The process of how something works or produced is written by following the step by step method using sequence words like first, second or last, etc., The classification of a thing can be written by separating them in to groups and explaining the various parts of them whereas the illustration can be done with providing examples and how it supports one’s claims.

Useful Language Phrases:
To add an idea:
additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore, too
To express time / chronology / sequence:
at the present time, from time to time, sooner or later, at the same time, up to the present time, to begin with, in due time, as soon as, as long as, in the meantime, immediately, quickly, finally, next ,formerly, shortly, henceforth whenever,, eventually, meanwhile, further, first, then, later, finally, conclusively, after that, during, prior to
To provide a condition/ purpose:
If, in that case, provided that, unless, in the event that, granted (that), as / so long as, on (the) condition (that), for the purpose of, with this intention, with this in mind, in the hope that, in order to, in view of
To show how things are similar:
Correspondingly, equally, for the same reason, in a similar manner, in comparison, in the same way, on the one hand, similarly, too
To show how things are different:
alternatively, although, but, conversely, despite, even so, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, on the contrary, contrary to, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the other hand, rather, still, though, yet, whereas, while.

 To show space / location / place:
in the middle, to the left/right, in front of, here and there, in the foreground, in the background, in the center of , adjacent to, opposite to , beyond, nearby, between, alongside, across
To show effect / consequence / result
as a result ,under those circumstances, in that case, for this reason, in effect, for, thus because the, then, hence,, consequently, therefore, thereupon, forthwith, accordingly, henceforth
To support /emphasize an idea:
again, in fact, interestingly, indeed, it should be noted (that), more important(ly), most importantly, to repeat,(un)fortunately, unquestionably, in other words, to put it differently, for one thing, as an illustration, in this case, for this reason, to put it another way, that is to say, with attention to, by all means
To give examples
a further instance of this is…, an example of this is…, for example, for instance, such as, thus, as follows
       My hometown is Theni which is located in the Theni District in Tamil Nadu is famous for several amazing natural beauties.  First, it is noted for the Periyar River, which flows serpentine through our town. It is very wide and beautiful and welcomes the visitors at the entry point of our town. On either side of this river, which is 100 feet wide, are many coconut trees with long branches that move gracefully in the wind. Next adjacent to the trees on both sides, are paddy fields spread over thousand acres. Also, on bordering the town on the west side is Western Ghats that chills our heart and body throughout the year and wet our land during monsoon seasons. Added with that the tea, coffee plantations and rubber trees that sprawl over the slopes of the mountain, make it a tourist’s paradise. Our town people are active all throughout the year and make our town a fertile and prosperous land. To top everything else, their love and appreciation of others culture and religion in a multicultural environment is an exemplary one.

1. Write a paragraph about your most Unforgettable Moment.

2. Voice your opinion on the evils of Ragging in a paragraph.

3. Share your pleasant memories of any Vacation Trip to Ooty in a paragraph.

4. Write the process of getting Education loan in a paragraph
Speaking is an act of making vocal sounds. Speaking means to converse, or expressing one’s thoughts and feelings in spoken language. To speak often implies conveying information. It may be from an informal remark to a scholarly presentation to a formal address. Speaking skills are the skills that give us the ability to communicate effectively. These skills allow the speaker, to convey his message in a passionate, thoughtful, and convincing manner. It also helps to assure that one won’t be misunderstood by those who are listening.

Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words.

There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:
Partially interactive, and

Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner.

Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood.
Few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast. In all the above explained conditions speaking is always a headache for most of the people. Although the fear of speaking is common, studies show that ability to speaking can be enhanced by improving speaking skills.

The first step to speaking is to think and the first step to perfect speaking is to think positive. Good speakers have the ability to quickly analyze and absorb the information given to them, assess it fast and to make a decision and communicate that decision to other.
Points to keep in mind
1. Be an active listener: The key ingredient towards making one, a person who can think on the spot and respond intelligently is to be an active listener. This means listening carefully and giving full attention to the words, tone, emotion and logic behind what the other one is saying.

2. Be a quick organiser of thoughts: All of us have the ability to think fast. The trick is to adopt some frameworks or models to structure new information into something coherent that we can respond with. One can break down issues or ideas into past, present and future.
3. Structure the speech in mind: These are useful frameworks to organise ideas and thoughts quickly.

Barriers to speaking
1. Unclear messages.
2. Lack of consistency in the communication process.

3. Incomplete sentences.
4. Not understanding the receiver.
5. Words can have different meanings to different listener.
6. Use of negative words.
Improve speaking skills:
1. Practice with native speakers.
2. Build confidence. Use simple English sentence structure and concentrate on getting message across.

3. Try to experiment with known English. Use words and phrases in new situations. Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback.

4. Try to respond to what people say often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language. Respond to them in a natural way.
5. Try NOT to translate into and from first language, this takes too much time and will make one to feel more hesitant.
6. Don’t speak too fast! It’s important to use a natural rhythm when speaking too fast it will be difficult for people to understand.
8. Try to relax while speaking and speak at normal speed, this helps to improve pronunciation skills, such as linking between words, will happen automatically.
9. Remember, when speaking English Try to become less hesitant and more confident.

Presentations skills and public speaking skills are very useful in many aspects of work and life. Effective presentations and public speaking skills are important in business, sales and selling, training, teaching, lecturing, and generally feeling comfortable speaking to a group of people. A presentation is a means of communication which can be adapted to various speaking situations, such as talking to a group, addressing a meeting or briefing a team. To be effective, step-by-step preparation and the method and means of presenting the information should be carefully considered. Almost all are fearful of presentations. The fear is twofold. One is the content of the presentation and the other is the lack of presentation skills. Good preparation is the key to confidence, which is the key to being relaxed.

Preparation + Rehearsal  Confidence ; Calmness = Fearlessness
First and foremost is that the content should be arranged in a flowing manner.

The main points are the backbone of the presentation.

Do not read from notes.

Prepare cue cards with key words on them.

Use visual aids like slides, charts and graphs to illustrate the points. However, do not over use them.

Dress appropriately for the presentation.

Speak clearly and loud enough such that it would be audible to the audience.

Maintain eye contact with the audience.

Use appropriate pitch and tone to emphasize the important ideas. Do not speak in monotone.

Practice a few times in front of the mirror to check the correct posture and gestures.

End the presentation within the allocated time.

Summarise the main points before ending the presentation. A lucid explanation scores points.

Phrases for your introduction Greeting your audience
Introducing yourself
Giving the topic of your presentation
Justifying the topic of your presentation
Giving the outline of your
Phrases for the main parts of your presentation Introducing your first main point
Referring to research
Referring to visual data
Presenting a point of view
Analysing an argument
Emphasizing important points
Losing your way
Moving to another main point
Making recommendations
Phrases for your conclusion Making conclusions
Summarising your main points
Finishing your presentation
Phrases for managing questions Asking for questions
Answering questions
Dealing with difficult questions
Asking questions to the
Greeting your audience, introducing yourself and giving the topic of your presentation
Good morning. My name’s …………. and I’m going to talk about…

Good morning everybody. Thank you for coming to my talk today. My name is …… and I’m from……………..

Hello. I’m………….. and welcome to my presentation about…

Hello. My name’s……………….. and today I’m going to be talking about …

I’d like to start by introducing myself. My name’s … and the topic for my presentation today is…………..

The theme of my talk is …………
My presentation this morning concerns ………….

This afternoon I would like to talk to you about ………. I shall be looking at the following areas:…………..What I’d like to do is to discuss………… I intend to discuss……….

I hope to consider the main issues around…

This morning I am going to talk about an issue which concerns everyone … This presentation focuses on the issue of…
Justifying the topic of your presentation
There are many concerns regarding …… has been the subject of much debate recently and this is the topic of my presentation.

Recent research has shown that…
Did you know………..?
This is the reason for my talk today…………..

…. and this is the theme for my presentation today ……….

… so the purpose of my presentation today is to inform/discuss/present/analyse
…… is a growing problem in the world. For this reason I intend to focus on the issue of …
Giving the outline of your presentation
Firstly, I’m going to look at………….

Secondly, I’ll move on to the issue of …
Then I’ll move on to examine…

Lastly/Finally, I’ll look at / focus on …

I have divided my talk into the following main areas: …

I am going to divide my presentation into two main parts. First I’m going to describe … and then I’ll move on to look at …
And in this part of my presentation I’ll be showing you some data/charts/tables … I’ll also try to explain my findings …
In the third part of my presentation I’ll put forward some ideas about
I’ll also be offering some recommendations on how we can solve/address/tackle the issues of …
…then I’m going to suggest some possible measures to solve these difficulties. We’ll finish off with a question and answer session.

My talk will last about……….. minutes and there’ll be time at the end for questions.

At the end of my talk, which will last about ten minutes, I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have.

If you have any questions please do not hesitate to ask.

Please just put your hand up if you would like to ask a question.

I’d like the presentation to be as interactive as possible, so please chip in as we go along.

I’ve got quite a lot to get through, so I’d appreciate it if you kept your questions until the end of the presentation.

I’m happy to let you have any of the slides or information in my presentation if you would like. If you leave your contact details I’ll be happy to send you any of the information here.

Main Parts
Introducing your first main point
Now, I’m going to start by …
Now I’d like to focus on …
First we’re going to look at …
Let’s start with …
The first problem I’d like to focus on is that of … Turning then to my first point, …

To begin with I’d like to say a few things about… I’d like to begin by …
OK, so let’s start by looking at….

I’d like to take a minute or two to define what exactly we mean by …
I’d like to mention three points here, …

Referring to research
Researchers have identified three key issues here, they are …
Researchers have shown quite conclusively that …
A number of recent studies, notably the ones by … and …, have shown that …
A number of studies have shown that …

A study by … shows that …
Research suggests/indicates that … According to …
Figures from … show/suggest/indicate that … A very interesting study by … shows that…
The study by … is on your reading list and I encourage you to take a look at it. Basically, what he found was that …
One of the most interesting studies carried out in this area by … showed that …
Referring to visual data
If you look at this table you can see that …

The data here shows that…

Please take a handout and pass them on. There are some handouts coming round on…….

Presenting a point of view
Those in favour of … argue that …
Advocates of … claim that …

Some people claim that … but others …
Most people/scientists would argue that …
I think it’s fair to say that …

Personally, I think there is overwhelming evidence that …
Evidence does seem to show that …

Analysing an argument
Let’s take a closer look at the argument put forward by …
His main contention is that … but he fails to consider …

Even if we accept the point that … that still leaves the question of …
The argument put forward by … doesn’t explain …

The weakness in this argument is that …

This point of view is very appealing because …

Emphasizing important points
It must be remembered that …
It should be emphasised that …
I would like to draw your attention to this point …
Losing your way
Now, where was I? Oh yes, …
If you’ll bear with me for a moment while I just glance at my notes, right, … Erm, I’ll just need a minute to sort out the technology and I’ll be with you …

Moving to another main point
OK, so now I’d like to turn to my next point, which is …

Moving on, I’d like to take a look at ….

Now I’d like to move on to…

Now let’s turn to the issue of…

I’ll come back to that issue later…
I want to turn now to …

Turning now to …

Moving on now to …
Having looked at …..
let’s now think about …
My next point is in regards to …
That brings me to …
My final point is in regard to…
Making recommendations
Now I’d like to look at some of the measures that can be taken to alleviate the problems of …
In order to solve these problems, the following action should be considered: …

Firstly, the government should …

Interview is a term derived from the word ‘intrevue’ means ‘sight between’ two people. It is defined as the process of participating in the questioning and answering session for a pre-determined task. This process helps the interviewer to know about the personal traits and qualities of the interviewee in a short period of time. It also provides a chance for the company personnel to select a right person for their company to carryout specified tasks. Approaches involved in opting the candidates for job differs from one company to another.

The word interview comes from Latin and middle French words meaning to “see between” or “see each other”. Generally, an interview means a private meeting between people when questions are asked and answered. The person who answers the questions of an interview is called in the interviewer. The person who asks the questions of our interview is called an interviewer. It suggests a meeting between two persons for the purpose of getting a view of each other or for knowing each other. When we normally think of an interview, we think a setting in which an employer tries to size up an applicant for a job.

There are different types of interview. They are as follows:

Screening interviews:
Screening interview is mainly used by the employer to ‘weed out’ the large number of applicants.

Phone interviews:
Phone interviews are conducted over phone due to the geographic obstacles and various other reasons.

Panel interviews:
Panel interviews are conducted by a ‘selection committee’ which involves the field experts. In this type, the candidates will be interviewed by many experts at the same time.

Serial interviews:
In a serial interview the candidates will be interviewed by several persons not at the same time. They will be sent to one interviewer after another in the order of their positions held.

Lunch interviews:
Lunch interviews are ‘unstructured interview’. The employee may evaluate the etiquette and manners & social skills of the candidates by taking them to dinner or lunch.

Group interviews:
Group interviews will be conducted by an interviewer with several interviewers at the same time. This type of interview will not be effective in all the times.

Stress interviews:
In the stress interviews the interviewer shoot continuously number of questions towards the interviewee related to different contexts. This helps the employer to identify the EQ of the interviewee. Nowadays a few employers are not following this technique in their interview process.

Behavioural interviews:
Behavioural interview emphasizes on the ability of the candidates in handling various situations. Any specific situation may be given to the candidates and they may be asked to react before the interviewer.

Many types of interviews are being conducted in order to filter and screen the applicants and to find out a suitable person for the organization by the employer. Each interview involves many steps. The candidates have to undergo all those steps to land in a job. In all the interviews the key factors of success are good practice and preparation. Only the untiring efforts will make the candidate to pluck the fruit of success.


Candidates with proven technical and “people” skills/qualities are most desired. The lists below show how employers ranked specific skills and personal characteristics.
Desired Skills Desired Personal Characteristics
1. Interpersonal skills 1. Honesty/Integrity
2. Teamwork skills 2. Motivation/Initiative
3. Analytical skills 3. Communication Skills
4. Oral Communication skills 4. Self-confidence
5. Flexibility 5. Flexibility
6. Computer skills 6. Interpersonal skills
7. Written Communication skills 7. Strong work ethic
8. Leadership skills 8. Teamwork skills
9. Work experience 9. Leadership skills
10. Enthusiasm 10. Internship/Co-op experience
Parts of the Interview
The normal on-campus interview is naturally 30-45 minutes, depending on the company. For off-campus interviews, the timing will be more flexible.
Be sure to come to the interview prepared with additional résumés, a list of references (which includes name, address, phone number and relationship to interviewee), both on bond paper, a pen and notepad. Make sure to have an idea of how long the interview will be so that one can prioritize the information that he/she wish to convey to the interviewer. The phases of the interview are:
Ice Breaking (2 – 5 minutes) –One should always shake hands and introduce himself/herself and relax. This part of the interview normally includes small talk. Be friendly and responsive. Expose confidence through posture, voice and eye contact. Try to notice the surroundings and anything that might identify the interviewer as an individual. If nothing else, one could talk about very general topics such as the weather or travel, or comment on an interesting photo or object in the office.
Interviewer’s Questions: General Information Sharing (10 – 15 minutes) -This is a foremost part of the interview and it usually serves as general information sharing. The interviewer will typically use the résumé as an outline of your experiences. In this phase, the interviewer gives the applicant the opportunity to fill in gaps and provide details. You will be asked questions about your education and training, your work experience, and the skills that you have attained from work and interests. It is essential that you have a good idea what skills or qualities that you want to stress. Whenever possible be behaviorally specific in your responses to questions and use the STAR technique (situation/task-action-result). This emphasizes valued characteristics by describing school or work-related situations.

Interviewer’s Questions: Probing of Key Characteristics (5 – 10 minutes) – The job for which the candidate is interviewing has certain characteristics and requirements. The interviewer look for a candidate who understands what these are and who can relate past experience and skills to what will be required in the new position. Understanding what these are can come from reviewing the job posting/description in detail, the research on the position and company, and/or an informational interview. The interviewer will be trying to gain a clearer understanding of the candidates’ style and potential for blending with the company.

Applicant’s Questions (5 minutes) – Remember, an interview is a two-way process in which both interviewer and interviewee gather information and form impressions. Certainly there are questions that one will need to ask in order to clarify his/her understanding of the job and company. A lack of questions implies that the candidate is not interested enough or alert enough to be inquisitive. Do not ask about salary in an initial interview.

Closing (2 – 3 minutes) – Make sure to have a strong close that sells ones skills, education, experience, and “fit” for the job. Ask what the timing will be for the second interviews or decisions, if the interviewer has not already provided that information.
Interview Ethics
Pursue only those interviews that sincerely interest a person.

Present relevant data (both oral and written) honestly. Falsifying data such as CGPA, graduation date, concentrations, institutions attended, and work eligibility is unacceptable. It is very easy for an employer to verify a candidates’ data through reference checks, transcript requests, and many other sources of information.
Promptly notify employers about accepting or rejecting an offer as soon as the decision has been made
Discontinue interviewing after accepting an offer
Renege on an offer! Accept an offer in good faith and honour the commitment.

Interviewing skills are actions that candidates take during job interviews to make them stand out. These actions can include proper interview behaviour, controlling nervousness or asking intelligent questions. If one possesses interviewing skills, they will probably receive more job offers than those without them. The best way to acquire interviewing skills is through practice. Hiring managers must also have interviewing skills so that they choose the right candidates for jobs.

Job interviews can make even the most confident English speaker feel nervous. Some helpful phrases for describing yourself and your profile, expressions for talking about your strengths and weaknesses, phrases for explaining why the candidate wants this Job and why the company should hire the candidate.

Job Interview Answers & Phrases
Phrases for Describing Yourself
I was born and raised in …
I attended the University of …
I’ve just graduated from the University of …
I have worked for 5 years as a …
I have worked for various companies including …
I enjoy playing …
What Type of Position You are Looking for?
I’m looking for a position in which I can …
I’m interested in an …
I am more interested in a full-time position.

I am more interested in a part-time position.

Job Interview Answers and Phrases for Describing Your Profile
I perform well under pressure.

I developed some important skills.

I’m used to working in a busy environment.

I have very good people skills.

I’m a very organized person.

I manage my time well by planning out …
I’m good at dealing with change.

I work well under pressure.

Job Interview Answers and Phrases for Talking about Your Strengths
I’ve always been a great team player.

I believe my strongest trait is my attention to detail.

I realized my strength is accomplishing a large amount of work within a short period of time.

I pay close attention to my customer’s needs.

I am an excellent communicator.

I am a trouble shooter.

I’m good at multitasking.

I’m good at resolving problem situations.

I’m self-motivated.

I have very good organizational and time management skills.

Expressions for Talking about Your Weaknesses
I feel my English ability is my weakest trait.

I always try to solve my own problems instead of asking a co-worker who might know the answer.

I am overzealous (work too hard).

I become nervous when ….

I tend to spend too much time making sure the customer is satisfied.

Sometimes I have trouble delegating duties to others.

Job Interview Answers and Phrases for Explaining Why You Want this Job
I want to take on more responsibility.

In line with my qualifications.

I am convinced that /the name of the firm/ are becoming one of the market leaders.

I want to further my career in accounting.

I am impressed by the quality of your products.

Expressions for Explaining Why the Company Should Hire You
You should hire me because I’m confident and …
There are two reasons I should be hired. First, …
I’m a perfect fit for this job because …
I should be hired because I’m …
I think I am a great match for this position.

Phrases for talking about language skills
I’ve been speaking Japanese for the last … years.

I have effective communication skills in German – both verbally and in writing.

I’ve been working in an French speaking environment for the last … years.

My English is competent for this industry.

Salary Expectations
I will need more information about the job and the responsibilities before we can discuss salary.

I expect experience based remuneration.

I’m sure that your company offers a fair, competitive salary for someone with my experience.

My salary expectations are in line with my qualifications.

Saying something in another way What I’m trying to say is…

In other words…

To put it another way…

What I mean is…

Perhaps I should make that clearer by saying…

Agreeing with an opinion Yes, I agree…

That’s my view exactly.

I would tend to agree with that.

I couldn’t agree more.

Disagreeing with an opinion No, I disagree.

I’m afraid I disagree.

I see things rather differently myself.

I wouldn’t say that is necessarily true.

I tend to disagree.

I’m not so sure about that.

Partially agreeing with an opinion I don’t entirely agree. It is true that……however…

That is partly true, but…

I agree with that to an extent. However…

Getting asked an opinion (by the examiner) What do you think?
What’s your view / opinion?
What are your views on…?
How do you feel about…?
Saying your opinion could vary according to the situation That depends…

I think it really depends…

That depends on how you look at it.

Asking for clarification(part 3 only) Could you please explain what …(word)… means?
Sorry, I don’t understand the question. Could you explain?
Sorry, I’m afraid I didn’t understand the question.

Sorry, can I just clarify what you mean. Are you asking me …(say what you believe you have been asked)…

Asking for repetition Sorry, would you mind repeating the question?
Sorry, I didn’t quite catch that. Could you repeat the question?
Summing up So all in all…

To sum up…

To conclude…

Telephone Skills
Telephone communication is one of the most important forms of communication. Communicating properly on the phone is important. Although today its use is being replaced by other forms of communication (such as email), phone use is one of the most common means by which to materialize both internal and external communications. It is very important in business because it is the medium through which the first contact with, or from the company is made. So, before any personal contact, the usual thing is to makea phone call to arrange an interview or to specify any matter or topic. The interlocutor at the other end of the line will form an idea about the company depending on the impression after this first telephone contact.

Telephonic communication is a form of formal communication in many contexts. Knowing the rules of formal communication while telephoning is essential.Common rules for making or receiving a call:
Know and analyse the purpose before calling a person.

While receiving a call, be clear about the purpose of being called.

Be polite and composed over the telephone.

Losing temper shows aggressive personality.

Speaking with low and unclear voice indicates submissive personality.

Confident, clear and audible voice indicates balanced assertive personality.

Maintaining decorum in language projects one’s culture, socializing and etiquette.

Follow word stress and intonation rules which give desired meaning to the speech.

Moderate and comprehensible speed is the dictum of telephonic communication.

Avoid being complicated or ambiguous with round about descriptions.

Telephonic Interviews:
Many companies conduct telephonic interviews for recruiting personnel. While facing a telephonic interview, be prepared to answer the questions which need to be acknowledged to the company for which one is attending the interview. Remember to be familiar with company profile before the interview begins. It is always necessary to have pen and scribbling pad.

Basic Telephone Etiquette:
Do not let the telephone ring for a long time.

Do not call continuously if the phone is not answered.

Greet the caller appropriately after receiving the phone call.

Be polite while introducing and conveying information.

Don’t let anyone wait for a long time, while giving information and convey it without long pauses.

While taking leave, do thank the caller.

Scheduling outward calls
At the beginning of each day:
make a list of the calls you have to make
put them in order of priority (essential, desirable, those that can be rescheduled if necessary)
allocate times for each call trying, if possible, to bunch them and to bear in mind when each call is likely to be suitable for your respondent
Useful telephone vocabulary and phrases in English.

Making Phone Calls
Introducing yourself Good morning/afternoon/evening.
This is Joe at (company name)/John from (department name).

Could I speak to (person you’re calling for)?I’m calling about/because…
When the person you want to speak to is unavailable Can I leave a message for him/her?Could you tell him/her that I called, please?Could you ask him/her to call me back, please?Okay, thanks. I’ll call back later.

Dealing with bad connections
I think we have a bad connection. Can I call you back?I’m sorry, we have a bad connection. Could you speak a little louder, please?I’m sorry, could you repeat that please?
Ending the call Thank you very much. Have a good day.Thanks for your help. Have a good day.

Receiving Phone Calls
Answering the phone
Company Name , this is John. How may I help you?Good morning/afternoon, Company name. How may I help you?Purchasing department, Joe speaking.   
Getting the name of the caller if he/she doesn’t give it to you May I have your name please?Who am I speaking with?May I ask who’s calling?
Responding to a caller’s request
Sure, let me check on that.Let me see if she’s available.Sure, one moment please. 
Asking someone to wait on the line
Can I put you on hold for a minute?Do you mind holding while I check on that? (or “handle that for you,””check to see if he’s available,” etc.)
Taking a message
He’s/she’s not available at the moment. Would you like to leave a message?He’s/she’s out of the office right now. Can I take a message?
Dealing with bad connections/wrong numbers
I’m sorry, we have a bad connection. Could you give me your number and I’ll call you right back?I think we have a bad connection. Could you speak a little louder, please?I’m sorry, could you repeat that?I’m sorry, you have the wrong number.

Ending the call
Is there anything else I can help you with…Okay, thanks for calling? Have a great day.Is there anything else I can do for you…Okay, have a good day.

Setting an appointment I’m calling to… meet you to discuss your new product line…
I’m calling about… giving you a tour of our factory.

What (time, day, date) would be best for you?
Where would you like to meet?
So, I’ll see you.. on Tuesday at 12 :30.

OK. We’ll meet… next Friday at your office.

Making contact Hello / Good morning / Good afternoon …

This is John Brown speaking
Could I speak to ……… please?
I’d like to speak to ….. …..

I’m trying to contact ……….Giving more information I’m calling from Delhi / Mumbai/ New York …

I’m calling on behalf of Mr. X …

Asking for name and number
Would you like to leave a message?
I’m sorry, but he is not here right now. If you give me your name and number, I’ll ask him to call you as soon as possible.

I’m sorry he is in a meeting now. . If you give me your name and number, I’ll ask him to call you back
Taking a call X speaking.

Can I help you?
Transfer a call Just a moment please, I transfer your call to Mr. X – or someone who can help you
Just a moment please, I will connect you.

Just a minute, please, and I’ll get him
Asking for a name / information Who’s calling please?
Who’s speaking?
Where are you calling from?
Are you sure you have the right number / name?
Asking the caller to wait Hold the line please.

Could you hold on please?
Just a moment please.

Connecting Thank you for holding.

The line’s free now … I’ll put you through.

I’ll connect you now  / I’m connecting you now.

Giving negative information I’m afraid the line’s engaged. Could you call back later?
I’m afraid he’s in a meeting at the moment.

I’m sorry. He’s out of the office today. /He isn’t in at the moment.

I’m afraid we don’t have a Mr./Mrs./Ms/Miss. … here
I’m sorry.  There’s nobody here by that name.

Sorry.  I think you’ve dialled the wrong number./I’m afraid you’ve got the wrong number.

Telephone problems The line is very bad …  Could you speak up please?
Could you repeat that please?
I’m afraid I can’t hear you.

Sorry. I didn’t catch that.  Could you say it again please?
Leaving / Taking a message Can I leave / take a message?
Would you like to leave a message?
Could you give him/her a message?
Could you ask him/her to call me back?
Could you tell him/her that I called?
Could you give me your name please?
Could you spell that please?
What’s your number please?
The table below presents the list of phrases used in a telephone conversation:
Phrases Meaning Example
hold on means wait Could you hold on a moment please?’
hang on also means wait! (informal) ‘Could you hang on a moment please?’
put (a call)
through means to connect one caller to another ‘I’m just going to put you through now.’
get through to be connected to someone on the phone ‘I can’t get through to his line at the moment, could you call back later please?’
hang up means to put the receiver down I think the operator hung up on me, the line just went dead!’
call up is to make a telephone call (mainly used in American English or slang) ‘I’ll call up the theatre, and find out about tickets.

call back is to return someone’s call I’ll ask him to call you back, when he gets home.’
pick up means to answer a call / lift the receiver to take a call No one is picking up, maybe they’re not at home.

get off (the phone) means to stop talking on the phone When he gets off the other phone, I’ll pass on your message.

get back to (someone) means to return someone’s call When do you think she’ll be able to get back to me?
cut off to be disconnected abruptly during a telephone conversation I think we got cut off, I can’t hear her anymore.

switch off/turn off is to deactivate (a cell phone/mobile phone) Sorry you couldn’t get through to me. My phone was switched off, because the battery had died.’
speak up means to talk louder I’m afraid I can’t hear you very well, could you speak up a little please?’
When giving directions to someone it is best to use short simple English sentences. Speak slowly so the other person can understand and can write down the instructions if talking on the phone. The way we ask for directions may affect the answer we get. When speaking with someone, use your hands to demonstrate what you mean,  left, right, or straight on and if possible draw a map. Some landmarks can be specified for easy identification. Always try and use the word “please” when you are asking someone for directions.
These are useful phrases when you are giving directions:
Go straight.

Turn left.

Turn right.

Walk along the post office.

Take the first (street) on your left/right.

Walk over the bridge.

Stop at the crossroads.

At the traffic light turn left/right.

Asking directions
Excuse me, could you please tell me how to get to the train station …?
Excuse me, do you know where the police station is………?
I’m afraid, I don’t know
Sorry, I’m not from around here
I’m looking for this address …
Are we on the right road for Chidambaram …?
Is this the right way for Anna Nagar …?
Do you have a route map?
Can you show me on the map?
Giving directions
It’s this way
It’s that way
You’re going in the wrong way
You’re going in the wrong direction
Take this road
Go down there
Take the first on the left
Take the second on the right
Turn right at the crossroads
Continue straight ahead for about a mile (one mile is approximately 1.8 kilometres)
Continue past the fire station
You’ll pass a supermarket on your left
Keep going for another …
Hundred yards (about 91 metres)
Two hundred metres
Half mile (about 800 metres)
It’ll be …
On your left
On your right
Straight ahead of you
How far is it?
How far is it?
How far is it to …?
The airport
How far is it to … from here?
Is it too far?
Is it a long way?
It’s …
Not far
Quite close
Quite a long way
A long way on foot
A long way to go
About a mile from here (one mile is approximately 1.6 kilometres)
Giving directions to drivers
Follow the signs for …
The town centre
Continue straight on past some traffic lights
At the second set of traffic lights, turn left
Go over the roundabout
Take the second exit at the roundabout
Turn right at the t-junctionGo under the bridge
Go over the bridge
You’ll cross some railway lines
What’s the best way to the post office? (use the map for orientation.)


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