Erik Erikson was a German-American psychoanalyst who created a theory of development in 8 stages, if one of these stages were incomplete or unsuccessful then the individual may have a problem later in their life. Erikson’s stage theory has 8 developmental factors, which contribute to the persons development in their life.
The first stage is trust v. mistrust which is experienced during the first year of a baby’s life. During this stage the baby relies on their caregiver to meet their needs, which will develop a trusting relationship between the baby and caregiver.
If the needs are not met, this may lead to the baby mistrusting the world.Stage’s two and three are autonomy v. shame and initiative v. guilt, these stages happen from one to six years old. During these stages the child will begin to be independent, develop their own initiative and become self-aware.
If there is no encouragement from their caregiver, this may discourage the child making them doubt themselves and become shameful. Industry v. inferiority and identity v. confusion are the fourth and fifth stage, which happens from the ages of six to nineteen years old. At these stages the child will be attending school, this will contribute to building their confidence, helping them learn new things and developing their own identity. During this period, encouragement and praise are necessary so the child does not become inferior or confused about their role during adulthood.
The sixth and seventh stage is intimacy v. isolation and generativity v. stagnation, these stages happens from the age twenty to sixty-four. During these stages, the individual will contribute to society in various ways and may start to create their own family. If the individual can not find ways to be productive whether it being having a job or being a caregiver to their children, this may lead to the individual having feelings of isolation or stagnation.
The final stage is integrity v. despair, this stage occurs from sixty-five to death. This stage is usually a review of the individual’s life by looking back on what they have accomplished or what they haven’t. If the individual has not had a life full of accomplishment, they may end up having feelings of despair.