encephalopathy andreligious reasons.
16 Thanks to the utilization of fish bones, the amount ofwasting can be reduced, and environmental friendly producing can be done. Newtype of gelatin can be produced without fishy odour. Peoples from all religionscan consume this gelatin without worrying about religion.3.
Objectives ofthe Work In this study, we aimed to use a fishbones obtained from the fish species that have not been use before for gelatinproduction. The acid-threated method will be used for gelatin production, sothe gelatin will be named as Type A. The selected fish species will be “Trout”(Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss).
The reason for choosing this fish species is the most hunted and grown bony fishin Turkey. 15 For gelatin production, there are twomain methods available in the literature. 11, 13 There is a method inliterature which is nearly accepted as main method belong to Muyonga et all.11 In addition, there is an optimization method that belongs to Mahmoodani in literature.
13 Inthis study, two methods will be used and evaluated based on their yield.Whichever provides the highest yield will be our chosen method. The aim of the study is using thefish waste for producing added value product that is gelatin.
First of all, twotypes of gelatin will be produced by using Muyonga’s method and Mahmoodani’s method. 11, 13After producing the gelatins, they will be compared according to their yields.After that, the gelatin with high yield will be selected to analyze. Thisgelatin and commercial gelatin will be analyzed for nutritional composition, pH,gel strength, viscosity, turbidity, melting point, gelling temperature, colorand sensory properties. Lastly, these two gelatins will be compared to resultsof the analysis.
There might be production extra addedvalue product after gelatin production from bones of fish. After the gelatinextraction from fish bone, there will be a new waste which is fish bone withoutgelatin. This fish bone without gelatin can be used for hydroxyapatiteproduction so the fish bone will be used as much as possible. If the time permits,this part of experiment will be done, if the time does not remain, this idea canbe explored in future studies. 4.
Scope of TheWork In this study, there will be two mainsteps which are production and analyzing steps. Firstly, the gelatin will be extractedfrom specific type of fish bone, and then the gelatin is analyzed for onlyyield. 11 The gelatin with highest yield is selected and analyzing for otherfeatures and it will be compared with commercial gelatin.The selected extracted gelatin whichhas highest yield will be analyzed for nutritional composition, pH, gelstrength, viscosity, turbidity, melting point, gelling temperature, color andsensory properties.
The nutritional composition isanalyzed to determine the moisture content, ash content, crude protein and fatcontent. Moisture, ash, and fat contents of dried gelatin of fish bone will be measuredwith the methods of the AOAC. 17 The determination of crude protein will bedone by using Kjeldahl method. 17 The pH of gelatin solution was measuredusing the British Standard Institution method. 14 A 1% (w/v) gelatin solutionwill be prepared in distilled water.
Then cooled to 25 ?C in a waterbath. After standardization of the pHmeter with 4 and 7 pH buffers, the pH will be measured with a glass electrode.14 The gel strength will be determinedby the British Standard 757:1975 method (BSI 1975) on a 6.
67% gel (w/v), whichwill be prepared by dissolving the dry gelatin in distilled water at 60 ?C, andcooling the solution in a refrigerator of 7 to 8 ?C (maturation) for 16±18 h.14 Viscosity will be determined by usingviscometer. 11 Turbidity The turbidity of FSGsolution (6.67% w/v) at different pH levels (3–10) will be determined using thepreferred method. 18 The samples will be dissolved in distilled water at 60°C and the pH solution will be adjusted with either 6 N NaOH or HCl.
Theturbidity will be determined by measuring the absorbance at 360 nm usingspectrophotometer. 18 The melting point andgelling temperature of gelatin will be determined as Muyonga’s method. 11 Color will bedetermined with a colorimetry. 5