Herbage’s Two Factor Theory Herbert separated the mind from the body as though they were independent of each other physical needs such as food is not just to satisfy a need but also gives pleasure to the body (Tighten and Myers 1998). Broom’s Expectancy Theory Lacks consistency as any outcome without a positive valence means the employees motivation will be low (Arnold et al 2010). Other Criticisms It is expensive and difficult to implement and can be limited by regulations, legislative and societal beliefs (Katz 1 986 Equity Theory The theory did not provide any standard for measuring employee’s outcomes and did not put the individuals’ values into consideration (Pritchard 1969). The theory identifies how goals influence behavior but fails to describe the way employee’s attitude can be influenced (Arnold et al. 2010). Question Do you think increasing pay alone will increase job performance and satisfaction? Study Findings For manufacturing construction and service workers, pay increase will increase job satisfaction, performance and productivity (Green and Whooped 2007). There were also findings to show that performance pay increases job satisfaction and performance for lower income earners than higher income earners. A survey of public sector workers in Greece revealed that extrinsic rewards had a great influence on their performance and choices. (Markova and Ford 2011).
Extrinsic rewards include items such as money or grades. Increase in salaries was identified as the strongest motivating factor for employees within the AJAX. This was largely due to the high cost of living in that environment (Abdullah et al. 2010) The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2009) noted an increase in job satisfaction figures, from 31% to 62% as a result Of increase in pay. This was following the backdrop of the economic recession of 2008. Cotton (cited in The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 2009) said that “It’s good to see that pay rises are being more appreciated by employees, especially under the current economic climate.
The survey demonstrates the power of a pay rise Job satisfaction due to increase in pay Job satisfaction due to increase In pay 2008 2009 Developed using the percentage increases obtained from Cupid’s website Increase in pay intensifies job satisfaction until the expense level of the individual meets the increased salary. This is called the Adaptation Level Theory (Judge CLC Research also has identified that intrinsic factors are better measures of job satisfaction than pay alone (Judge et al. 010). Intrinsic factors include items such as achievement and recognition. Wan (2007) discovered that an employee’s satisfaction is enhanced by the value placed on the professional role being performed and identifying with that role rather than choosing the job due to the rewards that are extrinsic (higher pay or promotion).
Indeed, to better understand the factors influencing employee satisfaction, the combined effect of the environment, job characteristics and personality variables must be considered. Empowerment is sharing knowledge, information and power with braininess (Pelt, Couture and Restaurant 2011) and has been identified as an important means of motivating employees. This was noted in a research carried out on hotel employees in Turkey and truck drivers in LISA (Pelt, Couture and Restaurant 2011) and (Johnson et al. 2011). However, there are other factors which could affect empowerment such as employment status (permanent or temporary), content of work and employment position amongst others. Good leadership can influence employees to be motivated towards job satisfaction and performance. (Radar and Harmonically 2006) Studies amongst academicians in the IIS and Turkey revealed that job satisfaction increases with rank. They were motivated by intrinsic factors such as social status, social service and ability utilization while other factors such as compensation, salary and fringe benefits were amongst the least motivating factors for them (Toke 201 1). A survey carried out amongst the ELI 15 showed that there is higher job satisfaction among employees working in a team than individually ( Vassal 2007). The feeling that you belong to a group gives you a state of happiness.
Research revealed that in China, earning and the opportunity for advancement in a job coupled with working in groups gave them increased job satisfaction. It was also shown in Mexico that team work increased employee job satisfaction Huh and Ye (Cited in Iceland, Erect and Cyan 2007) Some other factors that were found to determine employee job satisfaction and performance were; employee personality, stress level, attitude, culture and values differences. Sari and Judge, 2004. ; Jehovah, 1995; Sullivan and Begat 1 992; and Arnold et al. 2005. Case Study McDonald’s Case study adapted from http://womb. Academician’s. Org/JABS Motivation Techniques