Emotional behavior, and can further identify a

Emotionalstability or instability, as in this case, is also modeled in the Big Fivefactors of personality, and associated with similar etiologicalinfluences.  Big Five has been utilizedas an effective means to measure differences in personality traits, and asRaggatt (2006) points out, “show significant associations with the ways thatpeople tell their life narratives – for example, sad stories told by those highin Neuroticism,” (p. 1323). Specific traits can highlight patterns of anindividual’s behavior, and can further identify a hierarchical personalitydescription with six subcomponents for each of the five factors.

In this case,the factors of neuroticism, the six facets are the vulnerability, depression,self-consciousness, anxiety, impulsiveness, and/or hostility. Two (depressionand anxiety) are associated the client.Anothertheoretical approach, in this case, can be view biologically or geneticallyperspective. The focus of a biological perspective is concentrated on the roleof genetics and the brain shapes the individual’s personality. That is, whentrying to understanding the individual, it is important to take into account,genetic influences and its impact on personalities and behavior. Additionally,Baker (2015) points out, that genes influence the ways in which familiesfunction and how family members relate to one another,” (p. 1). This bringsmerit to this case in which validates the client’s concerns regarding hisfather and grandfather committing suicide.

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In support of this Jockin (1996)mentioned, “Genetically influenced personality traits, such as negativeemotionality (i.e., neuroticism), are also predictive of divorce, and mayexplain much of the genetic risk for divorce,” (p. 6). Coupling this withenvironmental factors (i.

e. family or parental relationships), are strongpredictors of mental health and on behavioral outcomes.Geneticand environmental is also another perspective that can be taken intoconsideration. It can be argued that there can be a correlation with the predispositionfor environmental stress and genetic factors with individuals who susceptiblesuicide ideations or associated risk factors. According to the stress-diathesisarchetype, the associated risk factors are considered distal or proximal. Inother words, “distal risk factors include personality, biological, and geneticvariables, while proximal, factors are life events, stress, acute episodes ofmental illness, and acute alcohol or substance abuse,” (Roy, 2012). In the caseof this client, genetic factors are an important influential factor forsuicidal behavior who has been exposed to environmental stress regardingcurrent adverse life situations, or past experiences.

Whilean individual’s genetics can play a key role in the development of mentalhealth issues such as depression and anxiety, biological factors must also betaken into consideration. According to Aan Het Rot, Mathew, and Charney (2009),”Structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with the majordepressive disorder may be associated with low levels of a brain-derivedneurotrophic factor,” (p. 305).

These abnormalities may elicit an emotionalresponse that induces the behavior. The part of the brain that is primarilyresponsible for that function (emotion) is the amygdala and insular cortex ofthe temporal lobe. Additionally, as Advokat, Advokat, Comaty, and Julien (2015)points out, “Neuroanatomically, the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, andinsula are associated with the production of behavioral responses to fearfulstimuli and the central mediation of anxiety and panic,” (p. 436). Thehuman brain is an exceptionally complex biological organism that can influencean individual’s behavior. The individual’s responses are stimulated by electrical impulses to these areas thatinduce the individual’s emotions.

Thereare various methodologies of studying the brain in order to analyze brainfunctions that influence human behaviors. Neuroimaging or brain scanningtechniques are used identify the structural and functional activity of thebrain changes. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) isutilized to study or examine the connection or changes between behavioral andphysiological impressions in an individual’s brain activity. According toO’Connor and Agius (2015), “fMRI studies show associations between alteredactivity in these two regions and cognitive impairments in patients withpsychotic depression,” (p 39). From a biological perspective, utilizingneuroimaging techniques such as the fMRI is instrumental in delivering thenecessary tools for researching brain abnormalities in patients with mentaldisorders.Whenanalyzing cases such as this, and utilizing the various methodologies,confidentiality is important in protecting the sensitive information about theclient.

The client and the information utilized in this case must be keptanonymous unless the individual gives their full consent.  Therefore, the client name was omitted inthis case. There are ethical guidelines that apply, but not limited too, arecovered in Standard 8, particularly 8.01 Institutional; Approval 8.02 InformedConsent to Research; 8.07 Deception in Research.

Additionally, considering itinvolves research on people, their well-being throughout the research must bethe utmost or top priority. There may be participants that may be sensitive orundergoing personal issues or concerns in which they may be in a vulnerable oremotional state. Therefore, it is the researcher’s duty to protect them fromthe exploitation of their vulnerability. This is covered in Principle A:Beneficence and Nonmaleficence, which states, “Psychologists strive to benefitthose with whom they work and take care to do no harm,” (APA, 2010).Eachtheoretical perspectives give different constructs in the understanding of theclient who was diagnosed as chronically mentally ill. A phenomenologicalperspective focuses on an individual’s experiences regarding a phenomenon, andhow they interpret their experiences.

The biological perspective points outmost behaviors are inherited and influenced by genetics, brain abnormality, andeven influence by the environment. And traits are unique and predispose anindividual to think or act in a particular way. While each perspective providessome validity, understanding the influential factors contributing to theindividual mental state from either perspective can provide a means a recoveryor coping with a mental illness or disorder.


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