“Belarusian State University
of Informatics and Radio Electronics”
«Basic Services of Internet»
Completed by: Elie Riad Assi
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Table of contents TOC o “1-3” h z u Table of contents PAGEREF _Toc521029235 h 2List of figures PAGEREF _Toc521029236 h 3Chapter 1: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc521029237 h 4Chapter 2: Brief History of the internet PAGEREF _Toc521029238 h 6Chapter 3: Services provided by Internet PAGEREF _Toc521029239 h 93.1. Electronic Mail PAGEREF _Toc521029240 h 93.1.1. Categories of E-mail PAGEREF _Toc521029241 h 103.1.2. Advantages of e-mail PAGEREF _Toc521029242 h 113.1.3. Disadvantages of e-mail PAGEREF _Toc521029243 h 123.2. World Wide Web PAGEREF _Toc521029244 h 123.2.1. Advantages and disadvantages of Web PAGEREF _Toc521029245 h 143.3. File Transfer Protocol PAGEREF _Toc521029246 h 153.4. Telnet PAGEREF _Toc521029247 h 173.5. Chat Rooms PAGEREF _Toc521029248 h 173.6. Mailing list PAGEREF _Toc521029249 h 18Chapter 4: Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc521029250 h 20References PAGEREF _Toc521029251 h 21
List of figures
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 : TCP/IP Packet PAGEREF _Toc521028948 h 5Figure 2 : Form of Hotmail PAGEREF _Toc521028949 h 10Figure 3 : Form of Gmail PAGEREF _Toc521028950 h 10Figure 4 : Form of search engine on internet PAGEREF _Toc521028951 h 14Figure 5 : FTP process PAGEREF _Toc521028952 h 15Figure 6 : Active/Passive FTP PAGEREF _Toc521028953 h 16Figure 7 : Chat Room Form PAGEREF _Toc521028954 h 18
Chapter 1: IntroductionIn the present age of information technology, use of internet is becoming popular for accessing information on any topic of interest. It is essential to living, working and easily communicating with people, whether in the next room or on the other side of the world. The most fundamental function of the Internet is to pass electronic information from one computer to another. It provides opportunities to students, researchers and professionals to gather easily all needed information. The internet is therefore the largest encyclopedia for everyone, in all age categories. Wherefore, many services are provided by the internet such as email, World Wide Web, Telnet… These services allow users to access all types of information around the world and to become a part of this bigger world.
The internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination and a mean for cooperation and interaction between users and their computers regardless of geographical location.
Today, Internet is a large-scale and heterogeneous worldwide network that uses telephone lines, cables, satellites and wireless connections to connect millions of computers and other devices to the World Wide WebCITATION dig l 1033 (digital unite). It is used by millions of private, public, academic, business and government networks which are linked together by networking technologies CITATION Uni12 l 1033 (Gujrat, 2012). So the internet is a source that provides an extensive range of information and resources to users; including the online shopping that facilitate the life of customers and traders at the same time.
Internet uses the TCP/IP which is a set of rules or protocols that allows the integration of a large number of different computers into one single network with highly efficient communication between them. The TCP part concerns the verifying delivery of the packets, while the IP part refers to the moving of data packets between nodes CITATION Chr06 l 1033 (ChristenssonP., 2006). In other words, the IP dictates the logistics of packets sent out over networks; it gives order by telling packets where to go and how to get there; however, the responsibility of TCP is to ensure the reliable transmission of data across Internet-connected networks CITATION Com18 l 1033 (Computer Hope, 2018).
Figure 1 mentions how TCP/IP packet works. Every computer on the network is identified by a 32 bit Internet Address or IP-Number. This number is commonly represented as four numbers joined by periods. The Internet uses these numbers to guide information through the network (“routing”).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 : TCP/IP PacketIn one sentence, the largest network of the networks is called the internet.
The objective of this work is to discuss all services provided by the internet. Otherwise, we will mention briefly the origin of the internet, how it was founded and by whom. Finally we will talk about advantages and limitations of the internet services.
Chapter 2: Brief History of the internetThe internet has many inventors unlike other technologies such as light bulb or telephone that was invented by one person only. It was started in the U.S. as a government weapon during the Cold War between Americans and Soviets. During this war, Scientists and military experts of US began to think more seriously about science and technology. They were concerned about what might happen in the coming future and they were fear because one missile from Soviet could destroy the whole networks of lines CITATION His10 l 1033 (History.com, 2010).
Based on the above, the origin of the internet resulted from some visionary thinking of people in the early 1960s. Allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields was a great potential value for the invention of internet CITATION Wal16 l 1033 ( Walt Howe, 2016). It was collaboration between the US government and a private commercial interest in order to build strong, fault-tolerant and distributed computer networks CITATION Uni12 l 1033 (Gujrat, 2012).
In August 1962, a scientist from MIT named J.C.R. Licklider proposed a solution to the mentioned problem above, he was the first who invented a network that allow everyone interconnected through a set of computers and quickly accessed data and programs from any site, named as “galactic networks”. A network would enable communication between government leaders even if the telephone system was destroyed by Soviets (Barry M. Leiner et al, 1997). In October 1962, J.C.R. Licklider moved to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, he was the first head of computer research program at DARPA in order to develop his work CITATION Wal16 l 1033 ( Walt Howe, 2016).
In 1965, Leonard Kleinrock, M.I.T. scientist, developed a theory named “packet switching” working on sending information from one computer to another; this theory was the basis of internet connections. This theory works by breaking data down into blocks or packets, then sending it to its destination; each packet can take its own route. Without this theory, the government’s computer network would have been just as vulnerable to enemy attacks as the phone system (Barry M. Leiner et al, 1997).
After that, in 1965, Lawrence Roberts, MIT scientists, wanted to make computers talk together. To explore this, he connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer with a low speed dial-up telephone lines. This connection showed the feasibility of wide area computer networking. According to that, the conviction of the need of “packet switching” theory of Kleinrock was confirmed. In late 1966, he moved over to DARPA and developed his plan for ARPANET which is a fully distributed network that uses routers at every node to speed up communication between computers CITATION Gio16 l 1033 (Navarria, 2016).
All the mentioned visionaries, in addition to many other scientists’ visionaries, are the real founders of the Internet.
On July 1968, ARPA putted out a RFQ to several computer companies in order to build the network switches CITATION Gio16 l 1033 (Navarria, 2016). In August 1968, after Roberts and the DARPA funded community, the overall structure and specifications for the ARPANET was improved.
On December 1969, ARPANET was officially created and brought online under a contract let by ARPA. The contract was carried out by BBN (Barry M. Leine et al, 1997). BBN created the first switched network which consisted of just 4 computers; they linked four different nodes in California and Utah; one at the University of Utah, one at the University of California at Santa Barbara, one at Stanford and one at the University of California at Los Angeles.
During the following years, computers were added quickly to the ARPANET; also they proceeded to work on accomplishing the complete protocol of Host-to-Host in addition to other network software (Barry M. Leine et al, 2009). It is important to note that Host-to-Host is a connection between computer or other device and a computer network. It offers information resources, services and other applications to users.
In December 1970, the primary ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol was completed by the NWG working under S. Crocker. It was called the NCP and was totally completed during the period 1971-1972. According to that, the users of network could start developing applications.
In 1971, Roy Tomlinson invented email program to send messages across a distributed network and sent his first email CITATION Rap11 l 1033 (Cohen-Almagor, 2011).
The first public demonstration of ARPANET was in October 1972 by Kahn. During this year, the initial “hot” application, electronic mail, was introduced. From there, email root as the major network application for over a decade. The @ symbol of internet was picked from the available symbol on Tomlinson’s teletype; the @ was used as a mean of separating the username from the site or computer identifier CITATION Rap11 l 1033 (Cohen-Almagor, 2011).
In 1973, the first international connections to ARPANET between England and Norway took birth.
That is how the Internet was started and currently is the greater communication network between users all over the world.
Chapter 3: Services provided by InternetThere is a variety of resources and services provided by the Internet. These services make life easier, bring distances closer among the world and gives flexibility to users to make their day-to-day activities. These resources and services are used in many field such as interaction, business, marketing, sending data, etc. Various internet services are classified into categories such as communication services, information retrieval service, web service and World Wide Web. Below are the main services provided by the internet: Electronic Mail, World Wide Web, File Transfer Protocol, Telnet, Chat Rooms, Mailing list, Instant Messaging.
3.1. Electronic MailElectronic mail, commonly known as e-mail or email, holds the number one position of the most popular features offered by the Internet CITATION Mar l 1033 (Kayo, n.d.). It is a paperless method used to send, receive, forward, deliver and store messages and files from one to another or many people at the same time via internet. It is a very fast communication method and usually takes only few seconds to reach the destination. It can be used anytime since it works 24 hours/day, 7 days/week CITATION Nat12 l 1033 (NIOS, 2012). A message in an e-mail service can contain text documents, audio and video data. The audio and video data are converted into a format accepted by a computer, such as GIF and JPEG file format, in order to be attached to the e-mail message. The copy of the sent email will be available whenever you want to check it.
E-mail has many features. First, it is one-to-one or one-to-many communications. Second, it is an instant communications. Third, the physical presence of the recipient is not required. Fourth, it is a most inexpensive service, as mentioned above 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Fifth, it encourages informal communications.
Each e-mail has 3 components: message envelope, message header and message body.
There is many e-mail services provider such as Gmail, Hotmail, yahoo, MSN.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 : Form of Hotmail
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 : Form of GmailWith the e-mail service, the Internet has proved to be a productive communication tool for millions of users.
3.1.1. Categories of E-mailThere are six main categories of email CITATION Nat12 l 1033 (NIOS, 2012):
.com: for commercial institutions or organization
.edu: for educational institutions
.gov: for government site
.mil: military site
.net: for gateways and administrative hosts
.org: for private organizations.
Consider the e-mail ID [email protected]: “elieassi82” is the local part, which is the name of mailbox on the destination computer, where finally the mail will be delivered; “gmail” is the mail server where the mailbox “elieassi82” exist; .com is the type of organization on net, which is hosting the mail server.
3.1.2. Advantages of e-mailFree tool: once you are online, there is no further expense that you need to spend on in order to send and receive messages.
Quick: once you have finished composing a message, sending it is as simple as clicking a button.
Simple and easy to use: once your account is set up, composing, sending and receiving messages is simple and easy by typing the name of the recipient, the subject line and click the send button.
Easy referencing: messages that have been sent and received can store, and searched through safely and easily. It is a lot easier to go through old email messages rather than old notes written on paper.
Accessible from anywhere as long as you have an internet connection: in the office, on the field, or even overseas, you can access your inbox and go through your messages.
Paperless, and therefore, beneficial for the planet: reduce the costs of paper and printing; reduce the damage paper do to the environment.
Email allows for mass sending of messages by sending one particular message to several recipients all at once.
Instant access of information and files by sending yourself files and keep messages.
3.1.3. Disadvantages of e-mailSpam emails can be sent which can clutter your inbox.
Viruses can be sent by email.
Misunderstandings can occur if messages are not constructed properly.
Not everyone has internet connectivity.
Confidential information can be easily forwarded and disseminated but if done in error could easily end up in the wrong hands CITATION Ant17 l 1033 (Vdovin, 2017).
Regarding these limitations, it is important to use e-mail safely. Here are some guidelines for a properly use of the e-mail:
Use e-mail filtering software to avoid spam so that only messages from authorized users are received
Do not open attachments coming from strangers and untrusted users, since they may contain a virus along with the received message and may execute some malicious code and spread into your system…
Use antivirus software on the desktop before downloading attachments’ to the hard disk.
Avoid sending personal information through e-Mails.
3.2. World Wide WebIt is commonly known that WWW and Internet is the same thing, it is not the truth however they function together. While WWW functions as the part of the internet accessible to users, internet serves as a vast electronic communications network. In other words, the web is a communications model that, through HTTP, enables the exchange of information over the internet.
“The term World Wide Web (www) refers to the collection of public Web sites connected to the Internet worldwide, together with the client devices such as computers and cell phones that access its content. For many years it has become known simply as “the Web.”” CITATION Mit18 l 1033 (Mitchell, 2018)World Wide Web makes navigation on the Internet easier by utilizing hypertext links and graphical user interfaces between different addresses on computers around the world, it uses the Internet to provide communications, information and access to all sorts of digital services CITATION Mar l 1033 (Kayo, n.d.).
The British scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the Web in 1989 while working in CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland.
In October 1990, Tim had written the three fundamental technologies that remain the foundation of today’s web:
HTML: HyperText Markup Language. The markup language for the web.
URI: Uniform Resource Identifier. A kind of “address” that is unique and used to identify each resource on the web. It is commonly called a URL.
HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol that allows for the retrieval of linked resources from across the web.
Tim also wrote the first web page editor/browser (“WorldWideWeb.app”) and the first web server (“httpd”).
At the end of 1991, the first web page was served on the open internet.
Since 1991, the World Wide Web has been widely available CITATION His l 1033 (World Wide Web Foundation).
All major Web sites have adjusted their content design and development approach to accommodate the rapidly increasing fraction of the population accessing the Web from small-screen phones instead of large screen desktop and laptop computers.
There are many search engines used to search information on the internet such as Google, yahoo, Bing…
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 : Form of search engine on internet3.2.1. Advantages and disadvantages of WebLike all other internet services’, web has advantages and disadvantages. Below is a table that shown them CITATION Cas08 l 1033 (Garcia, 2008):
Offer current and topical information, such as news from around the world Information may not been edited or proven
Offer information about companies and organizations Limitations of information posted by companies and organizations on the web
Government agencies publish information Some information are costly or invisible and need a code to access
Allow access information on topics or by authors without access to mainstream publishing venues Volatility and availability of file location. Sometimes we try to access a website but we find it not avail. For example: ERROR – This website no longer Exists
Important information are purchased and organized by libraries Important information and subscription databases may not be available
Allow access on multimedia resources such as sounds, images and video Sometimes connection and download time may be extremely slow
3.3. File Transfer ProtocolFTP was originally defined in 1971. It is internet utility software used for transmitting and exchanging files between computers via internet. It is the easiest and most commonly method to download or upload files from/to server. FTP, like other internet technologies, uses the TCP/IP protocol to enable data transfer. Sometimes, in order to access some information, a user need to log on to the FTP server; otherwise, other servers can be easily accessed by users without login which is known as anonymous FTP CITATION Nat12 l 1033 (NIOS, 2012).
FTP is a client-server protocol that operates using two communications channels between client and server. The first is the command or control channel used for transmitting commands and replies to those commands; and the second is the data channel used for transferring data CITATION Joh14 l 1033 (JohnV., 2014).
FTP client is used to request the FTP server
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 : FTP processBy using FTP, a client can download, upload, delete, rename move and copy files on a server; also he can update files on server.
FTP sessions work in active or passive modes. The active mode is the normal client-server mode; in this mode the client requests the command channel and the sever establishes the data channel back to the client then transfers data. In the active mode, when the client desk is protected by a firewall, there is a problem for the client to receive requests from unauthorized external parties.
On the other hand, in the passive mode, the client establishes channel, the command and the data channel. In this mode the client requests the server by the command channel to start sending the needed information to open a data channel CITATION Joh14 l 1033 (JohnV., 2014).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 : Active/Passive FTPFTP has many objectives. First, it provides flexibility in sharing computer programs, files and data. Second, it allows reliable and efficient transfer of data over network. Third, it encourages implicit or indirect use of remote computers using Internet CITATION Nat12 l 1033 (NIOS, 2012).
Like all internet services, FTP has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of FTP can be resuming as follow CITATION Hor16 l 1033 (Horan, 2016):
FTP allows the user to transfer multiple files and directories at the same time.
FTP allows user to resume a file transfer.
FTP gives user the ability to schedule a transfer.
FTP is fast which is meaning that the file is transferred quickly with high speed.
On the other side, the disadvantages of FTP are:
There is no equality between all providers.
Encryption is not inherently offered or enforced by every provider.
Telnet or remote computing is telecommunication utility software, which uses available telecommunication facility and allows people become users on a remote computer. Once user gain access to remote computer, he can use it for the intended purpose. The commands typed on the client computer are sent to the local Internet Service Provider (ISP), and then from the ISP to the remote computer that user has gained access. Most of the ISP provides facility to TELENET into user own account from another city and check your e-mail while you are traveling or away on business.
3.5. Chat RoomsChat room is a designated area or forum on the web allowing users to communicate with each other through instant messaging. These users may have common interest to communicate in real time. Once the user clicks on enter or send the text is directly displayed in the chat room’s conversation. The other users including in the chat session are able to see the conversation. These conversations can be in form of text, video or voice.
Chat rooms were popular since 1990s by America Online.
These chat rooms are used not only by individual but also by company to allow their employees to communicate from different locations.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7 : Chat Room Form3.6. Mailing listA mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or a company to send material to multiple recipients or users simultaneously. The term “mailing list” includes people already subscribed to such a list. That is why mailing list is also known as “email list” or simply “list”.
In other words, mailing list sends email to specific groups through a single email message.
It is generally used as a mean to share content, news, products or services with its subscribers.
The list has a given name. Once the email is send to the list, all subscribers on the list receive the message. Finally, in order to add your name to the mailing list you must subscribe to it, or unsubscribe if you want to remove it.
In addition to the below mentioned basic services provided by the internet, there are more and more services. We can mention for example the Instant Messaging (IM) which is a type of communications service that enables user to create a kind of private chat with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the Internet. Some popular example of IM are whatsapp, Skype, viber, Facebook messenger, we chat, kik messenger, VoIP…
Another service of internet is the News Group. It is an online discussion group. It offers a forum for people to discuss topics of common interests.
We can also mention the E-commerce which is the ability to do online business. Users can buy and sell products or services online. This feature facilitates the life of buyer and seller and allows small business to compete with large corporations.
Chapter 4: ConclusionThe Internet has become a fundamental necessity to living, working, interacting and communicating with people. The services offered through the Internet allow individuals to become part of the global world. Communication technologies provided using the Internet, such as emails, allow for an easy, cheap and simultaneous communication among many people from various parts of the world. Customized mailing groups and bulletin boards for groups of users have enhanced collaboration on various tasks such as homework. In addition, the Internet allows people to have access to a common folder or files; this enhances timely completion of projects.
The Internet allows companies to create websites and blogs through which they make their operations public to the world. Many institutional libraries have taken advantage of the Internet to enhance users’ access to information. For instance, the replacement of the manual catalogue with the electronic catalogue has increased efficiency in the search for books and journals in many libraries. The application of innovative Internet services in business such as health, education, commerce, banking and sports, has enhanced efficiency in service delivery. Social networking such as Facebook allows people to connect with friends and the rest of the world. Finally, people may spend their free time playing online games with other connected people.
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