During fast-running herbivores, predatory mammals and birds,

Duringthe Miocene period earth’s climate, had changed from cold to warm.

In theMiocene epoch kelp forests appeared and became part of the earths mostproductive ecosystems. The Miocene epoch began 23.8 million years ago, andended 5.3 million years ago (“The Miocene Epoch.” The Miocene Epoch.N.

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p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan.

2018.). Many plants and animals flourished during theMiocene period as climate and weather was perfect for life. Some animals thatwere flourishing during this period were Teuthidas, Cervidae, Elephantidae,Felidae, Canidae, Accipitridae, Corvidae, Crocodyidae, Boidae, and Salmonidae.Some plants that were flourishing include Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Pinophyta,Fagaceae, Pinales, Liliaceae, and Rosaceae (“Miocene Epoch Videos, Newsand Facts.

” BBC Nature. BBC, n.d.

Web. 24 Jan. 2018.). During the Mioceneepoch, life was mostly supported by Kelp forests and Grasslands. Grasslandsallowed for more grazing mammals such as Horses and Deer.

Ninety-five percentof modern plants existed by the end of the Miocene epoch. The Miocene periodwas a time of warmer global climates than the preceding Oligocene. The Miocenewarming began 21 million years ago, and continued until 14 million years ago.By 8 million years ago, temperatures dropped sharply once again, and the Atlanticice sheet was approaching its present-day size. Greenland may have begun tohave large glaciers as early as 7 to 8 million years ago, although the climatemostly remained warm enough to support forests (“Miocene epoch.

” TheColumbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.

com. 24 Jan. 2018

encyclopedia.com>.). The biological change of the Miocene epochallowed open vegetation systems such as tundra, deserts, and grasslands. Thisled to the diversitation of temperate ecosystems and many changes in animalsbiology. Mammals and birds developed new forms, as fast-running herbivores, predatorymammals and birds, or small fast birds and rodents (“Miocene.”Wikipedia.

Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Jan. 2018. Web. 24 Jan. 2018.

). Because theMiocene epoch is closer to present day than most other periods of time so it iseasier to see the effects of events. Many of the fossils that we have found haveclose relatives that are alive today. During the Miocene period continentscontinued to drift toward their present positions. As South America approachedthe western subduction zone it caused both the rising of the Andes mountainsand southward extension in the Mesoamerican peninsula. Mountain buildingoccurred in western Europe, east Asia, and North America. During the Mioceneepoch India continued to collide with Asia causing mountain ranges to form.

Theuplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a fall in sealevels combined and caused drying up of the Mediterranean Sea known as the “Messiniansalinity crisis”. The global trend was towards increasing aridity causedprimarily by global cooling, reducing the ability of the atmosphere to absorbmoisture. Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene period was partlyresponsible for the shrinking of the tropical rainforests in that region.Australia got drier when it entered a zone of low rainfall in the late Mioceneperiod. The Miocene epoch was a very good period for life on earth as weatherand climate were very suitable for life. Bibliography”TheMiocene Epoch.” The Miocene Epoch. N.

p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan.

2018.”Miocene.”Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Jan. 2018. Web.

24 Jan. 2018.”MioceneEpoch Videos, News and Facts.

” BBC Nature. BBC, n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2018.”Mioceneepoch.

” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.

com. 24 Jan.2018 .


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