Dr. Oriet
September 28th, 2018
Total Cost Minimization
The world today is a very technologically advanced planet. From laptops getting smaller and their processors getting faster to automobiles soon to turn completely electric. All these innovations are made possible by engineers. However, engineers are also the reason why these expensive products have only decreased in price while the technology has been improving. The decrease in price is because engineers help companies find ways to achieve total cost minimization even in high cost economies. Engineers help these companies by designing production methods that increase efficiency. The most common method is the practice of assembly lines, which was designed by a man named Henry Ford in 1913 (history.com) and is widely known as the greatest technological advancement of the twentieth century.
Total cost minimization is very important to engineers in high cost economies because over the last century, all aspects of manufacturing have drastically increased in price. From labour, rent, insurance and other factors. The prices of labour in todays society have sky rocketed with the minimum wage in Canada currently at fourteen dollars per hour. Due to this, the risk of many products increasing in price is at large. The price of transporting products from factories to stores has also increased in price due to the cost of petroleum growing. However, engineers are the only people that can help these companies operating in high cost economies. This is because engineers can help design and manufacture systems and machines to help companies keep their operating costs down. The way engineers do this is using conveyor belts with workers placed at strategic locations along the line. This practice is called the assembly line. Engineers also design automated machines to do the same work as humans, but in a fraction of the time.
There are a few different types of assembly line systems engineers use to help companies achieve total cost minimization in high cost economies. According to the website INC.com these methods are called “Modular, Cell, Team and U-shape assembly lines.” The modular assembly line uses two parallel assembly lines that manufacture two different types of products and when those products are finished they are placed on one final assembly line, in which they are assembled onto a product. A common use for the modular assembly line is in the production of automobiles. The cell assembly line uses machines that can perform multiple tasks, while just one operator is using the machine. A common use for the cell machine is that it can weld, handle materials and even assemble products. The use of the machine cuts operating time and costs down and is commonly used in the manufacturing of parts for machines, due to the number of welds and small bolts that need to be tightened at specific torques. The team production method of the assembly line is when workers are together in teams along a parallel assembly line and perform the same repetitive tasks over and over. The team production is commonly used when installing simple doors on cars or factory emblems on vehicle rims. Finally, the U-shape assembly line is commonly used when manufacturing difficult products, this is because the method behind the U-shape is that the workers manufacturing the products can communicate easily about the speed and any common issues they encounter during the manufacturing process.
Total cost minimization is important for engineers of todays society because in these high cost economies, the manufacturing process can be much too expensive. However, since engineers are improving the ways production can happen and answering the call to society’s ever-increasing economy price, the people of society can still have the access to the quantity of goods for the same price due to the efficient practice’s engineers are implementing in the manufacturing of the products society needs.
Henry Ford used manufacturing engineering to reduce the total costs of automobiles by implementing the practice of the assembly line to manufacture the Ford Model T in his automotive factories in 1913 (history.com). In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s the Ford Model T and automobiles alike had a price tag of about $825 (anythingaboutcars.com). That price may not sound like much today but to put things in perspective the average person in the early 1900’s made about only “$2.19 per day” (Wiley.com). So, the cost of driving was simply out of the question for most Americans. The high cost to purchase an automobile at the time was directly related to the practice of auto manufacturing being a very time consuming and labour-intensive task, this was due to many inefficiencies in the production process. However, Henry Ford changed the lives for Americans and people all over the world who thought they would never be able to afford a car, and innovating the way vehicles could be assembled. Henry Ford implemented conveyor belts into his factories. The purpose of the conveyor belts was to bring the parts that had to be assembled directly to the workers. This was an alternative to the workers leaving their station to get parts and tools, therefore there was no reason for any worker to leave their assigned position. Henry Ford also believed that repetition was the key to an efficient manufacturing plant; each worker performed the same task over and over day in and day out. This work was so repetitive that it proved to not need skilled workers anymore. The practice of using the conveyor belt along an assembly line proved to be so efficient that according to Wiley.com Ford could produce “260,720 cars with 13,000 workers, compared to other companies which took 66,350 workers to produce 286,770 cars in 1914.” Henry Ford kept innovating his assembly line by incorporating new tools and systems to continue decreasing the amount of people it took to assemble cars, while increasing production. Production was so efficient that according to the website anythingaboutcars.com “new model T’s were coming off the line at the rate of one car every 24 seconds.” While the Ford company could produce the Model T every 24 seconds, the price of the automobile plummeted to just $290 (history.com) making it affordable to just about anyone in society at that time and changing the way products could be manufactured forever.
The Ford model T was obviously a massive success for Henry Ford and his company; the model T made Ford a substantial amount of money turning him into a billionaire. The Model T was the best-selling car in history at that time and still is today having produced over fifteen million cars in the eighteen years of its production life (history.com) turning Henry Ford into the first American billionaire. The car was such a success Ford did not even think of changing how it was produced or how it operated for its whole production life. However, in the mid 1920’s other auto makers in the industry started implementing the same production practice as the Ford Motor Company using the assembly line method and were making these cars more technologically advanced then the Ford Model T at the time, within the same price range. Due to these factors Henry Ford stopped production of the Model T and began to redesign the Model A for six months before sales started of the new and improved Model A.
The assembly line is the most significant technological innovation of the twentieth century, with the increasing price in most economies around the world. The cost of production is set to rise, due to the increase in economies, the price of labour, materials and location costs. Due to the increase in the cost of production, the price in which consumers purchase these products will increase as well. If prices go too high, consumers will not be able to to afford everyday essentials or extra luxuries. This problem can have a direct effect on the companies and people of society because companies will not be able to produce the consumer demands for these products. The assembly line allows companies to produce large amount of quantities at a faster rate, using less human labour therefore decreasing the overall price of the product. Due to the increase in human labour in the past few years, companies have had to rely heavily on the use of robotic technologies. The robotic technologies allow for better accuracy than humans due to the natural occurrence of human error. Also, the robots/machines can be programmed to work when companies want, and don’t require wages and labour laws do not apply for machines. Therefore, if a company automates most of their production methods they can produce products cheaper making the amount they sell for in store significantly less. The assembly line is very important to society today because with the current population growing, we need access to large quantities of products at reasonable prices. If this were not the case, poverty would be an even larger problem then it currently is in todays society because most people will not be able to afford to support their families if products were exponentially increasing.
However, a problem most people in the twentieth century society have with factories turning to automated production methods is the decrease in jobs due to the machines being able to produce much more than humans could produce, with greater accuracy. Though, the total opposite is the outcome of automation. This is because the machines require maintenance teams to ensure they run efficiently without the risk of a breakdown which would stop or reduce production. This means skilled technicians are needed to look after the machines which requires a certification, leading to better pay and benefits. In todays society there is no shortage of work for factory machine technicians. As well, people with technician certifications are much more employable in todays every growing society that requires some sort of education to get a good stable job, ensuring a better life for their families giving them more opportunities. The rise in pay and increase in opportunity is all thanks to the innovation of the assembly line, making it the most significant technological advancement of the twentieth century.
In conclusion, the invention and innovation of the assembly line has changed the lives of society forever. Without the implementation of the assembly line it is not for sure cars would have become so popular. As well, without the use of automation in todays expensive society there would not be enough quantity of products for the prices they can be purchased for. With the cost in economies worldwide set to increase in the coming years, the use and innovation of assembly lines will prove crucial to society having access to products in the needed quantity and desired price, achieving total cost minimization.

Works Cited

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Dr. Ravindra Pathak1, Devendra Sharma2, Mamta Verma3, Shahina Bano4, Dhyanendra Rana5, Neha Sisodiya6 ABSTRACT The purpose of present study was to examine the relationship between the teachers self-efficacy and commitment to teaching. This research paper is based on a study conducted to analyze the relationship between teachers self-efficacy and commitment to teaching. The sample size of the study was 100 respondents. Non probability Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. Regression analysis was applied to find out the cause and effect relationship between teachers self-efficacy and commitment teaching. The major findings of the study indicate that there is a significant relationship between Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. Key Words Self-efficacy, Self-image commitment to teaching INTRODUCTION Teachers Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy is the belief of a person that he/she has the capability to achieve specific goals in an effective and appropriate manner (Ornord 2006). It occurs in all walks of human life whether it is professional or private behavior. In the context of education, teachers self-efficacy can be defined as the personal (i.e. self-perceived) conviction of a teacher in his/her ability to make a lesson plan and attain the set objectives. It is the confidence of a teacher about his/her skills to instruct the students in a smooth and effective manner. Teachers self-efficacy should be differentiated from teachers competence. Teachers competence should be confined to the professional knowledge and skills. But teachers self-efficacy is a much broader concept and in fact high self-efficacy usually has a direct impact on the successful use of professional knowledge and skills or conversely low self-efficacy affects the proper use of professional knowledge and skills. In this way, it can be said that self-efficacy is a very strong self-managing trait that makes teachers able to utilize their potential to increase pupils learning. It should be recognized that teachers self-efficacy is closely related to perseverance. Stronger self-efficacy leads to greater perseverance and the greater the perseverance, the greater the possibility of successful teaching behaviors. Teachers self-efficacy is an important part of Banduras social-cognitive theory. According to Bandura self- efficacy is the belief about ones own abilities to plan and carry out a certain task (Bandura, 1997). 1Assistant Professor, Prestige Institute of Management, Gwalior 2Research Scholar, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 3Research Scholar, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 4Research Scholar in Chemistry, Behind Govt. High School, Siliguri 5Student, Prestige Institute of Management, Gwalior 6Student, Prestige Institute of Management, Gwalior Self-efficacy beliefs exert a great influence on thought patterns and emotions, which has a decisive impact on actions. There are two important components of Banduras self-efficacy theory efficacy expectation and outcome expectancy. The former is the belief that one has the capability, knowledge, and skills to successfully implement the behavior or actions required to have the expected outcome(s). The latter deals with a persons assessment of the likely effects (impact) of executing a task at the self-expected level of performance. That is, outcome expectancy is the conviction that a given behavior or action will certainly lead to desired result(s). To become successful, the teacher must not have only high efficacy expectations but high outcome expectancy also. If the teacher has the former and not the latter, it is not likely that the teacher will become a successful teacher even though the teacher is professionally well-qualified and trained. Commitment to teaching Teaching is a very serious profession and like other professions, it also requires that the teachers must have sound knowledge of their subject, competence, dedication, skills, and behaviors. First of all, in the case of a teacher who is not self-employed and serves for an educational institution, commitment to this institution ought to be expected. To abide by its rules regulations and embrace its philosophical and pedagogical principles are not unreasonable requirements. It goes without saying that, in a progressive, learning institution, such kinds of rules, regulations, and principles need to be regularly discussed with the teaching staff, who need not feel uncomfortable to question them and can suggest advancements. After being negotiated and defined, however, rules, regulations, and principles must be rigorously followed. Besides the institution, other stakeholders must also be taken into consideration. In order to make teaching and learning effective, it is also the responsibility of committed professionals especially those who teach children and teenagers to inform students parents on regular intervals regarding the performance of the students and the steps taken by the institute for making the teaching and learning meaningful. For the all round development and effective education of our young ones, Parent-school partnerships need to be strengthened. A fully committed teacher always keeps students learning and interests above everything else and does everything possible to update and sharpen ones professional skills to impart education in a better way. A truly committed teacher changes his methodology according to the level and requirements of the students and adopts innovative ways especially focusing on learning by doing concept to make learning-teaching effective and permanent. REVIEW OF LITERATURE YETERL, K. (2010) conducted a study and found that teacher training programs positively contribute in acquiring the adequate ability on how pre-service teachers use their professional knowledge. One of the important findings of this study is that Gibson and Dembos two-factor teacher self-efficacy scale may not be a valid instrument for the evaluation of efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers in Turkey. Theodore Coladarci (1992) found that the greater teaching commitment tended to be expressed by those teachers who had higher general and personal efficacy. It was also found that teaching commitment was higher among the female teachers. Peter Gavora (2010) studied and found that Pre-service students scores on both teaching self-efficacy and general teaching efficacy were more than the midpoint of the scales. It Showed they had positive self-efficacy. One of the significant findings of this study was that similar samples in three countries surprisingly showed the similar results. Diane L. Witt Rose (2003) conducted a study to investigate relationship between self- efficacy, gender, age and academic achievement in a two- year college science course and found that there was no significant relationship between gender and self-efficacy. It was also found that there was no connection between age and self-efficacy. However, there was a remarkable relationship between self-efficacy level and academic achievement. Zhang (2001) researched that there were noteworthy gender differences on both Distance Learning (DL) self-efficacy and distance learning attainment. Huen Yu (2002) studied the effects of principals transformational leadership practices on teachers commitment to change in Hong Kong Primary schools and suggested outstanding effects of transformational leadership on mediating variables and weak but important effects on teachers commitment to change. It was also found that the pattern of transformational leadership effects is similar in both North America and Hong Kong but the immensity of these effects is far less in Hong Kong. Anyieni, A. (2014) conducted a study and found that there was a relationship between performance appraisal and commitment this was a very important correlation. Ellis D. Evans Margaret Tribble (2015) studied and found that the rank order of teaching problems of pre service and beginning teachers are altogether different. Stress problems of beginning teachers are related to classroom discipline, assessing student work, and relationships with parents, while pre service teachers stress problems with subject matter. Gian Vittorio Caparara (2006) conducted a study and found that teachers personal efficacy beliefs had a great effect on their job satisfaction and students academic achievement, controlling for previous levels of achievement. Lilian K.Y. Li (2012) conducted a study and found that effort could only be considered as an indirect factor to bridge the relationship between attitude, self- efficacy and academic attainment. Fred C. Lunenburg (2011) studied and found that a self-efficacy has a great effect on the tasks employees take up to learn and the goals they set for themselves. Ghavifekr, S., Pillai, N. S. (2016) studied and found that there is a very positive relationship between school organizational climate and teachers job satisfaction. The teachers in this study were found to be very much satisfied with their job. This study also found that there is no serious difference in levels of job satisfaction between the teachers gender (male and female). Azizuddin Khan, Eleni Fleva Tabassum Qazi (2015) studied and found that there was an important relationship between teachers efficacy, general efficacy and self-esteem. Results indicated that high teachers efficacy was a reflection of high self-esteem and high general self-efficacy. On the contrary, low self-esteem and low general self-efficacy caused to low teachers efficacy and results in substandard performance in the class. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To develop and re-standardize a measure for evaluating the Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. To analyze the relationship between Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. To open new vistas for further research. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study was Casual in nature and survey method was used to complete the study. The population included was teachers of different colleges / school in Gwalior region. Individual teacher was the sampling element. Non probability Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. The Sample size was 100 respondents. Data was collected on a likert type scale, where 1 stands for minimum agreement and 5 stands for maximum agreement. The measures were standardized through computation of reliability and validity. Factor analysis was applied to identify the underlying factors. Regression was applied to know the relationship between the Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. Hypothesis Ho There is no significant relationship between Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Reliability Test S.NName of variable Cronbachs Alpha No. of Items 1Teachers Self Efficacy 0. 704 15 2Commitment to Teaching 0. 845 17 Above table indicate the reliability coefficient Cronbachs alpha value greater than 0.7 therefore the measures were used in the study. Regression Analysis The linear regression test was applied to establish cause and effect relationship between Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching through PASW 18 software. In this analysis, Teachers Self Efficacy was taken as independent variable and Commitment to Teaching was considered as dependent variable. R Square F- Value Significant 0.171 18.330 .000 The results of regression test shows that Independent variable (Teachers Self Efficacy) explain 17.1 variance on dependent variable (Commitment to Teaching). ANOVA table explain F- value which was found 18.330 and significant at 0.000 level of significance. Thus, Null Hypothesis is rejected which indicates that there is no significant relationship between Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. Therefore, there is significant cause and effect relationship between the variables. CONCLUSION The present study attempts to examine the relationship between teachers self efficacy and their commitment in teaching. Good teaching is affected not only by the knowledge and pedagogy of teachers, but also by their passion to teach, which is associated with enthusiasm, caring, commitment, and teaching efficacy. It is concluded from the above study that there is a significant relationship between Teachers Self Efficacy and Commitment to Teaching. Despite its limitation in generalization due to a relatively small sample size, the results would be meaningful and significant for educators and researchers in related areas of study. REFERENCES Anyieni, A. (2014).Relationship between performance appraisal and teacher commitment in Kenya (case study of public schools in Nakuru)(Doctoral dissertation). Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students academic achievement A study at the school level.Journal of school psychology,44(6), 473-490. Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching.The Journal of experimental education,60(4), 323-337. Evans, E. D., Tribble, M. (1986). Perceived teaching problems, self-efficacy, and commitment to teaching among pre service teachers.The Journal of Educational Research,80(2), 81-85. Gavora, P. (2010). Slovak pre-service teacher self-efficacy Theoretical and research considerations.The New Educational Review,21(2), 17-30. Ghavifekr, S., Pillai, N. S. (2016). The relationship between schools organizational climate and teachers job satisfaction Malaysian experience.Asia Pacific Education Review,17(1), 87-106. Khan, A., Fleva, E., Qazi, T. (2015). Role of Self-Esteem and General Self-Efficacy in Teachers Efficacy in Primary Schools.Psychology,6(01), 117. Li, L. K. (2012). A Study of the Attitude, Self-efficacy, Effort and Academic Achievement of City U Students towards Research Methods and Statistics.DiscoverySS Student E-Journal,1(54), 154-183. Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Self-efficacy in the workplace Implications for motivation and performance.International journal of management, business, and administration,14(1), 1-6. Witt-Rose, D. L. (2003).Student self-efficacy in college science An investigation of gender, age, and academic achievement(Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout). Yeterl, K. (2010). Teacher Efficacy Scale The Study of Validity and Reliability and Preservice Classroom Teachers self Efficacy Beliefs.Journal of Theory and Practice in Education,6(1), 68-85. Yu, H., Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D. (2002). The effects of transformational leadership on teachers commitment to change in Hong Kong.Journal of educational administration,40(4), 368-389. Zhang, J., Li, F., Duan, C., Wu, G. (2001). Research on self-efficacy of distance learning and its influence to learners attainments. InProceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE)/SchoolNet(pp. 1510-1517). Wu, G. (2001). Research on self-efficacy of distance learning and its influence to learners attainments. InProceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE)/SchoolNet(pp. 1510-1517). Annexure Regression Test Model SummarybModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the EstimateDurbin-Watsondimension01.413a.171.1618.256791.706a. Predictors (Constant), SEb. Dependent Variable TC ANOVAModelSum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.1Regression1249.65011249.65018.330.000aResidual6067.5379868.175Total7317.18799a. Predictors (Constant), SEb. Dependent Variable TC CoefficientsModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.BStd. ErrorBeta1(Constant)28.7208.5593.356.001SE.678.158.4134.281.000a. Dependent Variable TC Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9
(W )6-rCSj id DAIqbJx6kASht(QpmcaSlXP1Mh9MVdDAaVBfJP8AVf 6Q

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a novel which the theme of good vs evil is evident. Good and bad. Right and wrong. The first time is in the first chapter when a mysterious man, in this case, Mr. Hyde, trampled a child in a street and shows no piety. This shows us that Hyde is an evil person because he didn’t help her and apologize, the conclusion is that Hyde is an evil person. The text tells us that ‘the man trampled calmly over the child’s body and left her screaming on the ground’. The word ‘trampled’ tells us how he walked over the child and is worse when he ignores her ‘screams’ that is a clear sign that she is crying of pain.
But there is an important question that is how are Jekyll’s house and laboratory situated to represent a symbolic meaning to the situation? The front represents Jekyll personality and in the back Hyde personality. Jekyll is a joyful, peaceful, calm, polite and social person and we see this in his house, it is ‘comfortable’ and ‘warmed’ too. Hyde, on the other hand, is shy, rude, evil, not polite and serious person, completely different to Jekyll. Robert Louis Stevenson (the author) presents that there is no human who has the ability to be good or evil. On the other hand, the human nature is presented to exhibit both good and evil sides. The human nature talk about to feel and experience emotions. Happiness, sadness, love, and hate are all natural feelings that help to create our personality. Hyde’s life is around the emotions with hate. Hyde’s actions were very evil. Hyde’s first victim was an innocent child. Stevenson (the author) emphasizes in the moral from the beginning of the story. He didn’t know what love is, and that’s why he doesn’t feel nothing for the things that he does “he is perfectly cool and made no resistance”, but this love is similar from hate, he loves his hateful emotions and crazy actions. Jekyll knows both of these emotions and this combination brings a new emotion.
The final way in which good vs evil is seen is Jekyll’s suicide at the end, when he kills both personalities, himself and Hyde showing the triumph of good. We told in Jekyll’s own words that ‘I bring the life of that unhappy Henry Jekyll to an end’. Both characters are dead and at Jekyll’s decision, he agree that his life has not been fun because of Hyde. We can see then that Jekyll in the act of killing himself also kills Hyde, the symbols of good and evil are both dead.
The setting is very relevant to the theme and tell us a lot about the differences between Jekyll and Hyde. The story was made in London in the late nineteenth century, on a background of middle-class gentlemen who respect the value of respectability and the dynamic of the society. Knowing this, we see with the descriptions in the novel, that the doctor is more successful than Hyde.

Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” speech is one of the most eye opening and persuasive addresses in U.S. History. There is so much power, persuasive thoughts and honesty being spoken in this speech. It is very historical and leaves such a historical significance. This speech moved the hearts of thousands of people. Dr. King used different types of delivery, organization, and persuasive techniques throughout which resulted in such a memorable, landmarking speech.
In August of 1966, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, Dr. King delivered his famous “I have a Dream” speech, before 200,000 people, during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. In the midst of the Civil Rights Movement, Dr. King “told of the struggle ahead, stressing the importance of continued action and nonviolent protest” (“King speaks to March on Washington”). King depicted his ideas through common problems and/or struggles a direct group of people were facing in such a challenging time. This appealed to the emotions of African Americans, but all people at that. King wanted change, and he made the change we needed. The powerful imagery he displayed through his speech left the Civil Rights Movement at the time something to be remembered and respected. Persuasion is defined in “A Concise Public Speaking Handbook (5th edition)” as the “process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors.” This is exactly what Dr. King does throughout his speech. This speech allowed many to see for the first time the importance and urgency of racial equality. Dr. King was a motivating and passionate preacher already. He was the perfect person to ignite the flame within the hearts of many.
Dr. King’s choice of delivery techniques contributed to the success and effectiveness of this speech. You can see from King’s body language that he was calmed and grounded as he delivered his speech. As a speaker, Dr. King had the solidity that is surely only found with those who have completely aligned their actions with their firm commitment. The 200,000 people at the Washington rally could not have pushed King off-track if they’d tried. Dr. King was so solid in his convictions that the crowd could sense that and aligned themselves with him, wanting the change he was pleading for. It takes a certain commanding voice to inspire the minds of thousands and Dr. King had such a voice to do so. King’s booming voice was well practiced in his practice as a preacher. His cadence, his pacing and his preacher-like drama bring real passion to the speech. Surprisingly enough, Dr. King ditched his original script 10 minutes into the speech and began to speak from the heart. His speech was never meant to even include its most famous sequence of “I have a Dream”. King was said to have responded to the cry of Gospel singer Mahalia Jackson “Tell ’em about the dream, Martin!” and ad-libbed what came next. This is what gave “I have a dream” its raw power and edge – King was living the words that he spoke. It is thought that King ditched the script so that he could connect more with his audience. But whatever the case, it worked. “I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations,” he begins. King goes on to talk to his audience and their personal situations directly, “Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.” King is with the people, fully connecting to them with his eyes and delivering a powerful rhythm in his speaking.
Dr. King begins his speech with a reference to the end of slavery after the Civil War. “Five score years ago a great American in whose symbolic shadow we stand today signed the Emancipation Proclamation.” After this, MLK releases the speech’s original central metaphor: the ‘check’ owed to African Americans by the rest of America. He discusses how “it came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity but 100 years later the negro still not free.” This is something his audience members could relate to. During this time, segregation was going on and the whites were superior to blacks in everything. Dr. King expresses how giving freedom to all people is a “sacred obligation’. The middle of the speech focuses on the goals, methods, and motivation of the movement Dr. King led. He talks about how the time is now “to make justice a reality for all of God’s Children.” MLK encourages his audience to not rest until the “the Negro is granted his citizenship rights.” However, he stresses the importance of continuing to fight for justice in a non-violent way. He doesn’t want his fellow protester to satisfy their “thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” In a sense, MLK did not want people to stoop down and reciprocate the hatred and bitterness they are receiving. In the last section of this speech, Dr. King describes his dreams of future America. In particular, it’s about a future in which there’s “a beautiful sympathy of brotherhood” between people of all races. He discusses that freedom should be something everyone is entitled to. MLK dreamed of the day freedom would ring and “all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands.”
Dr. King used logical allusions, emotional allusions, ethical allusions, as well as repetition to enhance the persuasion element of this speech. The metaphor that MLK uses, comparing how America has given African Americans a “bad check”, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds”, emphasizes his point, while referring it to a subject which many people are familiar with. Another logical allusion used was King’s reference to the Emancipation Proclamation, which served as a written statement to abolish slavery . He continued to add afterwards that even with that document signed by a “great American” (Abraham Lincoln), they are still not free. This opening allusion helped the audient to really grasp what MLK was trying to say right at the start of his speech. The emotional allusions Dr. King used helped “enhanced” the emotions of MLK and the people around him. “No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like mighty stream.” This sentence is strongly stated and gave off a feeling that caught the audience’s attention, and they began to realize, if they had not already, that they agreed with him, exemplifying the beautiful power of persuasion. To make this speech more relatable, Dr. King used ethical allusions to reach out to everyone in his audience. “This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning “My country ’tis of thee sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing…” This refers to the popular patriotic song that contrasted with the state of the U.S. during that time (Civil Rights Movement). He wanted to alert everyone about the discrimination that they had been accustomed to. This speech also used repetition to emphasize certain parts as well as to create balance in his writing. He repeats the title, “I have a Dream” multiple times throughout his work to indicate to the audience that this is his dream. “Let freedom ring” is another example of repetition, which was used more frequently at the end to conclude his speech, leaving the audience with a clear understanding of what he wants.
In conclusion, Dr. King was very persuasive in his speech and opened the eyes of his audience to realize the injustices that was present in society at that time. Dr. King’s call for change and action left an everlasting mark on our history and without it-we may still be suffering in a cruel world of inequality and injustice. His speech connected the American people as one. We needed change and hope and Dr. King’s “I have a Dream” was the perfect speech the American people needed to hear at the time.


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