DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE BY AESBy Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu, (department of environmental engineering, yeungnam university,gyeoongsan-si 38541,republic off Korea),Samuel melaku,vernon Morris,Dharmaraj Raghavan,Charles Hosten(department of chemistry)AbstractHeavy metals in atmosphere attracts the researchers towards itself due to their toxic nature. some heavy metals like chromium(Cr), arsenic(Ar), cadmium(Cd)and nickel(Ni) are carcinogens. Heavy metals in atmosphere occurs in particulate form. They enter in humans through food chain as heavy metals deposits on plants and animals. This article includes determination of heavy metals in atmosphere in different areas of word since 2006.The results show that most researches focused on toxic metals like cr, cd, ni and pb. Researches did experiment in different ways like some researchers studies used plant materials as bio-monitors for atmospheric levels of heavy metals.
Some researchers came to know about heavy metal surrounding industrial areas as compared with residential and commercial areas.so researchers found that heavy metals in atmosphere is due to industrial emission vehicular emission and secondary aerosols.IntroductionHeavy metals are metals or metalloid having different properties like atomic numbers, atomic weight, toxicity and density. They have biological importance and hazardous.so the major metals that can be taken in experiments are chromium(cr),lead(pb),mercury(hg),cadmium(cd),arsenic(As),copper(Cu),manganese(mg),nickel(ni),zinc(zn) and silver(Ag) because of their toxic and biological importance(Hogan2010).
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heavy metals have mostly high densities like mercury is one of the highest density element(baird1994).The international agency for research on cancer (IARC) has classified heavy metals into three categories group1.metal and metalloids are proven carcinogens to human beings group 2(a).compounds are probably carcinogen group 2(b).compounds are possibly carcinogens and group 3 compounds are noncarcinogens to humans.cd,ni and cr enters in humans through inhalation and ingestion and causes cancers of lungs,livers,nose and kidney.the study was taken from online sources like google, science direct and ISI web of knowledge journals.
Review regarding heavy metal determination(analysis)In heavy metal determination researches give. different reviews. CHO ET AL (2011) reviewed the concentrations and size distribution of pb. He found that pb level reduced by 92% between 1980 to 2008 and this decline was because of ban on tetraethyl lead in gasoline. The particle size lies between 2.5 and 10.
0mm. DUAN AND TAN (2013) reviewed the atmospheric heavy metals in china. they found coal burning, iron and steel industries and vehicle emissions are main sources of atmospheric heavy metals. In china the concentration of cr, as and cd were higher than supposed to be set by WHO (word health organisation). SZCZEPANIAK and BIZIUK (2003) used indicator. They took mosses and lichens as indicator of metal pollution in ambient air and concluded best result was achieved using these indicators due to differences in their metal uptake and retention properties. FANG ET AL. (2005) reviewed the atmospheric elements in Asia during period 2000-2004.
they discussed the metallic elements level in Asian countries such as Japan, china, India, Indonesia, Korea and Taiwan over a specified period. SUVARAPU ET AL (2014) reviewed the atmospheric heavy metals in India during 2000-2014.they concluded that Indian atmosphere is heavily polluted with heavy metals as compared with other Asian countries such as Korea and japan, and comparable to china. FENG AND QUI (2008) Reviewed Hg pollution in southwest china (Guizhou)ang this province of china is heavily Hg polluted area because of human activities. RAVINDRA ET AL.
(2001) reviewed the health risk assessment of suspended particulate matter in urban areas.Investigation of data quality evaluationREFRENCES PARTICLE SIZE SAMPLER NO OF SAMPLES FLOW RATE SAMPLING DURATION FILTER QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY ASSURANCESoltani et al (2015)