Despitethe increase of new media and communications forms, traditional televisioncontinues to have a central role Pakistan. Television attracts large marketshares of the youngest media users and audience.
Now a day children spend moretime watching television than any other age group.After the liberation ofelectronic media in 2002, we have 85 TV channels other than foreign channelshaving landing rights in Pakistan. There are five channels specific for childrenprograms such as Disney, Cartoon Network, Pogo, Baby TV and Nickelodeon, amongthem, four channels are broadcasting in Hindi language.
Developed countrieslike Australia, Canada, and United States have official policies for their kidsto watch television while on the other hand Pakistan does not have such kind ofpolicy. To determine what sort of policy we need for our kids, we shouldcritically examine TV content. What kind of programs our kids are watching? Arethey being influenced by foreign cultures? Television has become a dominantforce for social development of children and no one in Pakistan bother to careabout a policy for children. Television provides a platform for kids. It hasalready been discussed that multiplicity of new television channels paved theway for the serious issues as well. The content and the concept of those dramasis based on Hindi language.
The most adverse effect of this content on ourchildren is that they are now using some particular words and phrases inspiredfrom Hindi language, in their daily life affairs. This is not only ruining ourown cultural values but also asserting their devastated effects on the characterbuilding of the children. Inbig cities where there is no proper institution to run those televisionchannels, small cable operators are in charge. A research was conducted byCanada in Pakistan on the account of children that what kind of cartoons theyuse to watch and what do they seek from them? Basically, a survey was conductregarding those children who watched cartoons in Hindi language. They were askedabout what they have learned from these cartoons? 60 percent of the kids weresubjected to imitate the behavior of those characters.
40 percent was of theview that they are inspired by the get up or apparels of those caricatures. 51percent of those kids were found copying that culture. 56 percent of themconfessed that they use to speak Hindi words in their normal communication. Allof the above mentioned concerns raised the question on the role of our mediaand management. What steps are taken by the policy makers for the eradicationof these Hindi dubbed channels? Another important thing which came into my mindwhile going through this scenario was role of the parents. Beside media, areparents also responsible for the activities of their children?To what extentthe parent-craft and pedagogy are essential towards the ethicalization of the children’.
Thisassignment will surface this social issue and critically analyze a talk showaired on AAJ News November 12, 2015 as well as the content of children’stelevision programs. At the end it will suggest some recommendations to developsuch policy.RationaleWiththe advent of new technologies, we can see the advancement in media sphere. Butthe importance of legacy television cannot be denied.
When media got freedom in2002, we observed the diversity in television channels. And this multiplicityof channels also brought in the variation of the content not only for theadults, but also for children. This study aims to pin point the issuesportrayed through kids programs and which are now considered as crucial forchildren’s social and psychological development. Cartoon programs aired onchildren television channels are the main source of information for them. Theyseek what they watch and also prone to get education from it. Children keenlyobserve the phenomena going on screens and pay attention to it.
They also learndifferent types of behavior through that content. If we particularly talk aboutthe Hindi dubbed cartoons, we may see that children use such kinds of words as’Shakti’, ‘Mukti’, ‘shanti’ or ‘vishal’ etc. in their normal communication athomes. So this piece of work is also subjected to highlight the problems causedby these dubbed cartoon programs and also spot the threats to our culture andlanguage. Learning other cultures through dubbed cartoon programs proclaims notonly social effects but also capture the imaginations and thoughts of thechildren. Children are more vulnerable to be enslaved through their mind.
Researcher is directed to identify those false beliefs portrayed through thecartoons which produce negative stereotypes. The basic reason to the abovementioned problems is that we don’t have any policy which we can use for theregulation of electronic media. Developed nations offer special televisionpolicies in order to exercise their control on kid’s content such as movies, cartoonsand games. Unfortunately we do not have such kind of policy in our country. Researcher’smain concentration is to critically analyze the television talk show aired onAAJ News November 12, 2015 as well as the content of children’s televisionprograms. The purpose of this study is to unveil the loopholes of ourtelevision policy w.
r.t children’s content, which causes serious threat to theimagination and learning of the children. Literature ReviewBelton(2001) became actively involved to analyze a group that was working tostimulate fresh thinking among children of all ages in their free timeactivities and also to measure the effects of these activities on theircultural, social, spiritual and emotional development.
The particular interestof the study was in determining the effects of television and videos onchildren. The study was aimed to measure the effects of television onchildren’s imagination. Belton (2001) scrutinized the data consisted on thestories written by 10-12 years old children at school. These narratives weremost appropriate vehicle in order to find out the effects on imagination. The findingsrevealed the various possible meanings of the term “imaginative response” andalso review the limited research efforts made to analyze the influence oftelevision on children’s story writing and their imagination.In another studyBoden (2006) examined the effects and influence of popular culture on the liveschildren.
The major focus of this study is on the concept of fashion to thechildren and secondly pop music. To identify the serious effects of fashion oninnocent minds, researcher has identified two key concepts of the popularculture. First is the influence of sport, including the games, brands and logosassociated to the particular game and also the physical appearance and style ofstars? Second one is the pop music, musical videos, celebrities performing inthose videos, their living styles, their apparels, and overall image.
Researcher examined three interlinked issues for the collection of primarydata. Issues discussed in the study were contemporary consumer culture andobsession with celebrity, children’s wear market and its traditional children’sclothing to more adult like styling, and the status of the ‘tweenager’ as asignificant social actor and consuming. Rojek(2001) claimed that celebrities are cultural productions that symbolize thesociety and are perceived as role models. Moreover, these socioculturalactivities are governed by number of intervening factors that functions andstaged the celebrity in front of public.
Chung (2003) analyzed the relativecelebrity status of Korean sports and rock stars and concludes that both ofthem are essential cultural products of post-industrial capitalist society. Forinstance, to Chung (2003) sports prizes the male supremacy, power, wealth,name, fame and traditional values to those who have proven them as bestathletes in the field and maintained their status off and on. While sportsbusiness and sports media are emerging as a new forms of political economyaround the globe (Cashmore and Parker, 2003). This practice not only increasedthe publicity of the super stars through television coverage andcommercialization but also led many individuals raised to iconic status. Themost notable among others is David Beckham, on which number of studies has beenconducted (Burchill, 2002; Cashmore 2002; Cashmore and Parker 2003; Whannel,2002).
He is thought to be as a standard of social change, not only as theprototypical exempli?er of obvious consumption but also as a ‘fashioned’ iconfor masculine constructions. Besidethe sport stars, pop stars are equally influential figures in contemporaryculture.For instance, MTV not only promotes the video of the artists but alsoraised them to the iconic status. Boden (2006) in this study introduced theterm ‘tweenager’ that is a media-constructed age category that defines anincreasingly growing and influential social group.
Quinion (2001) has outlinedthe term tweenagers as the children who are of the age from 7 to 11, who aremore sophisticated, trendy and media aware than the other children of their agegroup. Broader socio-economic factors have led to the upswing and marketsigni?cance of tweenagers. According to Rice (2002) tweenagers are the ones wholived the era of economic prosperity and become fairly rich than before, theyoften belong to small family units with more than one earner and who arebearing their expenses with large disposable incomes, they are able enough toset their own way and strategies and are well aware of the labels, media andtechnology. Briggs (2009) carried out his research on the governing parents andthe way they regulate their children. His studies contained number ofidentities and discourses.
“Whatare you on!!? Balamory is very educational, probably the most out of all theCBeebies list, Pippin coming a close second. Balamory gives children thecontinuity that parents and carers at their own nursery are giving. Ourchildren at this young age will remember and learn far more quickly from onesong than us as a parent will be able to do trying to drum in red is red. Myown children (three and two) LOVE Balamory. I do wonder what your background oneducation is, I was a pre-school teacher and curriculum coordinator for fiveyears.
Balamory is superb.” (Victoria, CBeebies message board)Inthe above mentioned quotation, the researcher has highlighted the ways in whicha parents can guide their child. The above cited quote showed that Victoria, atonce, is speaking as a teacher, also a mother who is much concerned of herchildren’s activities and joy; she also speaks as an expert having backgroundof teaching and is anxious of her children’s educational growth. Whilecommunicating these arguments, she is also representing herself as a citizenwho is defending her decision to let her children watching television.
By doingso, she is actually relating her experiences with what she is doing for thelearning and development of her children. This is actually the pedagogy and isconnected with what her children are learning in nursery settings. EducationistSue Palmer composed a book on Toxic Childhood in which she identified thoseaspects which she believed as a crisis in childhood. Television, computergames, iPods and internet are the part of popular culture where ”the clashbetween our technology-driven culture and our biological heritage is nowdamaging children’s ability to think, learn and behave’ (Palmer, 2007: 3). AricSigman, from British Psychological Society, has made a serious claim that youngchildren shouldn’t exposed to television at all.
He highlighted the number ofhealth risks such as Myopia, diabetes, premature puberty and autism. Hediscussed in The Times that ‘we may eventually be accountable for the utmost healthscandal of our time’:Giventhe evidence, it would be prudent to cordon off the early years of childdevelopment as a time when screen media is excluded and then introducedjudiciously as the child matures. To allow children to continue to watch thismuch is an abdication of parentalresponsibility. (In Foster, 2007).
Thestudy was aimed to explore the number of ways in which the challengingdissertations of education and risk tends to create the identity of the ‘goodparent’. In this regard, different versions of discourse analysis wereemployed. According to Briggs (2006) the study signified the ways through whichthe process of learning through discourse on CBeebies channels and websitebecame well known to parents to maintaining the parental identities.
Macllend(2011) in his study of Child abuse material’ legislation and regulationinvestigated about the implications of prohibition of child abuse material inthe form of cartoons, animations, drawings and texts. In his work, Macllend(2011) particularly focused on the Australian fan groups of animation, comicsand gaming and slash fiction. This work raised an argument that the legislativesystems were not working in accordance with the communicative environment,which brought about the number of images that are producing fans.
Large numberof the fans involved the minors and young people. Australia refined its childpornography legislation which was directed to cease the production,distribution and processions of the images thought to be harmful for childrenin the context of abuse. In 2007, Australian Labor Party stated that if theywould get elected by the public they will introduce such regulations that woulddeal with the fair feed of information accessible to children at their homes,libraries and schools.
This strategy was intended to protect the underagechildren to come across the inappropriate material prohibited by the AustralianMedia and Communication Authority. But after the success in Labor elections2007 and when Stephen Conroy was appointed Minister for Telecommunications, hesuddenly progressed to launch trials. November 2009 did not report any progresson the behalf of minister.
THEORETICALFRAMEWORK: Adaptive Structuration Theory. (AST) is based on Anthony Giddens Structurationtheory which is formulated as “construction and reconstruction of the social systemthrough the use of resources in form of technology, further DeSanctis and Poole(1994) worked on it and explained this theory and criticized the use oftechnology and emphasized the social aspects. The AST theory elucidate use ofthe advent of various innovations such as the printed press, electricity,telegraph, mass transpirations, radio, telephone, TV, the Internet, etc., andshow how the structures of these innovations penetrated the respectivesocieties, influencing them, and how the social structures of societies in turninfluenced and modified innovations’ .It is a good model to investigate theutilization and penetration of media technologies in our society.Since, Thistheory talks about use of technologies and how technology construct and reconstructthe social systems and that technology is shaping minds the topics about thesame things that TV is influencing the minds of kids and kids are inheritingIndian language and culture because of the technology