DECLARATION I

DECLARATION
I, __Modau MB (student number__28173619), have read the information above and understand it. I know what plagiarism is and am aware of the consequences of committing plagiarism. I further declare:
that the text and bibliography of this paper reflect the sources I have consulted, and
that sections with no source references are my own ideas, arguments and/or conclusions.

DATE: _09 APRIL 2018

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SIGNATURE: __MODAU MB_

Modau Martha Bafedile
28173619
WVOS 311
SETLOGELO
INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 1
9 APRIL 2018

Table of contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………….………………………..4
Content ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
2.1Th e issue of gender inequality in a school situation…… ..…………………………………..4
How can the issue be addressed using critical theory and feminism?……..5
Critical theory……………………………………………………………………………………….5
Feminism……………………………………………………………………………………………..5
2.2.2.1. Liberal and radical feminism…………………………………………………………….5
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
Reference list..……………………………………………………………………………………………..7
6. declaration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………1

Introduction
Like any other place the school environment has various complications, it may be internal or external issues that affect learners and since it affects their school work it also affects the educator as well. Some of these issues are biased where else others aren’t. The external issues like gender inequality is a topic of concern and affect learners academic performance and it also contributes in the challenges that South Africa is facing such as teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, early school dropouts and many more like suicide. Gender inequality literally means the idea and situation that women and men are not equal. Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their genders. Gender inequality is a problem in schools and it has a negative impact in the country’s economy too. I believe that gender equality can be possible under the solution of critical theory. Critical theory is a logical methodology to culture, especially literature, that considers the social, historical, and ideological forces and structure which produce and limits it. It claims that power structures do not just drive our economic and social life, they actually influence the way we think. Education is the most powerful tool to eliminate poverty and it has become a universal human right which is essential since it can empower women. A brief discussion of how gender inequality affects girls in school will be discussed in this essay and how critical theory can be used to address this issue in details, contrasting with feminism.
Content
The issue of gender inequality in education
Sociologists Heaton (1996:58) argue that the ‘hidden’ curriculum is a major source of gender socialization within schools. They believe that schools seemed to show or have: textbooks with modern family culture and where children are taught from an early age that males are dominant within the family; various subjects are aimed at a certain gender group, for example Food Technology would be aimed at females, leading on to the typical role of females doing housework and cooking; sports in schools are very much male and female dominated within the education system, with boys playing rugby and cricket while girls play netball and sing. It could be seen that the majority of teachers are female, but that the senior management positions are mainly male dominated, which continue to give girls learners impression that they should be led by males and obey to their commands without critiquing as they are the heads of the families. Girls need to be taught feminism and critical theory in schools to end oppression from taking place. According to Lerner (1989:143), people are living in a male-dominated society where historically girls and women have been ‘kept in their place’ while men have dominated areas such as politics, education, the military. Boys overestimate their abilities whilst girls underestimate theirs (barber M 1996). Before the National Curriculum, it was not unusual for girls to pick subjects that prepared them for their futures as mothers and homemakers. Cookery or Home Economics were seen as the subjects that many girls should follow whereas for some science was irrelevant, as those would prepare them to be mothers and homemakers. Gender inequality causes a lot of friction in schools, male teachers usually groom boys to be lawyers and scientists while female teachers groom girls to be leaders. This days girls are achieving academically than boys, but they are still those people who would say it’s useless since those girls are going to be mothers while the fathers(boys) are going to work in order to provide for their kids. Schools that are of a certain gender only are also not helping the situation since they do not allow kids to learn about the other gender at an early age in order for them to be able to practice gender equality.

How can the issue be addressed using critical theory and feminism?
Critical theory
Gender inequality was a common practice and it was normal in the older days that men were more powerful than women. As times changed democracy was introduced and now everyone is equal in the eyes of the law. Critical theory can help this issue of gender inequality by helping to identify weaknesses of the other gender and then showing people who stenotype girls as weak that even men have their own weaknesses. This day’s boys are labelled as disrespectful and unruly by teachers when girls are considered to be obeying instruction. This indicates that critical theory challenges people to do a clear introspection on their goals and the things they want. It suppresses the fact that women can and will do what they want only if they want to do. This theory is about changing our own false perspective. Critical theory suggests that we stand up and make a stand as the whole nation against this issue of gender inequality. Teachers and learners must engage in activities that focus on reshaping and also on building an equal classroom situation. Gender inequality nowadays is caused by people who undermine the powers of others and think they are superior to others. Critical theory helps and gives the advantage to re-assess oneself, re-examine, re-shape and take priorities into more account. Moral and ethnic education is important, to teach that morals are what conducts our lives, being realistic and idealistic, therefore it is very important for critical theory to be applied in a classroom in every possible way so that if anyone feels oppressed say their issues without fear, criticism should be allowed in schools let learners criticize education system and what they are taught.( Tuana N 1993) A gender-equal curriculum reflects the diverse character of society with all its components by increasing the number of female achievers in texts as well as in the examples cited in class. Instructional materials, whether textbooks, hand-outs or workbooks, need to be examined to determine if they are gender biased, gender neutral or gender-sensitive/responsive. Critical theory stresses that people should rather focus on the strength of other people than to focus on their weaknesses. Teacher Education Organizations programs need to include components that recognize gender equality issues in learning materials, as well as ways of addressing those issues faced by teachers once they take up the profession and start to use these materials in their classes. Quality curriculum needs to include gender equality as an outcome of teaching and learning in and schools. An educational system that adopts gender equality principles are able to, revise its curriculum framework to explicitly state commitment to gender equality, emphasize attitudes and values that promote gender equality, ensure that the content of the course syllabus includes values and attitudes of gender equality. Revise textbooks and learning materials to become gender-sensitive. Remove gender-based stereotypes that contribute towards extending gender inequalities.
Feminism
Feminists believe that the purpose of education must be to benefit and to empower women, especially disadvantaged women. Liberal feminists are the feminists who believe that the best way to fight gender inequality systems is by establishing legislation to fight discrimination. E.g. the right for some women to vote in 1918 and finally all women to vote in 1928 were liberal feminist approaches. The proposed and failed Equal Rights Amendment of the early 1980s was also a liberal feminist approach. This school of thought believes women would achieve better equality if they were just more visible in the current social structure. Liberal feminists believe changes in equal opportunities and educational policies, e.g. the National Curriculum, will end gender inequality. Therefore, laws in school must be put which state that teachers should be equal in the management positions and curriculum should accommodate both girls and boys in an equal way.(Mickell G 1995) Girls should be taught and motivated to take subjects they could not previously take. Although not all radical feminists are lesbians, many lesbian separatist groups have influenced this school of thought. Radical feminist believe patriarchy will only end when women are freed from the physical and emotional violence inflicted by men in the classroom and the playground. Therefore there should be great measures to end violence n bullying happening in schools and that is about strength boys use the power they have to bull girls. Serious punishment should take place when such incidents occur.(Weir J 2007).
Feminists believe that women are just as powerful as men as long as they put their minds to work. From this point I would conclude that feminists oppress the rights of the other gender which is lso an act of discrimination, therefore yes it can eliminate gender inequality in schools but it also contributes to gender stereotype.

3. Conclusion
A conducive learning environment should consist of boys and girls treated in an equal way to fully show their capabilities without fear of culture or society. Learners and teachers are living in a society that practices gender inequality and they continue to teach learners same things they are taught at home as the basic learning starts at home. Teachers need to be taught feminism and critical thinking and how to apply them in a classroom situation. The gender inequalities stated above results in many girl children dropping out before they reach matric. Many girls drop out of school because of pregnancy, illnesses, not having access to primary needs and many more.( Connell R 2009).i think critical theory can solve this issue of gender inequalities in schools by advising curriculum developers to think critically about the content they teach kids and how the content will affect the people being taught. Also, they can start balancing the content of study for this kids for it to reduce the difference.4. Reference list
Cobuild, C. 2010. Advanced Illustrated Dictionary. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.: Great Britain:121-143
Connell R. 2009. Gender Cambridge: policy: 56-61
Hornby A. S. 2003. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University Press: New York:8597
Lerner, G. 1989. The Creation of Patriarchy. Oxford University Press: New York:212-221
Mikell, G. “African Feminism: Toward a New Politics of Representation”, Feminist Studies, 21, 2 (1995): 405-424
Tuana, Nancy. 1993. The Less Noble Sex: Scientific, Religious, and Philosophical Conceptions of Woman’s Nature. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Tangwa, Godfrey. 1993. ‘ The Other Side of Anglophone Writing’. In Lyonga, N., Breitinger, E. & Butake, B. (eds) Anglophone Cameroon Writing. Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies 30, pp. 166171.
Weir, J. 2007 “Chiefly Women and Women’s Leadership in Pre-Colonial Southern Africa”, in
Women in South African History: Basus’iimbokodo, bawel’imilambo/they remove boulders and cross rivers, N. Gasa, ed. (Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council, 2007): 8-12.

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