COURSE theaters were built of wood and comprised

COURSE CODE 4BEN5C3 CORE COURSE XIII SHAKESPEARE Unit I General Shakespeare 1. Shakespeares Age 2. Theater and Audience 3. Women Characters 4. Fools and Clowns 5. Supernatural Elements Unit II As You Like It.

Unit III Henry IV, Part-I. Unit IV Macbeth. Unit V The Tempest. ARUMUGAM PILLAI SEETHAI AMMAL COLLEGE THIRUPPATHUR Name J.Felcia Gnana Theebam Designation Assistant Professor Department English Name of the Paper Shakespeare Unit I General Shakespeare Chapter – I Shakespearean Theater and Audience Before Shakespeares time (and even during his early childhood), it was common for troupes of actors to perform wherever they could staging play in halls, courts, courtyards, or any other available open spaces.

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In 1576, James Burbage, an actor and future lord chamberlains man, built the first permanent theater, called The Theatre, outside Londons city walls. After this many more theaters were established including the globe theatre which was where most of Shakespeares plays premiered. Elizabethan theaters were built of wood and comprised three tiers of seats in a circular shape around a stage area on one side of the circle. There was a roof over a section of the audience seating, but much of the main stage and the standing room in front of it were subject to the elements. About 1,500 audience members could pay extra money to sit in the covered seating areas while about 800 groundlings paid less money to stand in the open area directly in front of the stage. The typical Elizabethan theatre was a wooden structure, hexagonal outside and round within. The rest of the theatre was open to the sky.

The plays were staged by daylight. The stage was divided into four parts. The front stage projected far into auditorium. This part of the stage served as a street or battlefield or garden and was open to the sky.

The stage was the part behind the pillars. It served as a large room, a palace hall an office or a tavern as required. The walls of this part of the stage were hung with tapestry, blade for tragedy and blue for comedy. At the back of the two sides walls were the entrance and the exit for the actors. There was a screened inner stage which served as the bedroom scene in Othello and Macbeth. It also served as Juliets tomb and as Prosperos cell. Over the inner stage an upper, canopied area called heaven for balcony scenes.

The stage performance took place during the day, and the open theater allowed for the use of natural light. Since there could be no dramatic lighting and (scenery and props), audiences relied on the actors lines and stage directions to supply the times of day and year, as well as the weather, location and mood of the scenes. Shakespeare developed creative and entertaining ways to supply this information. For example, in Hamlet, the audience learns within the first twenty lines of dialogue where the scene takes place(Have you had quiet guard), what time of the day it is(Tis now strook twelf), what the weather is like(Tis bitter cold), and what mood the characters are in (and I am sick at heart). There was no curtain for the Elizabethan stage and very little of movable scenery.

A scene therefore began with the entrance of the actors and ended with their exit. The dead bodies had to be carried off the stage in a funeral procession. In Julius Caesar, Antony and others carry off the dead body of Caesar from the stage. Two other characteristics of the Shakespearean stage deserve to be referred to.

There was no painted backdrop. Shakespeare made good this lack with descriptive passages. Another significant fact about Elizabethan theatre that needs to be mentioned was that womens parts were played by boys. Some of the woman characters Portia, Nerissa, Jessica, Viola and Rosalind appear in the guise of men. Shakespeares audience would have represented a variety of social classes, and appropriately, his plays appeared to all kind of sensibility from his highbrow tales of kings and queens to the lowbrow blunderings of clowns and servants.

Even his most tragic plays include clown characters for comic relief and to provide lucid commentary on the story. He had to provide good songs and singers in his plays. The Elizabethan audience was also superstitious.

They believed in ghosts, witches and fairies. They also believed in supernatural happenings as in Julius Caesar. The average Elizabethan went to the theatre for an escape from the sordid realities of life into the world of romance and laughter. Shakespeare transported his audience into such a world on the wings of his imagination.

While Shakespeares play appealed to all levels of society and included familiar story lines and themes, they also expanded his audience vocabularies. He coined many phrases and words that we use today, like amazement in my minds eye, and the milk of human kindness. His plays contain a greater variety and number of words than almost any other body of work in the English language showing that be a brilliant innovator, had a huge vocabulary, and was interested developing new phrases and words. While Shakespeares theater work was entirely representative of his time, it has remained timeless because of his timeless stories and memorable characters. Bradley concludes on the Shakespearean theatre as followsShakespeare neither resisted the wishes of his audience nor gratified them without reserve he gave the audience what it wanted, but in doing so gave it what it never dreamed of. Chapter – II Shakespeares Age Introduction William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) was born into an age of experiment, invention, discovery and revolution. It was an age in which scientists overthrew long-held axioms, philosophers promoted universal education and seafarers expanded the boundaries of the known world.

Literary atmosphere A major catalyst of advancement was the invention of Gutenbergs invention the common folk of England had access for the first time to books. They could learn scripture history, peruse classic literature, explore the sciences or read controversial foreign-language books such as II principle (The prince), by Italian political theorist and statesman Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), published in 1532. The book tells how a leader a prince, for example – has the right to win and keep political power through intrigue, intimidation and trickery. During this time, Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536), a Dutch Roman catholic priest, popularized humanism in Europe and taught it in England promoting education for everyone, Erasmus believed Education would counteract superstition and helps remedy social and religious abuses. Peace gives rise to literary activities Elizabeth herself actively patronized writers. The Elizabethan age is called the golden age of English drama. Elizabethan England was considered a nest of singing birds because many lyrics and sonnets on the theme of love were written during this age. Thanks to casctons printing press, French, Greek and Latin classics translated into English, were circulated in Shakespeares time.

Geographical Discoveries Bold adventures like Drake, Raleigh and a host of others set out to discover and colonize Far-off lands. A stirring account of these adventures was given by Richard Hakluyt in his book, The principal Navigation, voyages. Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation. Material from this book was borrowed by Shakespeare in Othello and the Tempest. Othello captures Desdemonas heart by narrating to her the stirring adventures that he had in remote countries among uncivilized, barbarous communities. Travelling was considered a part of education to get their understanding deepened and their knowledge broadened.

The Surge of Patriotism Elizabethan England also became a leading sea power after explorer and adventurer Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596) defeated arch rival Spain and its armada of ships in 1588. This triumph boosted the British ego and British prosperity to new heights at the threshold of a new century. The time was right for Shakespeare a winter of unparalled genius, to celebrate Englands glory in his history plays and in his great tragedies and comedies, to expose the soul and the mind of his age and all ages to come. In Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Shakespeare aptly sums up Englands reaction to indeed, the worlds reaction to the achievements of his age and to the mysteries that still awaited solutions. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio/ than are dreamt of in your philosophy. People believed in the divine right of kings.

That is, a king is the vicegerent or deputy of God. Shakespeare gives expression to this mystic belief in a number of his plays. In Richard II, the bishop of Carlisle warns the Duke of Northumberland that any attempt to oust Richard will under in a bloody civil war and create another Golgotha. Towards the end of Elizabeths reign disorder erupted. Shakespeare portrays this unpleasant trend in later tragedies such as Macbeth and Hamlet which show greedy rulers creating havoc in society. Religious Condition England had suffered grievously in constant clashes between Protestants and catholics.

Queen Elizabeth followed a via media between these two extremes. She followed a policy of religious toleration. She gave employment to both Catholics and Protestants in government service, provided they were loyal. She imposed restraints on both Puritans (who were extreme Protestants) and Jesuits (who were extreme Catholics).

The puritans viewed theatres as breeding-grounds of immorality and wanted them to be closed. Though the unreasonable kill-Joy Malvolio in Twelfth Night Shakespeare attacked the puritans of the day. Social Conditions Shakespeare represents some of the prominent social conditions of the Elizabethan age. The Elizabethan society was patriarchal rather than matriarchal, That is, the family was dominated by the father.

This is represented by old Capulet in Romeo and Juliet compelling Juliet to marry Paris women had few rights, travelling was unsafe. Rich traders who travelled from place to place, carrying their merchandise, were robbed Inn-keepers were in collusion with robbers and passed on information about bands of wealthy travelers to robbers, as happens in Henry IV, part I. Conclusion Thus Shakespeares plays accurately mirror the political, social, literacy and religious conditions of the Elizabethan age. Chapter – III Women characters in Shakespeare plays classification of women characters The range and variety of women characters in Shakespeare tempts most critics to asset (declare) that Shakespeare has comprehensively covered the entire gallery of women in his many critics have classified his heroines. Mrs. Jamesons classification may be accepted as briefer and simpler 1.

Clever and Assertive 2. Loving and Fanciful 3. Passive and Sentimental 4. Aggressive and Dominant 1.

Clever and Assertive These glittering heroines bright, beautiful and witty always hold the front of the stage. They untie the knots of the play. The achieve the purpose by their practical wisdom and single-Mindedness. They will come out unscathed from the conflicts.

Among this may be included Portia in Merchant of Venice, viola in twelfth night, Rosalind in as you like it etc.., 2.

Loving and Fanciful In the second grouping of Shakespeares women we see Helena in A midsummer nights dream as passive and sentimental young women. When Demetrious tells her that he hates her. She cries out I love you the more I am your spaniel Juliet in Romeo and Juliet is passionate, constant and self-sacrificing. Ophelia in Hamlet shows herself passive in love and pathetic in her helplessness. 3. Passive and Sentimental Of all tragic heroines, Desdemona, evokes our sympathy the most.

Desdemona is described as A maiden never bold Of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion Blushd at herself. In her extraordinary innocence she was, Half the Wooer and almost invaded Othellos courting and gave him all her love. She cannot bring herself to see any fault in him Even when he strikes her publicly in his blind rage of jealously Emilia had been shocked by Desdemonas passive submission to Othellos brutality. Her docile reactions only show the strength of her love and the refinements of her nature, when Othello strangles her to death, her last words to Emilia who asks her who has killed her, are Nobody I myself Farewell, Commend me to my kind lord. Cordelia a strong character In CORDELIA we see passivity combined with pride. She is proud.

She is obstinate and she is strong in mind. We see in cordelia unadulterated tenderness and love with strength. She exercises the influence of a strong nature over others.

But she is selfless. She does not see things from her own point of loss or gain Evil and Dominant Among the aggressive and dominant women, Lady Macbeth stands out as the Clytemnestra of English tragedy. She possesses a frightful, determined will and iron stability of resolve. But this in the end proves her ruin. In self-reliance and in intelligence, she is superior to Macbeth as Portia is to Bassanio and Rosalind to Orlando. Her Womanliness comes out in her last minute reluctance to kill Duncan in his sleep because she shows her fathers face in his. It is also to be seen in her tender concern for Macbeth to the last.

She stands out in contrast to Goneril and regan in that she suffers the compunctious visitings to nature. The other two are seen as absolutely remorseless. In the delineation of the characters of Goneril and Regan however, Shakespeare appears to be content to assure that there are really incorrigibly wicked people.

They are realists. They give their father the smooth speech which he wants of them. Goneril is a schemer.

Regan but echoes Goneril. She appears to shrink from acting on her own. The two sisters are different even in their monstrous cruelty. Goneril is cruel with a method and purpose. Regan positively delights in the infliction of pain Granville-Barker has pointed out how the devil of cruelty in the two women.

In their separate but illicit love for one and the same man, Edmund, they become reckless, shameless and foolish. The last to be considered among Shakespeares women characters but certainly not the least of them is Cleopatra, daughter of the Ptolemy. Her ability to attract and hold men like Pompey, Julius Caesar and Antony lies in her skilful Wit and feminine changeableness. Enobarbus says of her Age cannot wither her nor custom Stale her infinite variety. Conclusion Shakespeares women characters have a relevance and vitality.

They offer insight into womens perceptions of themselves in a patriarchal world. Living at a time when a woman sat on the English throne, an artist of Shakespeares sensitivity must have been affected by this extraordinary circumstance. Queen Elizabeth I was a remarkable women and person of power. Surely the dramatist drew on this example. Chapter – IV Clowns and fools in Shakespeares plays Fools and clowns play an integral part The fools or the clown plays an integral part in most of the Shakespeares plays. Among Shakespeares fools, the best known are Touchstone and Feste and the fools in King Lear.

In Shakespeare, there are also the clowns who are unintentionally funny-like bottom in A mid-summer Nights Dream and dogberry and varges in Much Ado About Nothing. As pointed out by Gordon, the true extremes of clowning were the rustic fool and the court Jester. All the varieties are the mixtures of the two. They were there to make the company or the audience laugh. Fools and clowns play with or played with words The Elizabethan audience, to be sure, was very fond of being tickled by the jokes of the clown. Shakespeare had to write a part for will kempe in his plays. kempe as Molieres clowns were created for scaramouche.

Shakespeares clowns were superior to those of other playwrights of his day, not only in their wit and humour, but also in the fact that they were human beings. Olivia in twelfth night justifies the privileges of the fool saying that there was no harm in an avowed fool. Feste himself glorifies the fool with the words that he wears not motley in his brain. He further remarks Better a witty fool than a foolish wit. Viola also appreciates Feste in her comments this fellow is wise enough to play the fool And to do that well, needs a kind of wit. Palmer in his criticism caps violas comment with the words he will see things as they are, but without malice.

Shakespeares fools and clowns may be classified, according to Gordon as those who play with or who are played with, by words. Touchstone and feste come under the first category. Dogberry and verges and the hempan homespuns in A mid summer Nights Dream come under the second. Fools appear as servants of principal characters Shakespeares fools generally appear as servants of principal characters.

Touchstone is the servant of the Duke in As you like dt. Feste is a dependant of Olivia. The fool is invariably a lover of creature comforts. Launcelot Gobbo complains that he is famished in the Jews household. Feste is seen cringing for money.

Sir John Falstaff and sir Toby Belch are drunkards and big eaters. They are also braggarts and cowards. The clowns are also shown including in pranks. They enjoy baiting as seen from the baiting of Malvolio by Feste and others. The clowns also inculge in vulgar jokes and word jugglery. This sometimes leads to sheer nonsensical talks as indulged in by Feste and the fool in Lear.

Fools provide dramatic relief The fool plays as integral and significant function in Shakespeares plays. He adds spice to the comedy by his humour and foolery. He provides dramatic relief.

He corrects the extra sentimentality of romantic characters as does Feste in Twelfth Night and Touchstone in As you like it. The fool in Shakespeare sometimes performs the function of the chorus. He frequently comments on the course of action and on the different characters, he also supplies necessary information for a proper understanding the play. He expresses the views of the playwright.

Fools bring out the ridiculous and the incongruous in the action of the play. Conclusion In Shakespeare we come across lasting types of ridiculous humanity who are not exactly fools or clowns. Topping the list of such characters are Falstaff, Touchstone, Feste and the Fool in king lear. Shakespeares fools are integral manifestations of his humour which is generally kind end tolerant. Two mark questions 1) Mention any two theatres in which Shakespeares plays were mostly staged. Ans The Globe and Black Friars. 2) Name any two Shakespeares fools Ans Touchstone and Feste 3) Name any two Shakespeares clowns. Ans Bottom and Dogberry and Verges 4) Which age is called the golden age of English drama Ans The Elizabethan age is called The golden age of English drama.

5) How were womens parts played Ans Womens parts were played by boys. 6) In to how many parts the stage divided Ans The stage was divided into four parts. 7) Why did the average Elizabethan go to the theatre Ans They went to escape from the sordid realities of life into the world of romance and laughter. 8) Name any two famous women characters in Shakespeares plays. Ans Portia in The Merchant of venice and Rosalind in As you Like It are the famous women characters. 9) How do Shakespeares fools generally appear Ans Shakespeares fools appear as servant of principal characters. 10) To which age does Shakespeare belong Ans Shakespeare belongs to the Elizabethan age. Unit – II HYPERLINK http//m. As You Like It Character List Rosalind-The daughter of Duke Senior. Rosalind, considered one of Shakespeares most delightful heroines, is independent minded, strong-willed, good-hearted, and terribly clever. Orlando-The youngest son of Sir Rowland de Bois and younger brother of Oliver. Duke Senior-The father of Rosalind and the rightful ruler of the dukedom in which the play is set. Having been banished by his usurping brother, Frederick, Duke Senior now lives in exile in the Forest of Arden. Jaques-A faithful lord who accompanies Duke Senior into exile in the Forest of Arden.

Celia-The daughter of Duke Frederick and Rosalinds dearest friend. Duke Frederick-The brother of Duke Senior and usurper of his throne. Touchstone-A clown in Duke Fredericks court who accompanies Rosalind and Celia in their flight to Arden. Oliver-The oldest son of Sir Rowland de Bois and sole inheritor of the de Bois estate.

Silvius-A young, suffering shepherd, who is desperately in love with the disdainful Phoebe. Phoebe-A young shepherdess,. She falls in love with Ganymede, who is really Rosalind in disguise. Charles-A professional wrestler in Duke Fredericks court. Adam-SThe elderly former servant of Sir Rowland de Bois. Having witnessed Orlandos hardships, Adam offers not only to accompany his young master into exile but to fund their journey with the whole of his modest lifes savings.

He is a model of loyalty and devoted service. Sir Rowland de Bois- The father of Oliver and Orlando, friend of Duke Senior, and enemy of Duke Frederick. Audrey- A simple minded goatherd who agrees to marry Touchstone. Summary of As You Like It Orlando, the youngest son of Sir Roland de Boys, complains to Adam, that his eldest brother, Oliver has treated him cruelly. Oliver arrives on the scene, a bitter quarrel takes place. Learning that Orlando intends to challenge Duke Fredericks champion wrestler Charles, Oliver makes plans to kill his brother in the match.

Duke Frederick, his daughter Celia, and his niece, Rosalind, watch Charles and Orlando wrestle. In the match with Orlando, the young mans great speed and agility defeat the dukes champion. Celia and Rosalind congratulate Orlando.

Celia and her cousin Rosalind are as close as sisters Rosalind is the daughter of the Duke Senior, whose throne has been usurped by his brother, Frederick. Frederick has banished Duke Senior, along with a band of his faithful followers, to the Forest of Arden to live the life of simple foresters. Frederick accuses Rosalind of plotting against him, and, despite Celias request banishes Rosalind. Celia decides to go into exile with her cousin, and they set out for the Forest of Arden Rosalind disguised as a young man, Ganymede, and Celia disguised as a young country lass, Aliena. Touchstone, the court jester, accompanies them. Orlando is warned by the faithful Adam that Oliver is plotting to kill him. They too decide to set out for the Forest of Arden. Frederick sends his men out to find Orlando.

Frederick assumes that Orlando is responsible for Celias disappearance.. In the forest, Orlando and Adam join duke senior. while Rosalind and Celia purchase a little cottage and a small herd of sheep and settle down there. Rosalind finds that the trees in the forest are all covered with sheets of poetry, dedicated to her. In the disguise of Ganymede, Rosalind meets Orlando, who is in love-sickness for Rosalind. Ganymede says that he will cure his love – sickness by acting as his lady-love, Rosalind.

Orlando agrees to try the plan. Silvius, a young shepherd, falls in love with Phebe, a hard-hearted shepherdess, but Phebe rejects Silvius attentions and loves Ganymede. In the mean time Oliver comes to the Forest of Arden. He tells Ganymede that his brother, Orlando, has saved him from being bitten by a deadly snake and later Orlando killed a lioness that was ready to pounce on him. Oliver then tells Ganymede that he has been sent to tell Ganymede that Orlando cannot keep his appointment with him. As he was wounded while saving Orlando.

Oliver and Celia meet and fall in love at first sight, and the jester, Touchstone, falls in love with a shepherdess Audrey. Duke Frederick comes to the Forest of Arden to kill Duke senior to become the undisputed ruler. But his meeting with the Hermit changes him completely.

He decides to give the Dukedom back to Duke Senior. Rosalind throws off her male dress in private, she suddenly appears as herself, and the play ends as she and Orlando, Oliver and Celia, Silvius and Phebe, and Touchstone and Audrey get married. Duke senior is glad to get back his daughter and is returned to his ducal status. Unit III Henry IV Part I Plot overview of Henry IV Part I .

When the play opens, military news interrupts the aging HYPERLINK http// King Henrys plans to lead a crusade. The Welsh rebel Glyndwr has defeated King Henrys army in the South, and the young Harry Percy (nicknamed Hotspur), who is supposedly loyal to King Henry, is refusing to send to the king the soldiers whom he has captured in the North. King Henry summons Hotspur back to the royal court so that he can explain his actions. Meanwhile, King Henrys son, HYPERLINK http//m. Prince Harry, sits drinking in a bar with criminals and highwaymen. King Henry is very disappointed in his son it is common knowledge that Harry, the heir to the throne, conducts himself in a manner unbefitting royalty. He spends most of his time in taverns on the seedy side of London, hanging around with vagrants and other shady characters. Harrys closest friend among the crew of rascals is Falstaff, a sort of substitute father figure. Falstaff is a worldly and fat old man who steals and lies for a living. Falstaff is also an extraordinarily witty person who lives with great gusto.

Harry claims that his spending time with these men is actually part of a scheme on his part to impress the public when he eventually changes his ways and adopts a more noble personality. Falstaffs friend Poins arrives at the inn and announces that he has plotted the robbery of a group of wealthy travelers. Although Harry initially refuses to participate, Poins explains to him in private that he is actually playing a practical joke on Falstaff. Poinss plan is to hide before the robbery occurs, pretending to ditch Falstaff. After the robbery, Poins and Harry will rob Falstaff and then make fun of him when he tells the story of being robbed, which he will almost certainly fabricate. Hotspur arrives at King Henrys court and details the reasons that his family is frustrated with the king the Percys were instrumental in helping Henry overthrow his predecessor, but Henry has failed to repay the favor. After King Henry leaves, Hotspurs family members explain to Hotspur their plan to build an alliance to overthrow the king. Harry and Poins, meanwhile, successfully carry out their plan to dupe Falstaff and have a great deal of fun at his expense.

As they are all drinking back at the tavern, however, a messenger arrives for Harry. Harrys father has received news of the civil war that is brewing and has sent for his son Harry is to return to the royal court the next day. Although the Percys have gathered a formidable group of allies around themleaders of large rebel armies from Scotland and Wales as well as powerful English nobles and clergymen who have grievances against King Henrythe alliance has begun to falter. Several key figures announce that they will not join in the effort to overthrow the king, and the danger that these defectors might alert King Henry of the rebellion necessitates going to war at once. Heeding his fathers request, Harry returns to the palace. King Henry expresses his deep sorrow and anger at his sons behavior and implies that Hotspurs valor might actually give him more right to the throne than Prince Harrys royal birth. Harry decides that it is time to reform, and he vows that he will abandon his wild ways and vanquish Hotspur in battle in order to reclaim his good name. Drafting his tavern friends to fight in King Henrys army, Harry accompanies his father to the battlefront.

The civil war is decided in a great battle at Shrewsbury. Harry boldly saves his fathers life in battle and finally wins back his fathers approval and affection. Harry also challenges and defeats Hotspur in single combat. King Henrys forces win, and most of the leaders of the Percy family are put to death. Falstaff manages to survive the battle by avoiding any actual fighting. Powerful rebel forces remain in Britain, however, so King Henry must send his sons and his forces to the far reaches of his kingdom to deal with them. When the play ends, the ultimate outcome of the war has not yet been determined one battle has been won, but another remains to be fought. Character List King Henry IV-The ruling king of England.

Prince Harry-King Henry IVs son, who will eventually become King Henry V. Hotspur-The son and heir of the Earl of Northumberland and the nephew of the Earl of Worcester. Sir John Falstaff- A fat old man between the ages of about fifty and sixty-five who hangs around in taverns on the wrong side of London and makes his living as a thief, highwayman, and mooch.

Earl of Westmoreland-A nobleman and military leader who is a close companion and valuable ally of King Henry IV. Lord John of Lancaster-The younger son of King Henry and the younger brother of Prince Harry. John proves himself wise and valiant in battle, despite his youth. Sir Walter Blunt-A loyal and trusted ally of the king and a valuable warrior. Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester-Hotspurs uncle. Shrewd and manipulative, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland-Hotspurs father. Edmund Mortimer, called the Earl of March-The Welsh rebel Owain Glyndwrs son-in-law.

Owain Glyndwr-The leader of the Welsh rebels and the father of Lady Mortimer.Archibald, Earl of Douglas-The leader of the large army of Scottish rebels against King Henry. Unit IV MACBETH OUTLINE STORY The scene opens with the appearance of three witches in a desert place. They seem to be waiting for somebody. The opening scene strikes the keynote of whole drama. King Duncan appears with his sons in the court.

He is informed by a wounded soldier about his victory in the battle against Macdonald. This is because of Macbeth Banquo. The thane of Cawdor is a traitor and the king bestows the title on Macbeth. On the way of returning Macbeth and Banquo meet upon the three witches. The Witches call Macbeth Thane of Cawdor and he will become the future king of Scotland. They say to Banquo that his descendants will become the king. Both are surprised at hearing to the words of the three witches. Kings messengers come and inform him that he has been made the Thane of Cawdor Macbeth believes in the prophesy of witches and is now tempted to seek its complete fulfillment.

In the court king Duncan welcomes the generals expresses his gratitude to them Macbeth writes a letter about this to his wife Lady Macbeth. She reads the letter. She encourages her husband to become the king as early as possible. She is informed by a messenger that the king Duncan is going to spend the night in the castle of Macbeth. She decides to murder him at the night. Duncan arrives to the castle along with his sons, Malcom, Donalbain some noble people like Banquo,lennox,Macduff,rose Angus Lady Macbeth welcomes him thanks him for making her husband as the thane of Cawdor. When the king dines, Macbeth first hesitates to kill the king. Lady Macbeth insists him he gets emboldened to murder the king.

After a while all the noble men leave from the palace. When Macbeth is left alone he sees some hallucination. Lady Macbeth drugs the grooms Macbeth kills the king. His hands are stained with blood. Lady Macbeth asks her husband to wash his hands. In the early morning lennox Macduff comes to wakeup Duncan. Macbeth pretends like just have woken up. Macduff goes into the room and horrified on seeing the king has killed.

Lady Macbeth pretends like fainting. Out of the fear of upcoming danger Malcom out his to England and donalbain flees to Ireland. The old man and ross speaks about the unnatural happing of the previous night. Macduff says that Macbeth is going to be crowned as the king of England. A Banquet is arranged in the honour of Macbeth, Banquo, who knows about the witches prophecies, suspects Macbeth to have murdered Duncan. Macbeth has to fear on Batheanquo as he is only man who knows all about him and decides to kill Banquo .

He hires three men and they kill Banquo. Fleance escapes to wales .The murderers resolves the matter to Macbeth. In the banquet, Macbeth has some hallucinations. He sees banquos ghost occupying his seat in the table. Except him nobody else sees it.

He starts to speak with it. Lady Macbeth tells the guests that the strange behaviour of her husband is due to an old illness. So, she winds up the Banquets. Hecate, heir patron goddess ubraids the witches for dealing with Macbeth without informing her. Macbeth comes to their cavern and asks about his defeat and death.

They say that he will not be defeated till Birnamwood comes to dunsinane, and also says that none born of a woman can do him any harm. Lennox comes and reports to Macbeth about the fight of Macduff to England. There Macduff is trying to get the help of the king of England to restore Malcolm to the Scottish Throne. Now he regrets the delay in killing Macduff. He decides to act quickly here after. So he kills lady Macduff and her son. Macduff meets Malcom and joins hands with to defeat Macbeth and resolves on vengence.

Lady Macbeth suffers with sleep walking Lady Macbeths maid servant informs a doctor. Lady Macbeth is seen sleep walking with a light in her hand. She says that her hands are spotted with blood which cannot he removed. Now the doctor can understand that she and Macbeth have killed both Duncan Banquo. Some Scottish noble men are leading an army against Macbeth. They decide to meet the other army led by Malcom and Macduff. Macbeth has a strong belief in the prophecy of witches about his death and he gets ready for battle.

Malcolms soldiers cut the branches at brinam wood and conceal themselves behind them. This is a plan by them to mislead the enemy. On the other hand Macbeth receives the news of his wifes death. He is not affected by her death. The Malcolms army marching towards dunsinane seems like that the brinam wood is moving towards beth burts into dunsinane Macbeths burts into angry and goes to the battle field. Macduff challenges Macbeth to a single combat Macbeth does not know that Macduff does not know that Macduff was not born in the ordinary way nut was ripes out from his mothers womb. Macduff defeats Macbeth and appears with Macbeths head in his hands Malcolm is crowned as the king of Scotland. Thus, Macbeths tragic flaws led to his tragic death.

The part played by the witches in the play OR The supernatural element in the play Shakespeares concept of the witches Shakespeare owes his conception of the witches to Holinshed from whom Shakespeare got the story of Macbeth .Holinshed calls witches the three weird sisters, that is, the goddesses of destiny or else some nymphs or fairies indeed with knowledge of prophecy gained by their necromantical science. He also refers to them as three wizards. Shakespeare depended not only on Holinshed but also on popular folklore for his conception of the witches. In appearance, the witches are not much different from old crones.

They are withered and old. They are withered and old. They have choppy fingers and skinny lips. They have beards also which give them a formidable look. Hecate calls them bedlams and Macbeth calls them black and midnight hags. The witches describe themselves as senile, decrepit old Women munching chestnuts and imprecating curses on those who mock at them or defy their power. Supernatural powers of the witches Shakespeare has invested the witches with all the powers popularly attributed to them. They can predict and see futures developments as though they were present right at the time.

They can rise, hail, tempests and hurtful weather, lighting, thunder and rain. They can fly from place to place and can remain invisible. They have assistant devils and spirits in the likeness of toads and cats, paddock and graymalkin. Shakespeare borrowed most of these details from Reginald Scotts Discovery. Role of the witches The three witches play much more important role than their patron, Hecate.

The witches appear prominently in three scenes of the play. They meet Macbeth and influence the future courses of his life by implanting diabolic ambitions in his mind. Banquo, who is not influenced by the witches, says that the witches make attractive predictions only to lure a man and finally ruin him.

The witches hail Macbeth as Thane of Cawdor even before he is promoted to that position. Macbeth is elated on hearing this and tempted to listen further to the witches. The witches never suggest the murder of Duncan as a way to achieve the goal that Macbeths destiny has in store for him. Macbeth at first decides to remain passive, thinking that the very destiny which keeps a bright future in store for him will also find ways and means of accomplishing the goal. If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, without my stir.

But this mood does not last long. Lady Macbeth makes arrangements on his behalf and encourages her husband to murder king Duncan. She tells her husband that he can gain the crown offered by fate, only if he is active and does the needful.

Macbeth bears responsibility for his own actions Are the witches solely responsible for Macbeths crime One cannot conclude that Macbeth was innocent prior to his meeting the witches and that it was the prophecy of the witches which corrupted him. The ambition that already exists in an embryonic from in his mind before meeting the witches is only fanned into a fierce flame by the witches. The assurances of the witches The witches give two assurances of safety to Macbeth. They are (I) he cannot be murdered by any man born of women.

He will be defeated only on the day Birnam Wood is seen moving. Macbeth is quite sure that these two things will never take place and so his safety is unshakeable. But both these assurances prove deceptive. Macbeth realizes that the assurances given by the witches can no longer save him. He emerges from his impregnable castle and dies fighting. Corrupt to a certain extent, the witches corrupt him more and bring about his ruin. Unit V The Tempest summary of The Tempest Alonso, the king of Naples, is returning from his daughters wedding in Tunis. He is accompanied by his son, Ferdinand, his brother, Sebastain, and Antonio, the Duke of Milan.

An old Milanese courtier, Gonzalo, is also on board.The shipis wrecked in the tempest and all the passengers jump into the sea and make their escape to a nearby island. Prospero, the former Duke of Milan and his fifteen year-old daughter, Miranda are watching the shipwreck from an island. He narrates his past life. Twelve years ago,his kingdom has been usurped by his brother Antonio.

but with Gonzalos help he and his daughter had escaped in a small boat. They had finally reached the island and Prospero He turned the inhabitant, Caliban, into his slave. Ariel, had been imprisoned in a tree trunk by Calibans mother, the witch, Sycorax. who had then died. Prospero rescued him and made him a servant.

The ships passengers landed on the island unarmed. Alonso believes his son to be dead but Ferdinand has landed on another part of the island. He meetsMiranda and they fall in love at first sight. Ariel leads the party towards Prosperos cell. During this journey Antonio and Sebastian plan to kill Alonso so that Sebastian can be king.

Trinculo, the court jester, and Stephano, a boisterous butler, are also wandering on the island. Caliban seek their help to overthrow Prospero. Ariel reports the plot to Prospero.

Prospero has released Ferdinand and given his blessing to the marriage of the two young people. Ariel brings all of them to the cell. Prospero renounces his magic and reveals himself. He forgives his brother.They are all reconciled. They returnedto Milan to resume his dukedom.

Miranda and Ferdinand got married. Sailors come and tell that the ship is safe. Prospero frees Ariel and Caliban.

There exist joy and happiness. Characters Prospero is the former Duke of Milan, treacherously overthrown by his brother Antonio. Miranda is Prosperos teenage daughter, Ariel is a magical spirit enslaved by Prospero Caliban is the son of Sycorax. Sycorax is an earlier inhabitant of the island and Calibans mother. Alonso is the king of Naples.

Sebastian is Alonsos treacherous brother. Antonio is Prosperos brother, who usurped Prosperos position as Duke of Milan. Ferdinand is Alonsos son and Prince of Naples. Magic and the Supernatural in The Tempest In The Tempest two different types of magic are explored, one being the art of evil through the use of Black Magic, and the other being the study of meta-physics and the unknown through the use of White Magic.

The black aspect of magic is revealed through the evil witch Sycorax. The white aspect of magic is revealed through the Prospero, the rightful Duke of Milan. The good aspect of magic is developed to a much greater extent than the evil aspect of magic.

The supernatural elements, and Ariel, the former servant of Sycorax, in particular, are an extension of Prosperos plot to regain order to his life and the lives of his old and now new associates. The supernatural spirits summoned by Ariel can be classified as those of fire, air, water, and earth. Another type of magic used by Prospero with the aid of Ariel is the production and disappearance of the banquet, the fine garments used to tempt the fools, the arrival and dance of the spirits, and the circle about Prosperos cave where the courtiers are held charmed. Prospero uses his magic and his control over the supernatural element to regain his Dukedom, punish those who are evil, and reconcile those capable of repentance. Prospero at the end of the play rejects his magic so he can return to society Before Prospero leaves the island he frees Ariel and Caliban. References 1. 2. HYPERLINK http//www.gradesaver.

com 3. HYPERLINK http//www.wikipedia.

org 4. www. 3. Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9xrxwrTZaGy8IjbRcXIu3KGnD1NIBsRuKV.ELM2fiVvlu8zH(W )6-rCSj id DAIqbJx6kASht(QpmcaSlXP1Mh9MVdDAaVBfJP8AVf 6Q


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