TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc514454251 h 2Applications of Additive Manufacturing PAGEREF _Toc514454252 h 2Additive Manufacturing Technologies PAGEREF _Toc514454253 h 3Benefits of additive manufacturing PAGEREF _Toc514454254 h 4Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc514454255 h 4
IntroductionAdditive Manufacturing is a process whereby materials are joined to make objects from a Computer Aided Design (CAD) model data and it is usually layer upon layer, it is also referred to as a 3D printing additive or fabrication. The techniques of AM are still new and evolving and are projected so that they exert a profound impact on manufacturing. With these new techniques the industry gets new design flexibility, reduced energy use and short period of time to market.
Firstly a digital model is produced with a method called CAD (Computer Aided Design) that take digital images of a design and transmits the descriptions of the images to a professional-grade industrial machine. Descriptions are used as blueprints by the machine in order to create items by adding material layer upon layer. These layers are measured in microns and then added by the hundreds or thousands until a 3D object is visible.
Applications of Additive Manufacturing
AM is used as an important tool when designing and developing automotive components because development cycles take place at a short duration and costs of manufacturing products are minimized. The motorsport fields make up an important field for application of AM because high performance and lower weight play a central role. If competitions increased within the automotive industry pressure will be reinforced for reducing time to market and that challenges the automotive industry to secure and increase the market share.
Applications from mobile phones and computers to cars are covered by this industry, products produced are usually small in size high precision tools are needed for manufacturing process, electronics do not usually last for long. The use of new and flexible manufacturing such as AM technologies is required to accelerate the development processes and build times.
AM contributes to the area of energy through rapid development and fabricating prototypes to minimize the cost and lead-time of research and development of new products in order to improve the energy efficiency and power density. Fuels are produced by using AM and
Additive Manufacturing Technologies3.1. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
SLS is a process that is used to create objects from powders by using atomic diffusion so that 3D objects could be made, this process has been used for many years to create objects that we use every day e.g. jewelry, porcelain and bricks.
All objects that are printed with an SLS machine start as computer-aided design files then converted to STL format that only be understood by a 3D printing apparator.
Every objects printed with SLS are made with powder materials mostly plastics such as nylon that are dispersed in a thin layer on top of a building platform inside an SLS machine
After the object is fully formed it is then left to cool in the machine before it is removed.
3.2. Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
DMLS is an industrial 3D printing process that is used to build fully functional metal prototypes and production parts in approximately 7 days or less
DMLS starts by sintering each layer, firstly the support structures all the way to the base plate and then to the part itself with a laser that is aimed onto a bed of metallic powder. A cross-section layer of powder is then micro-welded and the build platform shifts down and a re-coater blade then moves across the platform in order to deposit the next layer of powder into an inert chamber. To complete the build it is required to repeat the process layer by layer.
3.4. PolyJet 3D printing
A powerful 3D printing technology which is used to produce smooth, accurate pars and prototypes,
3.4 Stereo lithography
A process whereby a machine that is uniquely designed for 3D printing called the stereolithograph apparatus which converts liquid plastic into objects that are solid. This process uses the photo-polymerization principle in order to produce models that are in 3D by using UV sensitive version, it is solidified by the passage of a laser layer after layer.
Benefits of additive manufacturingThe cost of the entry is much more affordable
Machinery for additive has always been expensive especially for small manufacturers to accommodate, these new technologies are much cheaper and affordable.
They reduce waste production
Additive manufacturing tends to generate less waste than those old traditional manufacturing methods
Energy costs are reduced
If we compare additive manufacturing with traditional manufacturing we will clearly see that additive manufacturing reduces energy usage because less materials are used and it eliminates steps in the production process.