CONCEPT TO CHANGE-2 CATEGORY OF COMPETENCY ·        Core Competencies – Core competencies are those competencies that anysuccessful employee will need to rise through the organisation.  TheseCompetencies would generally relate in some way to the business of theorganisation.·        Key Competencies – Key competencies contribute to valued outcomes ofthe organisation, defining the abilities of individuals to meet strategicdemands, and are important not just for specialists but for all individuals.

·        Critical Competencies – Critical competencies are competencieswithout which the organisation will be unable to achieve its goals andstrategy. When implementing Competency Management it isimportant therefore to understand the difference between Skills andCompetencies as well as the different types of competencies needed in theorganisation.  It is also extremely important to categorise theCompetencies so that investments in core HR initiatives, such as Development,Workforce Planning, Career Management, etc. are based on initiatives that willdeliver sound Return on Investment.

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Personal attributes mostly required by the employers are loyalty, commitment, honesty and  integrity ,enthusiasm ,reliability, personal presentation,commonsense, positive self-esteem, As ease of humour, a balanced attitude to work and home-life,an-ability to deal withpressure, motivation and adaptability.            How can these attributes teach within the teaching process?DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SKILL & COMPETENCYSkills vs CompetenciesThe terms Skills and Competencies are used,virtually, interchangeably.  In fact,with many HR practitioners, Competencies seem to only relate to “Behavioural”competencies as defined in a Competency Dictionary.

  But this really is not the case.  So, we make an attempt at defining thedifference between Skills and Competencies, and providing some insight into thedifferent types of Competencies and the level of criticality of Competencies inorganisations.An example of this in an IT context is “Programming”.  To effectively write a computer program oneneeds good analytical, logical, and interpretive ability as well as the skillto write the program in a specific language.  But underlying the ability to use that skill effectively is analytical,logical and interpretive ability – those are Competencies. Basic differentiate between skill &competency KNOWLEDGEThis is necessary to do the job and tends tobe job related.  It includes professionalknowledge, institutional knowledge (e.g.

knowledge to be an accountant,academic, engineer, IT specialist etc.). This is what people need to know to do their jobs.SKILLSSkills are needed to perform your functionalrole and include technical skills, management skills i.e.

to manage resourcesand people (e.g. project management, time management, planning processes,budget management and appraisal).

 COMPETENCYThese are the attitudes and behaviour patternsthat underpin how people do their jobs. Competencies influence how well peopleapply their knowledge, technical and management skills. NTU’s competencyframework reflects the culture and values we expect staff to demonstrate intheir roles.                                             EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS DEFINITION Basics skills necessary for getting ,keeping and doing well on a job (Robinson,2000).Skill can be defined as apresent, observable competence to perform alearned behaviour regarding the relationship between mental activity and bodily movements (Maxine, 1997).Overtoom(2000), definedemployability skills as “transferable core skill groups that represent essential functional and enabling knowledge, skills and attitudesrequired by the 21stcentury workplace…necessary for career success at all levels of employment and for all levels ofeducation” These definitions were extracted from a number of different sources,but they all seem to say, more-or-less, the same thing:·        Proficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developedthrough training or experience.·        The ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., todo something well·        An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, andsustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carry out complex activities or jobfunctions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/orpeople (interpersonal skills).

·        A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results·        A learned ability to bring about the result you want, with maximumcertainty and efficiency·        Proficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developedthrough training or experience.So, a Skill is something Learned in order tobe able to carry out one or more job functions.Skill is an ability to perform a specific taskand employability is about having the capability to gain initial employment,maintain employment and obtain new employment if required. Employability skills are “those basic skillsnecessary for getting, keeping, and doing well on a job.” Robinson (2000)Employability skills as the skills that can beteachable (Lorraine, 2007) and transferable (Yorke, 2006). Employability skills are referred to asgeneric capabilities, transferable skills, basic  skill, essential  skills,  work  skills,   soft  skill,   core  skills,  core competencies and enabling skills or even key skills (DEST 2007;Yorke, 2006; Knight, P. and Yorke, M.

, 2002; Hiroyuki, 2004). Employability skills are about ‘defining atheoretically ideal employee from an employer’s perspective (ALTC Report, 2009).The ILO definition of employability skills TheILO defines employability as relating to “portable competencies andqualifications that enhance an individual’s capacity to make use of theeducation and training opportunities available in order to secure and retaindecent work, to progress within the enterprise and between jobs, and to copewith changing technology and labour market conditions” (ILO, 2004, Para. I.2(d)). “Individuals are most employable when theyhave broad-based education and training, basic and portable high-level skills,including teamwork, problem solving, information and communications technology(ICT) and communication and language skills…

This combination of skillsenables them to adapt to changes in the world of work.” (ILO 2005, Para. 33, Footnote 1)Cognitive skills of critical thinking: Analysisand synthesis, identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence,detect false logic or reasoning, identify implicit values, define termsadequately, generalise appropriately. Appraise your own and others work.Provide constructive criticism.Effective problem solving and decisionmaking:Appropriate quantitative/qualitative skills for identifying, formulatingand solving business problems. The ability to create, analyse, evaluate andassess a range of options.

Capacity to apply ideas and knowledge to a range ofsituations.Independent thinking to develop ideas and to find solutions toissues. Abstract reasoning – solve problems and process information in acomplex and intangible way.Effective communication, oral and in writing:Ability to interact in intellectual debate, to discuss issues withpeers/supervisors, and to express a viewpoint clearly and concisely in words /in writing. Using a range of media for communication (which are widely used inbusiness, such as for business reporting).Numeracy and quantitative skills: Understandmathematical concepts.

Data analysis, Interpretation and extrapolation.The useof models for business problems and phenomena.Effective self-management: Time management,planning, organisation and efficiency.

The ability to meetdeadlines.Self-starting, individual initiative and enterprise.Autonomy andindependent learning.Being adaptable to changing circumstances.Effective performance within a teamenvironment: Team building, influencing and project management skills. Theability to be a constructive team member, contributing positively to a group’ssuccess. The ability to make decisions, motivate and manage people, and handlea range of tasks simultaneously.Interpersonal skills: Effective listening,negotiating, persuasion and presentation.

Ability to relate well to others, andwork successfully with them in a team or as their leader.Ability to conduct research (in to business& management / economics issues) : Ability to conduct research individuallyor as part of a team. Requiring familiarity with and an evaluative approach toa range of business data, sources of information and appropriate methodologies,which inform the overall learning process.Self-reflection and criticality: Sensitivityto diversity (cultures, ethical dilemmas, business and management issues).

Principles of moral values and right conduct. Learning to learn and developinga continuing appetite for learning. Reflective, adaptive and collaborativelearning.Self-awareness – an understanding of one’s self (e.g. behaviours andreactions to others).

IT skills : Using technology to access information, for analysing and interpretingdata and/or research. Using technology to present work in a suitable format andfor communication.Use of specialist software.

Development of IT managementsystems. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS Employability skills are all about the abilityof individuals to exhibit their skills to the prospective employers and theability to execute the tasks thereby achieving organisational goals andobjectives. Besides, it also talks about the ability to switch over to otherjobs comfortably. Employability skills refer to specific skills essential foremployment.

These are the critical tools and traits required to perform tasksat workplace. These skills are much sought after these days by employers. Theneeds of employability skills differ from country to country and from sector tosector and from time to time.

However, certain qualities such as communicationskills, interpersonal skills, integrity, right attitude, problem solving,decision making and team building skills can be taken as a few common skills ofemployability skills. In simple Employability skills are the ‘ready for work’skills vital to do the job!Governments around the world have drawn uponhuman capital theory (Becker 1975) in the formulation of policy in respect ofhigher education. Human capital theory links economic success to the educationof the workforce. The development of employability in graduates has thus becomesignificant. Graduate employability is being the possessionof understandings, skills and personal attributes necessary to performadequately in a graduate- level job. When considering higher education’spotential for contributing to the economic well- being it is helpful todistinguish between the formation of subject specific understandings and skillsand the promotion of generic achievements.

Where the world of employment has,by and large been satisfied with the disciplinary understanding and skillsdeveloped as a consequence of participation in higher education, it has beenless happy with graduates’ generic attainments like literacy and numeracy, selfefficacy and meta-cognition.Now days, the concept of generic skills iswidely used in higher education which refers a range of qualities andcapacities of a graduate in higher education context, i.e. capacities toidentify,  access  and manage  knowledge  and information;  personal  attributes such  as  imagination, creativity  and intellectualrigour; and values such as ethical practice, persistence, integrity andtolerance. Competency and skills were interpreted with adifferent approach. Skill concerns the execution of a single task, whilecompetence deals more with the execution of a whole series of different tasksin a certain (occupational) domain, all of them performed well and in coherenceor integrated consistent core set of desirable attributes, such ascommunication skills, interpersonal skills and team working, problem solving,analytic, critical and  reflectiveability, willingness to learn and continue learning, flexibility andadaptability, risk-taking and self-skills and these attributes are oftenindependent of the degree subject.

Universities are incorporating extracurricularactivities into their study programme and changing their subject to developspecific skills through specialist modules. We also need to identify the skillset that will best serve the future labor market. In order to enhance competitive advantage forgraduate employment, students need to develop employability skills in additionto the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge and study programmes need toidentifying the way of improving that requirement. Personal attributes mostlyrequired by the employers are loyalty, commitment, honesty and  integrity, enthusiasm, reliability, personalpresentation, common sense, positive self -esteem, A sense of humour, abalanced attitude to work and home life, an ability to deal with pressure,motivation and adaptability.How can these attributes teach within theteaching process?Coopers and Lybrand (1998) define’employability skills’ in terms of four key areas: 1). traditional intellectualskills – e.

g. critical evaluation, logical argument; 2). Key skills –communication, IT, etc. 3). Personal attributes – motivation, self-reliance and4).

Knowledge of organisations and how they work.  There are several synonyms – core, key,generic, personal transferable skills, common, work or employment relatedskills – this is another of the reasons why it is difficult to conceptualisewhat is meant by employability skills.  As conceptualised byKatz(1955), the required workplaceskills include technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills.

Technical skills as those skills such as the content specific knowledge that individual must have for “understanding of, and proficiency in,a specific kind of activity,particularly, one involving methods, processes, procedures,or techniques” (Katz, p. 91). Human skills centred on the leader?stability to work successfully with individuals and teams while building cooperationamong team members. For success in human skills, an individual must have a strong sense of self-awareness and the skill of working comfortably with others.

The third skill required was conceptual skills or the skills to work with ideas and concepts, and the ability to bring together and make meaning of all the various functions and roles within an organisation or the “sensing of the organisations as a whole”(Katz, p. 93).DelaHarpeetal(2000) suggested that there is concern world- wide that existing undergraduate programmes are not producing graduates with the kind of life -long learnings kills and professional skills which they need in order to be successful in their careers.

 The Eight Dimensionsof Basic EmployabilitySkills Based on the literature, the gap among employers,educators ,and students has continued, and possibly widened.For the purposes of this study,then, it is important to more fully define what constitutes basic employ ability skills.   Basic Literacy and Numeracy Skills: are defined in the SCANS report as the ability to read, write, speak, listen, and perform basic mathematical procedures. Reading skills include the ability to interpret written information. Writing skills include the ability to communicate thoughts in letters and reports.

Mathematical skills include the ability to solve practical problems through the use of a variety of mathematical techniques. Critical Thinking Skills: Include the ability to think creatively, make decisions, and solve problems (SCANS,1991). Leadership Skills: Include the ability to motivate others to achieve organisational goals (Schermerhorn, 2008). Typical characteristics of effective leadership are responsibility, self- esteem, and the ethical qualities of integrity and honesty. Management Skills:  Include the activities of planning, organising, leading, and controlling to meet organisational goals (Schermerhorn ,2008). Interpersonal Skills: Include the ability to work in teams, help others to learn, provide customer service,negotiate agreements, resolve differences ,and work in a multicultural organisation (SCANS, 1991).

 Information Technology Skills: Include the ability to selectprocedures, equipment, and tools to acquire and evaluate data (SCANS,1991). Systems Thinking Skills: Include the ability to understand and operate within social, organisational, and technologicalsystems.Designing and suggesting modifications to systems  


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